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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

An evaluation of the information-processing approach of knowledge management

Boshoff, Jacques 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MBA)--Stellenbosch University, 2003. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The study involves research of secondary data in the field of knowledge management. It investigates the different perspectives of how knowledge can be managed. The complexity of knowledge requires different approaches for different organisations in a variety of industries. The complexity of this field has resulted in a number of acceptable as well as unacceptable knowledge management approaches. In the study the two predominant conflicting perspectives of knowledge management is discussed. The information-processing perspective suggests that knowledge can be effectively managed through the use of information technology. The emphasis is on the capabilities of information technology with little reference to the human and cultural issues. The opposing knowledgecentric perspective emphasises that a knowledge initiative requires fundamental change that affects the strategy, structure, culture and processes within an organisation. The goal is to create an environment that is conducive to knowledge creation and sharing. In the study these contrasting perspectives are investigated. Analysis of the main points of contention provides insight into faulty assumptions that affect the credibility of an approach. The first primary area of dispute relates to the understanding of knowledge and information. According to the information processing approach knowledge and information are similar. Therefore knowledge can be managed with information processing tools. Advocates of the knowledge-centric approach disagree with this assumption. They believe that knowledge sharing and creation are subject to human interaction and creativity, and not technological systems. A clear definition and description of knowledge and information is provided. It is apparent from this discussion that there is a vast difference between information and knowledge. It is therefore false to suggest that knowledge and information can be managed with information management tools. The analysis of the factors that limit the capabilities of information management tools to provide knowledge management solutions indicates that technology merely plays an enabling role in knowledge management. Humans play the fundamental role in creating new knowledge and sharing existing knowledge. The information-processing perspective is therefore flawed, for knowledge and information cannot be equated and therefore information-processing tools cannot be used to manage knowledge. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die studie gebruik sekondêre data in die veld van kennisbestuur. Verskillende perspektiewe of benaderings tot kennisbestuur word ondersoek. Die kompleksiteit van kennis noodsaak dat verskillende benaderings vir verskillende organisasies gevolg moet word. Die resultaat is dat daar 'n verskeidenheid van aanvaarbare sowel as onaanvaarbare benaderings tot kennisbestuur is. In hierdie studie word die twee primêre teenoorgestelde perspektiewe van kennisbestuur bespreek. Die inligtingsverwerkingsbenadering se standpunt is dat kennis effektief bestuur kan word deur die gebruik van inligtingstegnologie. Die vermoëns van inligtingstegnologie word beklemtoon terwyl min aandag aan kulturele en menslike aspekte betee word. Die opponerende kennis-georiënteerde benadering beklemtoon dat 'n kennisbestuursinisiatief fundamentele veranderinge in die strategie, struktuur, kultuur en besigheidsprosesse van 'n organisasie vereis. Die doel is om 'n omgewing daar te stel waarin die skep en deel van kennis vrylik kan geskied. In die studie word die kontrasterende perspektiewe van kennisbestuur ondersoek. 'n Analise van die hoof konflikareas verskaf insig in foutiewe afleidings wat gemaak word. Foutiewe afleidings bevraagteken die kredietwaardigheid van 'n benadering. Die eerste primêre area van konflik kan toegeskryf word aan verskillende interpretasies van kennis en inligting. Volgens die inligtingsverwerkingsbenadering is kennis en inligting dieselfde. Kennis kan dus effektief bestuur word deur tegnologie wat geskik is vir die bestuur van inligting. Die kennisgeoriënteerde benadering beskou hierdie afleiding as foutief. Ondersteuners van hierdie benadering is van mening dat die deel en skep van kennis afhanklik is van menslike interaksie en kreatiwiteit, nie tegnologiese stelsels nie. 'n Duidelike definisie en beskrywing van kennis en inligting word voorgelê. Dit is duidelik uit hierdie bespreking dat daar 'n definitiewe verskil bestaan tussen inligting en kennis. Die aaname dat kennis en inligting deur dieselfde tegnologie bestuur kan word, is dus foutief. Die analise van die faktore wat die vermoëns van tegnologie beperk om kennisbestuursoplossings te verskaf, maak dit duidelik dat tegnologie nie kennisbestuursprobleme kan oplos nie. Mense speel die fundamentele rol in die skepping van nuwe kennis en die deel van bestaande kennis. Die inligtingsverwerkingsbenadering tot kennisbestuur sal dus nie optimale gebruik van kennisbronne verseker nie.
2

