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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Relativity in the perception of emotion across cultures

Gendron, Maria Therese January 2013 (has links)
Thesis advisor: Lisa Feldman Barrett / A central question in the study of human behavior is whether or not certain categories of emotion, such as anger, fear and sadness (termed "discrete emotions"), are universally recognized in the nonverbal behaviors of others (termed the "universality of attribution hypothesis"). In this dissertation, the universality of attribution hypothesis was revisited in order to examine whether individuals from remote cultural contexts perceive the same mental states in nonverbal cues as individuals from a Western cultural context. The studies described in this dissertation removed certain features of prior universality studies that served to obscure the underlying nature of cross-cultural perceptions. In study 1, perception of posed emotional vocalizations by individuals from a US cultural context were compared to those of individuals from the Himba ethnic group, who reside in remote regions of Namibia and have limited contact with individuals outside their community. In contrast to recent data claiming to support the universality hypothesis, we did not find evidence that emotions were universally perceived when participants were asked to freely label the emotion they perceived in vocalizations. In contrast, our findings did support the hypothesis that affective dimensions of valence and arousal are perceived across cultural contexts. In the second study, emotion perceptions based on facial expressions were compared between participants from US and Himba cultural contexts. Consistent with the results of Study 1, Himba individuals did not perceive the Western discrete emotion categories that their US counterparts did. Our data did support the hypothesis that Himba participants were routinely engaging in action perception, rather than mental state inference. Across both cultural contexts, when conceptual knowledge about emotions was made more accessible by presenting emotion words as part of the task, perception was impacted. In US participants, perceptions conformed even more strongly with the previously assumed "universal" model. Himba participants appeared to rely more on mental state categories when exposed to concepts, but a substantial amount of cultural variation was still observed. Finally, in Study 3, perceptions of emotion were examined in a US cultural context after the focus of participants was manipulated, either onto mental states (broadly), emotions or behaviors. Perceptions of emotion did not differ substantially across these three conditions, indicating that within a US cultural context the tendency to infer mental states from facial expressions is somewhat inflexible. Overall, the findings of this dissertation indicate that emotion perception is both culturally and linguistically relative and that attempts to apply the Western cultural model for emotions as a universal one obscures important cultural variation. / Thesis (PhD) — Boston College, 2013. / Submitted to: Boston College. Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. / Discipline: Psychology.
2

Confronting Ego Threats with Reappraisal versus Rumination

Caskey, Ryan 16 January 2010 (has links)
Two experiments compared the effects of two cognitive responses (i.e., rumination and cognitive reappraisal) individuals may adopt when confronted with a threat to self-regard. In Study 1, participants received negative feedback about their social skills and then rated the credibility of the source of the criticism. In Study 2, participants received negative feedback and then were given the opportunity to enhance the self on an unrelated task. Compared to reappraising the negative feedback, ruminating about the feedback led to poorer evaluations of the source of negative feedback and increased self-enhancement, respectively. These findings suggest that, compared to rumination, cognitive reappraisal helps to minimize defensive responses to ego threat.
3

Confronting Ego Threats with Reappraisal versus Rumination

Caskey, Ryan 16 January 2010 (has links)
Two experiments compared the effects of two cognitive responses (i.e., rumination and cognitive reappraisal) individuals may adopt when confronted with a threat to self-regard. In Study 1, participants received negative feedback about their social skills and then rated the credibility of the source of the criticism. In Study 2, participants received negative feedback and then were given the opportunity to enhance the self on an unrelated task. Compared to reappraising the negative feedback, ruminating about the feedback led to poorer evaluations of the source of negative feedback and increased self-enhancement, respectively. These findings suggest that, compared to rumination, cognitive reappraisal helps to minimize defensive responses to ego threat.
4