Estimating the input parameters of real options

Schmähling, Tom 03 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MBA)--Stellenbosch University, 2004. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The following study project was written by the author in the scope of his MBA Program at the University of Stellenbosch. While the number of articles and books that deal with the theory of real options is extremely large, the use of real options as a valuation tool is not widely accepted in practice. The reason for this obvious discrepancy is the fact that these papers and the models developed therein are highly mathematical and require a thorough knowledge of statistical methods. There are few papers or books that explain the fundamental ideas and basic techniques in such a way that general managers are likely to be convinced that real options valuation is an interesting and valuable tool. The purpose of this study project is to fill this gap, to bring the theory of real options closer to a wider range of people and to make it comprehensible for people who have not studied mathematics or finance. To achieve this aim the study project consists of four parts. Recalling the well-known concept of financial options, the first part explains in detail the basic idea of real options theory. The second part deals with the different existing models that are used to determine the value of real options. However, the focus lies on the comprehensibility of these models and not on the pure mathematical side. In the third and main part of this thesis the different variables that are needed for evaluating real options are discussed and methods to determine realistic values of these variables are explained. Some recommendations will be made as to what one ought to focus on in determining the variables. A valuation with "real" data is discussed in the fourth part. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die werkstuk is in die loop van die outeur se MBA-kursus aan die Universiteit van Stellenbosch voltooi. Die aantal bronne en artikels wat betrekking het op die teorie is eindeloos, terwyl die werklike opsies nog nie wyd aanvaar word in die praktyk nie. Die rede vir die ooglopende verskil is die feit dat die artikels wat betrekking het op die teorie en modelle hoogs wiskundig is en 'n deeglike kennis van statistiek vereis. Daar is tans 'n tekort aan artikels en boeke wat die fundamentele idees en basiese tegnieke van reële opsies verduidelik/oordra op so 'n manier dat dit deur algemene bestuurders gebruik kan word. Die doel van die werkstuk is om hierdie probleem te oorkom deur reële opsie valuasies aan 'n wyer gehoor bekend te stel wat nie 'n wiskundige of finansiele agtergrond beskik nie. Om bogenoemde doelwit te bereik, word die werkstuk in vier dele opgedeel. Die eerste deel verduidelik die basiese beginsel van reële opsie teorie in groot detail. Die tweede deeI dek die verskillende modelle wat tans gebruik word om reële opsies te waardeer. Die fokus Iê egter op die verstaanbaarheid van die modelle en nie noodwendig die wiskundige onder bou nie. In die derde en kerndeel van die verhandeling word die verskillende metodes om reële opsies te waardeer, bespreek, asook die maniere om realistiese waardes volgens verskillende metodes te vind. 'n Waardasie met werklike data word in die finale deel aangebied.
3

Splitting of investing activities between replacement and expansion of fixed assets

Mokoena, Khethang 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MBA)-- Stellenbosch University, 2004. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The traditional cash flow statement consists of cash from operating activities, cash to investing activities and cash from/to financing activities. In essence, literature showed that, if cash from operating activities would be negative for two successive years, such listed industrial company may be classified as fmancially inflexible, resulting in a take-over by another company, a forced rights-issue or even a delisting/bankruptcy. The traditional cash from operating activities will be classified as EBIT - interest - taxation + depreciation and +/- non-cash items +/- changes in working capital. To enable capital-intensive companies to be classified as financially flexible or inflexible, it was found necessary to identify replacement investment activities as opposed to expansion investment activities. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die tradisionele kontantvloeistaat bestaan uit kontant uit bedryfsaktiwiteite, kontant aan investeringsaktiwiteite en kontant van/aan finansieringsaktiwiteite. In essensie het die literatuur aangedui dat, as kontant uit bedryfsaktiwiteite van twee agtereenvolgende jare negatief is, sodanige genoteerde industriële maatskappy as finansieel onbuigsaam geklassifiseer kan word en wat kan uitloop op 'n oorname deur 'n ander maatskappy, 'n geforseerde regte-uitgifte of selfs 'n denotering/bankrotskap. Die tradisionele kontant uit bedryfsaktiwiteite sal geklassifiseer word as bedryfswins - rente - belasting + depresiasie en +/- nie-kontantitems +/- veranderinge in bedryfskapitaal. Om kapitaal-intensiewe maatskappye in staat te stel om geklassifiseer te word as finansieel buigsaam of onbuigsaam, is daar bevind dat vervangende investeringsaktiwiteite onderskei moet word van uitbreidings investeringsaktiwiteite.
4

The dimensions of successful matrix management, as applied to project management

James, Celeste Claire 03 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MBA)--Stellenbosch University, 2004. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Over the last 20-30 years, the adoption of matrix management has become ever increasingly popular especially in organizations developing new products and product lines. As with any new organizational design or structure, problems are experienced. These problems must be managed constructively in order for the organization to realize the design/structure's full potential. When managing problems associated with the matrix design, simple solutions can be sought: • Know what the matrix can do, as well as know its limitations. • Communicate this to all levels of staff in the organization. • Ensure that conflict that arises from a dual command system is dealt with quickly. On the other hand, capitalize on the matrix structure's advantages such as retain more information, multi-skill staff and realize economies of scale. The above are "old" management principles, however very sound. The matrix in itself will not determine the success or the failings of the organization. The responsibility lies with the management team and the maturity level of the organization. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die implementering van matriks bestuur, het gedurende die afgelope 2-3 dekades toenemend gewild geraak, veral in ondernemings wat nuwe produkte- of produklyne ontwikkel. Dit is inherent aan nuwe organisatoriese ontwerp of struktuurwysiging dat probleme ondervind word. Hierdie probleme moet konstruktiefbestuur word, sodat die organisasie die volle potensiaal van die nuwe of veranderde ontwerp of struktuur kan benut. Wanneer probleeme aangaande die matriks ontwerp bestuur word, kan eenvoudige oplossings oorweeg word: • Bekom 'n grondige kennis van die vermoëns van die matriks, sowel as die beperkings daarvan. • Verseker dat alle vlakke van personeel in die organisasie ten volle ingelig is. • Pas konflik bestuur tydig toe indien probleme ontstaan ingeval van 'n tweeledige rapportering/opdragstelsel. Kapitaliseer egter op die voordele van matriks bestuur: • Versamel en bestuur verbeterde inligting en inligtingstelsels. • Opleiding van personeel vir meerdoelige take. • Meer ekonomiese aanwending van beskikbare bronne. Bogenoemde is "ou", maar tog bewese en gesonde bestuurspraktyke. Die matriks self, kan nie die sukses of mislukking van 'n organisasie bepaal nie. Hierdie verantwoordlikheid is die taak van die bestuurspan en die vermoënsvlak van die organisasie.
5

Towards a guide to successful matrix management in organisations : with specific reference to project management

Spofana, M. L. (Merriman Lungile) 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MBA)--Stellenbosch University, 2004. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Organisations are struggling to cope with the pace of change and the pressure is on for them either to adapt or die. Consequently, project management has become the sought after management process to deal with this unprecedented rate of change and for survival. Why is project management so attractive recently? Is it because of its emphasis on teamwork and multidisciplinary approach? Of course yes. Its holistic approach makes it very useful in unfamiliar and risky projects in which information is either scanty or overwhelming. As the business environment continues to become more chaotic, project management will continue to be the management tool of the 21st Century. The use of matrix organisation has been spreading in the last ten years in response to a number of new needs. It has usually been a compromise between contradictory requirements and particularly between pressures for a responsive and self-contained project or product organisation and the greater efficiency, expertise and the economies of scale of a functional or departmental structure. It has been seen as a way of dealing with greater environmental complexity and as a more democratic alternative to traditional hierarchical structures. This study project focuses on matrix management as a structuring tool for organisations in this century. The literature study is conducted within the field of project management although matrix management can fall in other fields of organisational development or strategic management. A guide to successful matrix management in organisations with specific reference to project management is examined by addressing questions like, why matrix management is important for project management? What are the obstacles in organisations to the application of matrix management? What are the rules and guidelines to make matrix management successful in organisations? These and other questions on this subject are answered. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Organisasies sukkel om tred te hou met die vinnige tempo van verandering. Daar is voortdurend meer druk op organisasies om aan te pas ten einde te oorleef. Om hierdie ongekende druk op verandering en oorlewing te verwerk, het projekbestuur 'n gesogte bestuursproses geword. Is dit omdat projekbestuur klem lê op spanwerk en multi-dissiplinêre benadering? Die antwoord is vanselfsprekend ja. Die holistiese benadering van projekbestuur maak dit toepaslik in ongewone en riskante projekte waar informasie kan wissel tussen uiters skaars of oorweldigend baie. Soos wat die sake-omgewing meer chaoties word, behoort projekbestuur sy status as die bestuurstegniek van die 21 ste eeu voort te sit. Die aanwending van die matriksorganisasie het in die laaste tien jaar, in antwoord of verskeie nuwe behoeftes, uitgebrei. Die organisasie-tipe is normaalweg 'n kompromis tussen teenstrydige vereistes, en in besonder tussen die druk vir 'n lewenskragtige en selfonderhoudende projek- of produkorganisasie, en die groter doeltreffendheid, kundigheid, en ekonomieë van skaal van 'n funksionele of departementele struktuur. Die word gesien as 'n manier om met meer komplekse omgewings oor die weg te kom, en ook as 'n meer demokratiese alternatief tot die klassieke hierargiese struktuur. Hierdie studie-projek fokus op matrikbestuur as 'n tegniek van die organisasie-ontwerp vir hierdie nuwe eeu. Die literatuurstudie word beperk tot die veld van projekbestuur, alhoewel daar ook in ander studievelde van organisasie-ontwikkeling of strategiese bestuur aandag aan matrikbestuur gegee word. 'n Riglyn vir suksesvolle matriksbestuur in organisasies, met spesifieke verwysing na projekbestuur, word ondersoek deur seker pertinente vrae te vra. Waarom is matriksbestuur belangrik vir projekbestuur? Watter struikelblokke is daar in organisasies met betrekking tot die toepassing van matriksbestuur? Wat is die reëls en riglyne vir die suksessvolle aanwending van matriksbestuur in organisasies? Antwoorde op hierdie, en ander soortgelyke vrae rondom die onderwerp, word met hierdie studie verskaf.
6