On the Endogenous Generation of Emotion

Engen, Haakon 08 March 2017 (has links) (PDF)
The thesis investigates the endogenous generation of emotion (EnGE). Two main questions were pursued: 1) How is the volitional generation of emotion neurally and behaviourally implemented? and 2) How can this ability be used for emotional self- regulation? This was investigated in two projects: In the first project, neural, psychophysiological, and behavioural indices of EnGE were investigated in a large, representative sample. The second project investigated the behavioural, functional and structural correlates of meditation practices involving endogenous generation of positive emotion, in a sample of expert meditators. Answering the first question, the first project indicated that EnGE is neurally supported by the cooperation of nodes of the Default Mode (DMN), extended Salience (SN), and left Frontoparietal Control (FPCN) Networks. Results suggest dissociable functional component processes were implemented by these networks, with DMN supporting the generation of simulated representations, while SN supported the generation of core affective qualities of self-generated emotional experiences. FPCN co-activation patterns suggested it supports the coordination of the generation process. The second project showed similar activations during loving-kindness and compassion meditation. Moreover, expert meditators showed increased cortical thickness in, primarily, the left FPCN. This suggests endogenous emotion generation is neurally effected by left FPCN, entraining core affective processes supported by SN and simulation construction supported by DMN. EnGE-based emotional self-regulation was investigated in a second set of studies. Neural and behavioural measures indicated that expert meditators could successfully regulate their emotional reactions to negative external stressors. Comparing compassion with reappraisal-based emotion regulation, regulatory effects differed, with compassion-based regulation primarily increasing positive emotion while reappraisal primarily decreased negative emotion. Moreover, in the large, representative sample, EnGE-abilities were associated with trait affect and emotion management styles. Moreover, evidence was found that EnGE-abilities partially mediate the relationship between positive trait affect and adaptive, instrumental emotion management styles. These results suggest that EnGE can be used in a reactive fashion to regulate emotional reactions to negative stressors, and that EnGE-abilities support emotion management in the normal population. / Die vorliegende Arbeit untersucht die endogene Generation von Emotionen (EnGE). Zwei Hauptfragen wurde verfolgt: 1) Wie die willentliche Erzeugung von Emotionen neuronal oder im Verhalten implementiert ist, und 2) wie diese Fähigkeit für die emotionale Selbstregulation verwendet werden kann. Dies wurde in zwei Projekten genauer untersucht: Im ersten Projekt wurden neuronale und psychophysiologische Mechanismen sowie Verhaltensweisen in Bezug auf EnGE in einer großen und repräsentativen Stichprobe untersucht. Das zweite Projekt untersuchte die verhaltensbedingten, funktionellen, und strukturellen Korrelate von bestimmten Meditationsübungen, die die endogene Erzeugung von positiven Emotionen beinhalten, in einer Stichprobe von Meditationsexperten. In Bezug auf die erste Forschungsfrage, haben wir im ersten Projekt Daten erhoben, die nahelegen, dass EnGE auf neuronaler Ebene durch die Kooperation von wichtigen Arealen des Default Mode Netzwerks (DMN), sowie des erweiterten Salience (SN) und des linken Frontoparietal Control (FPCN) Netzwerks unterstützt wird. Ergebnisse legen nahe, dass unterscheidbare funktionelle Komponenten-Prozesse durch diese Netzwerke implementiert werden. Das DMN unterstützt dabei die Erzeugung von simulierten Repräsentationen, während das SN die Generation der „core“ affektive Qualitäten von selbstgenerierten emotionalen Erfahrungen unterstützt. Das FPCN Ko-Aktivierungsmuster legt eine Rolle bei der Koordination von Erzeugungsprozessen nahe. Das zweite Projekt zeigte ähnliche Aktivierungen durch Loving-kindness und Mitgefühls-Meditation. Weiterhin zeigten Meditationsexperten eine erhöhte kortikale Dicke vor allem im linken FPCN. Diese Ergebnisse lassen vermuten, dass eine endogene Emotionsgeneration neuronal vom linken FPCN beeinflusst wird, dass eine SN Aktivierung „core“ affektive Prozesse unterstützt, und dass die Simulationskonstruktion vom DMN gesteuert wird. EnGE-basierte emotionale Selbstregulation wurde mittels dem zweiten Set von Experimenten genauer untersucht. Neuronale- und Verhaltensmaße weisen darauf hin, dass Meditationsexperten ihre eigenen emotionalen Reaktionen auf negative externe Stressoren erfolgreich regulieren konnten. Ein Vergleich von Mitgefühlsmeditation und Neubewertungs- basierter (reappraisal) Emotionsregulation zeigte, dass die Regulationseffekte insofern unterschiedlich sind, dass Mitgefühl-basierte Regulation zunächst positive Emotionen erhöht, während eine Neubewertungsstrategie hauptsächlich negative Emotionen reduziert. Außerdem wurden in der großen und repräsentativen Stichprobe EnGE-Fähigkeiten mit habituellem Affekt (trait affect) und Emotionsmanagement-Stilen assoziiert. EnGE- Fähigkeiten wurden teilweise durch die Beziehung zwischen positiven habituellem Affekt und adaptiven instrumentellen Emotionsmanagement-Stilen vermittelt. Diese Ergebnisse legen nahe, dass EnGE in einer reaktiven Weise für eine Regulation von Emotionsreaktionen auf negative Stressoren verwendet werden kann und das EnGE Fähigkeiten das Emotionsmanagement in einer normalen Population unterstützen.
5

The influence of emotion and observer characteristics on attention

Aquino, Jennifer 02 June 2014 (has links)
For decades, emotion researchers have debated a series of issues related to the influence of emotionally laden information on the way in which people process and remember information. The present investigation was designed to experimentally test both general (Experiment 1 and 2) and person-specific (Experiment 3) influences of emotionally laden words on attention and memory using a digit-parity task in which participants were asked to make a speeded judgement about the parity of two digits flanking a to-be-ignored, centrally presented word. In Experiment 1, when a sexual, threat, school, or neutral word was presented between the digits, only the sexual words, rated high in arousal value by study participants, disrupted digit-parity performance producing longer digit-parity response times relative to all other word categories. Sexual words were also recalled more often by study participants in a surprise free recall task. Mirroring attention and memory results, an evaluation of skin conductance responses (SCRs) demonstrated that participants showed enhanced SCRs for the sexual words relative to all other word categories. Furthermore, when the sexual words were parsed into positive and negative word categories (Experiment 2), trials in which a sex-negative word was presented between the digits produced the longest digit-parity response times. Participants recalled more sex-negative words than any other word category. Importantly, participants’ taboo ratings predicted attention and memory results. Finally, when words relevant to participants’ fears were presented between the digits, digit-parity response times slowed relative to when a fear-irrelevant word was presented between the digits. Memory and skin conductance data provide converging evidence – participants recalled and produced larger skin conductance responses for fear-relevant words compared to fear irrelevant words.
6

Interpersonal and abandonment issues in alcohol use, abuse and dependence

Hickson, Liz January 2000 (has links)
No description available.
7

Konzeptuelle und sensumotorische Wirkungen von Emotionen auf das Gedächtnis /

Reber, Rolf. January 1994 (has links)
Inaug.-Diss. Phil.-hist. Bern, 1994. / Literaturverz.
8

What do Words Really Say? An Examination of Associations between Preschool Emotion Language and Emotional Development