Towards an understanding of the authority gap in project management

Norris, Anthony (Anthony Deon) 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MBA)--Stellenbosch University, 2004. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to establish an understanding of the authority gap in current project management practices. The research took the form of a literature review on the topics related to authority relations in general, and authority relations in project management. The study begins by analysing authority and it becomes apparent that while most people intuitively understand what authority means, it is a complex subject that cannot be explored completely within the limitations of this study. However, an overview of authority, and the authority relations that exist between people are presented. Factors such as politics, power and influence determine authority relations between people, and these factors are explored to establish the connection between them and authority. It is seen from the literature review that people can use their influence over people to gain a power base where no formal power base existed. It is shown that it is possible for people to build up a number of power bases using various influence techniques. The study continues by discussing the evolution of project management and the concept of organisational culture respectively. Project management in the 1960's was vastly different from current project management practices. This is mainly due to modem organisations using project management as a strategic tool in order to decrease research and development time, and serve customers better. It is seen that matrix management is widely used in modem project management and that the culture of an organisation is an important factor to consider when organisations are implementing project management. The penultimate chapter describes the authority relations specific to project management, and how organisational politics have a pivotal role in project management. It is shown that politics is an inevitable part of project management, and that project managers need to be astute political players in order to bridge the authority gap. The final chapter gives the conclusion and recommendations of the study. The main conclusion reached is that the authority gap still exists in current project management practices, thus human relations and organisation politics are playing a major role in project management. Project managers need to be astute political players and develop various forms of authority in order to ensure project success. A series of recommendations is given to organizations and project managers, which will assist in closing the authority gap. It is also recommended that empirical research be carried out in order to practically define the authority gap. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die doel van hierdie studie was om insig te kry in die gesagsgaping in huidige praktyke in projekbestuur. Die narvorsing is gegrond op 'n literatuuroorsig van die onderwerpe wat betrekking het op gesagsverhoudings oor die algemeen, en gesagsverhoudings in projekbestuur. Die studie begin met 'n ontleding van gesag, en dit blyk duidelik dat hoewel die meeste mense 'n intuïtiewe begrip het van wat gesag beteken, dit 'n komplekse onderwerp is wat nie volledig binne die beperkings van hierdie studie ondersoek kan word nie. 'n Oorsig oor gesag en die gesagsverhoudings wat tussen mense bestaan, word egter aangebied. Faktore soos politiek, mag en invloed bepaal gesagsverhoudings tussen mense en word hier ondersoek om die verband tussen hierdie faktore en gesag vas te stel. Die literatuuroorsig toon dat mense hulle invloed oor ander kan inspan om 'n magsbasis te bekom waar daar nie 'n formele magsbasis bestaan nie. Daar word getoon dat dit vir mense moontlik is om 'n hele aantal magsbasisse te bou deur die gebruik van verskeie beïnvloedingstegnieke. Die studie bespreek voorts die ewolusie van projekbestuur en die konsep van organisasie-kultuur, respektiewelik. Projekbestuur in die 1960's het geweldig verskil van die projekbestuurspraktyke van vandag. Die hoofrede hiervoor is dat moderne organisasies projekbestuur as 'n strategiese middel gebruik om navorsing-en-ontwikkelingstyd te verminder en beter diens aan kliënte te lewer. Daar word gesien dat matriksbestuur algemeen in moderne projekbestuur gebruik word en dat die kultuur van 'n organisasie 'n belangrike faktor is om in ag te neem wanneer organisasies projekbestuur implementeer. Die voorlaaste hoofstuk beskryf die gesagsverhoudings wat betrekking het op projekbestuur en hoe organisasie-politiek 'n sleutelrol in projekbestuur speel. Daar word getoon dat politiek 'n onvermydelik deel van projekbestuur is en dat projekbestuurders bedrewe politieke spelers moet wees om die gesagsgaping te oorbrug. Die finale hoofstuk bevat die gevolgtrekkings en voorstelle van die studie. Die belangrikste gevolgtrekking wat bereik is, is dat daar steeds 'n gesagsgaping in huidige projekbestuurspraktyke bestaan en dat menslike verhoudings en die politiek van 'n organisasie dus 'n hoofrol in projekbestuur speel. Projekbestuurders moet die politieke spel slim kan speel en verskeie vorms van gesag ontwikkel om die sukses van 'n projek te verseker. 'n Reeks aanbevelinge word gegee aan organisasies asook projekbestuurders wat sal help om die gesagsgaping te verminder. Daar word ook aanbeveel dat meer navorsing gedoen word om die gesagsgaping prakties te definieer.
7

An analysis of Sun Tzu's Art of War with the context of negotiations : approaches and strategies

Hughes, Justin H. 03 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MBA)--Stellenbosch University, 2005. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: If you want peace make ready for war! This was what Sun Tzu believed when conveying his philosophies in his book the Art of War. What is remarkable about the Art of War is that it was written about 2300 years ago and presented a new way of thinking about battle. Sun Tzu did not promote engaging in battle but rather overcoming the enemy without having to do battle. "100 victories in 100 battles is not the most skilful. Subduing without battle is the most skilful" (Denma Translation: 2003: 25 - 26). The Sun Tzu begins with the understanding that conflict is an integral part of human life. It is within us and all around us. Sometimes we can skilfully sidestep it, but at other times we must confront it directly. Many of us have seen the destructive power of aggression, whether on a personal level or in the disasters of armed conflict. We know as well the limitations of most political and personal responses to that aggression. How can we work with it in a more profound and effective way? (Denma Translation: 2003: 2). As in modem day society conflict is ever present and the manner in which we deal with such conflict either resolves the conflict or exacerbates it. One way of dealing with conflict is through negotiations. The negotiation process is an orderly process whereby parties can engage each other in dialogue in order to reach a mutually acceptable agreement. What is evident is that to be successful in a negotiation the necessary planning and preparation needs to be done. Although it is not possible to prepare and plan for all eventualities within the negotiation process most scenarios can be predicted and therefore if the required preparation is done the possibility of reaching one's objective is increased. When preparing for negotiations it is imperative that all environments that can impact on the negotiation are considered. Furthermore the organisational and personal power of the negotiator and the other party needs to be determined. Within the negotiation process the negotiator will display certain behaviours depending what he/she wishes to achieve. Should the negotiator wish to drive the negotiation then behaviours such as providing information or making proposals will be used. On the other hand, if the negotiator wishes to draw the other party into the negotiation then the behaviour of seeking information and summarising would be used. The outcome of a negotiation could be one of four, namely lose -lose, win -lose, win - win or mutual gains. There are different approaches to negotiation, namely soft, hard and principled. It is suggested that the most appropriate approach is the principled approach, although the soft and hard approach could be used under certain circumstances. A negotiation is a systematic process and involves the aspect of planning. Without planning negotiations are sure to fail and the objective set not reached. The types of planning that need to be done are strategic, tactical and administrative. Instead of opposing each other the planning aspects of negotiation complement each other. Sun Tzu proposes ways to settle a conflict without engaging in battle. Although the learned strategist does not promote negotiation directly when reading the 'Art of War' it becomes evident that Sun Tzu preferred to resolve conflicts in a peaceful manner. It was only when no other option was available that he suggests battle. In war most of the planning and preparation involves strategies, which is similar in the negotiation process. It is important that a negotiator knows when to move, when to stand fast and when to engage the other party. This is also true for any military engagement. Sun Tzu sets out philosophies, which can be used to strategise for negotiation. Although a bit of poetic licence exists when interpreting Sun Tzu's philosophy for the negotiation arena, what the learned author contributes to the field of negotiation is to make the negotiator aware of the options available. The Art of War provides insight into creative thinking where Sun Tzu spells out that it is better to conquer the enemy without engaging in battle. Furthermore the less of the enemy's possessions destroyed the more astute the leader and lastly, that one must not engage in battle because of the wrath of the leaders. In other words it should not be retaliation because the leader's ego is bruised. Sun Tzu provides wisdom, which can be utilised in the negotiation process. The interpretation of Sun Tzu's strategies provides a framework for negotiators to strategise when entering into negotiations. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: As jy Vrede wil hê, maak reg vir 'n oorlog! Dit is wat Sun Tzu geglo het toe hy sy filosofie in die boek Art of War, weergegee het. "100 victories in 100 battles is not the most skilful. Subduing without battle is the most skilful" (Denma vertaling: 2003: 25-26). Sun Tzu gaan van die veronderstelling uit dat konflik 'n integrale deel van die menslike bestaan is. Dit is binne in ons en orals om ons. Somtyds kan ons dit behendig systap maar ander kere moet ons dit direk hanteer. Baie van ons het al die destruktiewe krag van agressie gesien, hetsy op persoonlike vlak of in rampspoedige gewapende konflikte. Ons ken ook die beperkings van die meeste politieke of persoonlik reaksies op die tipe aggressie. Hoe kan ons dit op 'n meer diepgaande en effektiewe manier hanteer? (Denma vertaling: 2003: 25-26) Soos ook in die moderne samelewing is konflik alom teenwoordig en die wyse hoe dit hanteer word kan dit of oplos, of vererger. Een metode om konflik te hanteer is deur onderhandeling. Die proses van onderhandeling is 'n ordelike proses waardeur partye met mekaar in gesprek tree ten einde tot 'n wedersyds aanvaarbare ooreenkoms te bereik. Dit blyk dat ten einde suksesvol te wees in onderhandelings die nodige beplanning en voorbereiding gedoen moet word. Alhoewel dit is nie moontlik is om te beplan vir alle gebeurlikhede tydens die onderhandelinge nie, kan die meeste scenario's egter voorspel word. Indien die nodige voorbereiding dus gedoen word kan dit jou kanse om jou eie doelwitte te bereik, verhoog. Wanneer voorberei word vir onderhandelings is dit noodsaaklik dat alle omgewings invloede wat 'n impak kan hê daarop oorweeg word. Verder moet die organisatoriese en persoonlike mag van die onderhandelaar en die ander party bepaal word.Tydens die onderhandelings proses sal die onderhandelaar sekere gedrag toon afhangend van wat hy/sy uit die onderhandelings wil verkry. Indien die onderhandelaar hoop om die onderhandelings te lei, sal gedrag soos om inligting te verskaf en om voorstelle maak, gebruik word. Indien die onderhandelaar andersyds eerder die ander partye wil betrokke kry by die onderhandelings, sal gedrag soos die soeke na inligting en om opsommings te maak, getoon word. Die uitkoms van onderhandelings kan een van vier moontlikhede wees, naamlik: verloor-verloor, wenverloor, wen-wen of beide partye baat. Daar is verskillende benaderings tot onderhandeling naamlik die sagte, die harde en die beginselvaste benadering. Dit word aan die hand gedoen dat die mees toepaslike benadering die beginselvaste benadering is maar dat die sagte of aggressiewe (harde) benadering ook onder sekere omstandighede gebruik kan word.Onderhandelinge is 'n sistematiese proses en behels beplanning. Sonder beplanning is onderhandelings gedoem tot mislukking en is die doelwitte nie haalbaar nie. Die tipe beplanning wat gedoen moet word is strategies, takties en administratief. Die verskillende tipes beplanning komplementeer mekaar eerder as om mekaar te opponeer. Sun Tzu voorsien metodes hoe om konflik te besleg sonder om in oorlog betrokke te raak. Hoewel die geleerde strateeg nie onderhandelings direk promoveer nie blyk dit by die lees van The Art of War dat Sun Tzu verkies on konflik op 'n vreedsame wyse op te los. Dit was slegs wanneer geen ander opsie beskikbaar was nie dat hy oorlog voorstel. Tydens oorlog word beplanning en voorbereiding gewy aan strategie wat baie ooreenkom met die van die onderhandelingsproses. Dit is belangrik dat die onderhandelaar weet wanneer om te beweeg, wanneer om vas te staan en wanneer om die ander party te betrek.Hierdie is ook belangrik vir enige militêre aanval. Sun Tzu se filisofie kan dus ook gebruik word vir strategie beplanning vir onderhandeling. Hoewel 'n mate van poëtiese vaardigheid benodig word vir die intepretering van Sun Tzu se filosofie in die onderhandelings arena word die geleerde outeur se bydrae op die onderhandelings gebied gemaak daardeur dat die onderhandelaar bewus gemaak word van sy beskikbare opsies. The Art of War gee insig in kreatiewe denke waar Sun Tzu dit uitspel dat dit beter is om die vyand te oorwin sonder om in 'n geveg betrokke te raak. Verder word aangedui dat hoe minder van die vyand se besittings vernietig word hoe slimmer die leier en dat daar nie in 'n geveg betrokke geraak moet word vanweë die woede van die leiers nie. Met ander woorde daar moet nie vergelding wees as gevolg van die gekrenkte ego van die leier nie. Sun Tzu verskaf dus wysheid wat gebruik kan word in die onderhandelings proses. Die interpretasie van Sun Tzu se strategieë voorsien 'n raamwerk aan onderhandelaars vir stategiese beplanning wanneer betrokke geraak word in onderhandelings.
8

Export processing zones in Zambia : what lessons can be learnt?

Kanjungu, Donald 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MBA)--University of Stellenbosch, 2010. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The Export Processing Zone (EPZ) regime is not new across the world. The first known form was established in the 13th century in modern day Spain. However, the growth of EPZs only became prominent after the First World War, as first world countries were trying to rebuild their economies through export-oriented manufacturing. By the turn of the century, more than two thirds of the countries in the world had embraced the EPZ regime with more than 3,000 zones established, employing more than 43 million people. China contributed a big number to this as it pushed through its Special Economic Zone (SEZ) regime to experiment with market-driven reforms. EPZs have made a significant contribution towards the growth of countries that have fully embraced the EPZ regime. The majority of these countries are in Asia, the Caribbean and South America. In Africa, Mauritius and Madagascar have benefited from the establishment of zones. On the other hand, other countries have failed to realize benefits from their zones such as Senegal. Zambia was slow to develop policy related to establishment of EPZ. The first attempt to establish EPZ legislature was only made in 2001. However, nothing happened on the ground until 2007, due mostly to concerns around revenue benefits from zones. Since then, two zones have been set up, construction of another is about to start and three more are planned. Despite this ambitious drive, there are still concerns around the realization of benefits from zones compared to the foregone tax, as well as costs associated with establishing infrastructure to support the zones. Other concerns related to the working conditions and wages of people employed by zone enterprises This study explores further such concerns. It is noted in this study that the policy framework for attracting investment in zones is adequate and addresses all concerns. However, the level of infrastructure development is not adequate to support the EPZ regime. The domestic business environment is not well developed to support and benefit from the EPZ regime. Considering its past economic performance, the country has no choice but to embrace the EPZ regime, as a means to develop growth in exports. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die vryhandelsgebiedkonsep is by verre nie nuut in die ekonomiese wêreld nie. Die eerste van hierdie tipe markstelsels dateer terug van sover as 13de eeuse Spanje. Dit is egter interessant dat die vryhandelsgebiedmodel eers na die beëindiging van die eerste wêreldoorlog pertinent posgevat het. Die konsep was in hierdie tyd veral vir eerste wêreld lande van groot waarde. Hulle kon toesien dat hul ekonomieë deur uitvoergedrewe vervaardiging in ere herstel word. Dit is ook verder werd om te weet dat teen die draai van die eeu, meer as twee derdes van die wêreld in meer as 3000 vryhandelsooreenkomste belang gehad het. Dit het direk of indirek daartoe bygedra dat meer as 43 miljoen mense op een of ander wyse by die arbeidsmark betrek is. China het 'n groot rol gespeel deur sy “Spesiale” vryhandelsgebiede waarmee hy markgedrewe hervorming kon toets. Vryhandelsgebiede het daadwerklik 'n groot invloed gehad op die groei van ekonomieë van lande wat volwaardig by die konsep ingekoop het. Die oorgrootte meerderheid van die lande is afkomstig uit Asië, die Karibiese Eilande en Suid Amerika. Uit Afrika was dit onder andere Mauritius en Madagaskar wat die meeste voordeel hieruit geput het. Andersyds het lande soos Senegal klaarblyklik geen voordeel uit sy vryhandelsgebiede gekry nie. Zambië was veral stadig om beleid neer te lê rondom die vestiging van 'n eie vryhandelsgebied(e). Sy eerste poging om amptelike wetgewing in die verband neer te lê was in 2001. Daar het egter niks konkreet hieruit voortgevloei voor 2007 nie. Die land was veral besorg oor inkomstevoordele tussen die voorgestelde gebiede. Sedertdien is twee gebiede reeds gevestig, 'n derde in wording en 'n verdere drie in die beplanningsfase. Ten spyte van die nuutgevonde dryfkrag is daar steeds twyfel oor die voordeel tussen die handelsgebiede, opgeweeg teen die uitgemaakte belasting en kostes wat met die daarstelling van die nodige infrastruktuur gepaard gaan. Daar is ook kommer oor die werksomstandighede en besoldiging van mense wat deur Vryhandelsondernemings in diens geneem word. Die doel van hierdie studie is om verdere kwelpunte te identifiseer en dan te analiseer. Daar word in die studie bevestig dat die beleidsraamwerk, wat daarop gemik is om belegging aantreklik te maak, voldoende is. Die infrastruktuur is egter nie huidiglik voldoende om die Vryhandelsgebiede te ondersteun nie. Die plaaslike besigheidsspeelveld is ook nie goed ontwikkel nie en kan derhalwe nie dié besigheidsmodel ondersteun en voordeel daaruit put nie. Gegewe sy ekonomiese prestasies van die verlede kan Zambië nie anders as om die Vryhandelsgebiedkonsep aan te hang, om sodoende daadwerklike groei in sy uitvoermark te bewerkstellig nie.
9

Demonstrating the value of implementing an enterprise programme office (EPO) : a South African study

Langdon, Neville (Neville Derrick) 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MBA)--Stellenbosch University, 2005. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This mini study project reviews the experiences of implementing an Enterprise Programme Office (EPD). The reason for the implementation, as well as the alignment of the structure and role of the EPD is reviewed in a literature research as well as an empirical study of eight large listed South African companies. The study attempts to establish whether the value of the EPO exceeds the cost of the EPD and whether the type of EPD implemented impacts on the success of the initiative. Strong . executive support and a formalised change management prógramme are highlighted as important prerequisites for success. An approach to measure the success of the implementation is discussed as part ofthe literature research. The implementation of an EPD is not simple. Understanding this at the conceptual stage will ensure that the business will not underestimate the size, complexity and impact on the business. If this is acknowledged, inclusion of a formal change management process will be readily supported and the level of budget and skills allocated is more likely to be appropriate. The strong correlation between EPD effectiveness and the success of individual projects or projects within a programme, as established in the KPMG Project Management Survey (2002:3) indicates a strong business case for building an effective EPD. The mini study project is able to confirm that the value of having an EPD does exceed the cost of implementing and running the EPD, within the confines of this study. The implementation of an effective EPD provides the business with a vehicle to implement their key initiatives, using a formal process that significantly reduces the risk of failure. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie mini-studieprojek neem die resultate van die implementering van 'n Ondernemingsprojek-kantoor (OPK) in oënskou. Die rede vir die implementering, asook die posisionering van die struktuur en rol van die OPK word ondersoek by wyse van 'n literatuurstudie, sowel as 'n empiriese studie van agt groot gelyste Suid- Afrikaanse maatskappye. Die studie poog om te bepaal of die waarde van die OPK die koste van die OPK oortref en of die tipe OPK wat geïmplementeer word die sukses van die inisiatief beïnvloed. Die volgehoue ondersteuning van die uitvoerende bestuur sowel as 'n formele veranderingsbestuursprogram word vooropgestel as belangrike voorvereistes vir sukses. 'n Benadering wat die sukses van die implementering meet, word as deel van die literatuurstudie bespreek. Die implementering van 'n OPK is nie so eenvoudig nie. Dis belangrik dat dit reeds tydens die koseptualiseringsfase in gedagte gehou word ten einde te verseker dat die omvang, kompleksiteit en impak op die besigheid nie onderskat word nie. Indien dit aanvaar word, sal die insluiting van 'n formele veranderingsbestuursproses geredelik ondersteun word en die standaard van begroting en vaardighede wat toegewys word, neig om meer gepas te wees. Die sterk onderlinge afhanklikheid tussen die effektiwiteit van die OPK en die sukses van individuele projekte binne 'n program, soos vasgestel is met die KPMG Projekbestuur Ondersoek (2002:3), dui op 'n sterk besigheidsaak ten gunste van die daarstelling van 'n effektiewe OPK. Die mini-studieprojek kan, binne die beperkinge van die studie, bevestig dat die waarde van die vestiging van 'n OPK, die koste van implementering en bestuur van die OPK oortref. Die implementering van 'n effektiewe OPK voorsien besigheid van 'n medium om hulle sleutel inisiatiewe te implementeer deur gebruik te maak van 'n formele proses wat die risiko van mislukking aansienlik verminder.
10

The role of executive coaching in assisting leaders to empower organisations

De Beer, Paul Andrew 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MBA)--Stellenbosch University, 2005. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The concept of executive coaching has become known over the last 20 years. Executive coaching is a service that is provided to managers and leaders within organisations in order to help them to make changes that will lead to increased personal and organisational performance. Coaching helps leaders to function better in the business world by helping them to see beyond their own mindsets; helping them to learn new skills; and helping them to overcome deeply ingrained habits and behaviours that may be restricting their further success. Coaching is not targeted specifically at executives that are experiencing performance problems, but at any manager or leader that wants to learn or change in some way, or simply wants to further increase their performance. The need for executive coaching has arisen due to the speed at which the world is developing and hence because of constant change. Globalisation, technology, mass production and increased levels of democracy have lead to a highly competitive business world. The leader and manager of today have to be highly efficient and deal with a much broader range of tasks than ever before while being highly advanced in the areas of personal and interpersonal skills. These same changes that have affected the world have lead to changing social norms where people have the need to partiCipate and be heard. The traditional management approaches to business whereby leaders commanded their employees to execute their ideas, is no longer an efficient practise as business is just too complex to centralise decision making. The concept of organisational empowerment which became know in the late 1980's has to do with the top leaders of organisations sharing their power and authority with those lower down in the organisation. Empowerment is seen as the key to sustainable organisational success, however it is complex to implement, takes considerable time and needs dedication, focus and drive from top leaders to be successful. Top leaders however will need to transform their own styles, habits and skills in order to successfully empower their organisations. Executive coaching is seen as the best method to help leaders and managers to empower their organisations by assisting them to change their leadership styles, learn better personal skills and to properly plan and execute changes that need to be made within the organisation. The use of executive coaching will also teach executives how to coach all those within their organisations, which will further help change the organisation from a traditional culture to a culture of collaboration and support. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die konsep van bestuursafrigting het in die afgelope 20 jaar bekend geword. Bestuursafrigting is 'n diens wat gelewer word aan bestuurders en leiers binne 'n organisasie om hulle te help om veranderinge te maak wat sal lei tot verhoogde persoonlike en organisatoriese prestasie. Afrigting help leiers om beter te presteer in die besigheidswereld deur verby hul eie gedagte raamwerk te kyk, nuwe vaardighede aan te leer en om diep ingewortelde gewoontes en gedrag te oorkom wat sukses verhinder. Afrigting is nie net gefokus op uitvoerende amptenare wat prestasie probleme ervaar nie, maar op enige bestuurder of leier wat wil leer of verander, of prestasie wil verbeter. Die behoefte vir bestuursafrigting het ontstaan as gevolg van die tempo waarmee die wereld voortdurend verander. Globalisering, tegnologie, massa produksie en verhoogde vlakke van demokrasie het gelei na 'n hoogs kompeterende besigheidswereld. Die hedendaagse leier en bestuurder moet hoogs effektief wees, meer take kan verrig as ooit tevore en ook nog hoogs gevorderd wees in terme van interpersoonlike vaardighede. Hierdie veranderinge het ook gelei na veranderende sosiale norme waar mense meer betrokke wil wees deur insette te lewer. Die tradisionele benadering tot besigheid, waar leiers opdragte gee aan werknemers om hulle idees uit te voer, is nie meer effektief in die huidige komplekse samelewing nie. Die idee van organisatoriese bemagtiging, wat in die laat 1980's bekend geword het, het te make met die verspreiding van mag van die senior bestuur in die organisasie na laer vlakke. Bemagtiging is die sleutel tot volhoubare organisatoriese sukses maar, dit is moeilik om te implementeer, het baie tyd en toewyding nodig en benodig fokus van die top leiers om suksesvol te wees. Daarom moet top bestuurders hul eie styl, gewoontes en vaardighede transformeer om bemagtiging suksesvol te implementeer in hul organisasies. Bestuursafrigting word gesien as die beste metode om leiers en bestuurders te help om hul werknemers te bemagtig deur hulle te help om hulle leierskapstyle te verander, beter persoonlike vaardighede aan te leer en om beter organisatoriese beplanning en uitvoering te fasiliteer. Die gebruik van bestuursafrigting leer bestuurders hoe om ander te mentor wat die tradisionele kultuur van bestuur vervang met een van samewerking en ondersteuning.

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