Neal, Amy Elizabeth 20 May 2014 (has links)
This study examines associations of emotion language with emotion understanding and emotion regulation during the preschool years. There is evidence that the way parents talk about emotions with their children promotes children's emotion understanding and regulation (e.g. Bird and Reese, 2006; Laible, 2011). However, there has been little attention paid to associations of these outcomes with children's emotion language. In this study, I examined associations of children's emotion language on their emotion understanding and emotion regulation, and tested whether parents' emotion language was indirectly associated with these outcomes through children's emotion language. One hundred fifty-six 3- to 5-year-old children participated with their primary caregiver. Parent-child dyads engaged in an emotion-laden conversation to measure parent and child emotion language. Children also engaged in the locked box task (Cole et al., 2009; Goldsmith et al., 1993) to measure emotion regulation and completed the Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy (Nowicki and Duke, 1994) to measure emotion understanding. Results differed for younger preschoolers (36 - 53 months) compared with older preschoolers (54 - 69 months) in regard to emotion regulation. For younger preschoolers, path analyses indicated an indirect effect in which parent emotion talk was associated with less attention shifting during the locked box task. There was also a direct effect in which children's greater use of emotion labels was positively associated with emotion understanding. Results may reflect the rapid emotional development occurring during the preschool years and suggest the importance of early emotion socialization. / Ph. D.
9

Parental Emotion Regulation: Relations with Sensitive and Engaged Parenting and Psychological Distress

January 2017 (has links)
acase@tulane.edu / Sensitive parenting requires modulation of emotions in order to effectively organize and orient behavioral responses. There is considerable evidence that psychological distress is one of many factors that can negatively impact parenting practices. Difficulties in emotion regulation may be a pathway for the impact of psychological distress on parenting, as emotion regulation has been implicated in psychological distress; however, emotion regulation is not often examined in parenting models. The current study tested these relations in a low-income, community sample of caregivers of preschoolers (n = 64; age range 18-74 years). Results indicated that difficulties in emotion regulation mediated the relation between psychological distress and parenting sensitive engagement (b = -0.48, SE = 0.24, CI [-1.04, -0.07]). Difficulties in emotion regulation predicted decreased sensitive engagement, above and beyond the effect of psychological distress (b = -.69, SE = .33, t = -2.07, p = .044, CI [-1.35, -.20]). However, there was no total effect of psychological distress on sensitive engagement (b = -0.04, SE = 0.26, t = -0.13, p = .893, CI [-0.56, 0.49]). Acceptance of emotional responses (b = -0.34, SE = 0.15, p = .017, CI [-0.66, -0.11]) and clarity (b = -0.50, SE = 0.24, p = .025, CI [-0.97, -0.05]), or understanding of emotions, were found to predict sensitive engagement above and beyond the other dimensions of emotion regulation. Results suggest that emotion regulation is a process by which psychological distress affects parents’ sensitive engagement with their preschool-aged children. Additionally, acceptance and clarity are two dimensions of emotion regulation that may be more relevant for parents’ sensitive engagement than other dimensions. / 1 / Justin Thomas Carreras
10

Domain-specific lexicon generation for emotion detection from text

Bandhakavi, Anil January 2018 (has links)
Emotions play a key role in effective and successful human communication. Text is popularly used on the internet and social media websites to express and share emotions, feelings and sentiments. However useful applications and services built to understand emotions from text are limited in effectiveness due to reliance on general purpose emotion lexicons that have static vocabulary and sentiment lexicons that can only interpret emotions coarsely. Thus emotion detection from text calls for methods and knowledge resources that can deal with challenges such as dynamic and informal vocabulary, domain-level variations in emotional expressions and other linguistic nuances. In this thesis we demonstrate how labelled (e.g. blogs, news headlines) and weakly-labelled (e.g. tweets) emotional documents can be harnessed to learn word-emotion lexicons that can account for dynamic and domain-specific emotional vocabulary. We model the characteristics of realworld emotional documents to propose a generative mixture model, which iteratively estimates the language models that best describe the emotional documents using expectation maximization (EM). The proposed mixture model has the ability to model both emotionally charged words and emotion-neutral words. We then generate a word-emotion lexicon using the mixture model to quantify word-emotion associations in the form of a probability vectors. Secondly we introduce novel feature extraction methods to utilize the emotion rich knowledge being captured by our word-emotion lexicon. The extracted features are used to classify text into emotion classes using machine learning. Further we also propose hybrid text representations for emotion classification that use the knowledge of lexicon based features in conjunction with other representations such as n-grams, part-of-speech and sentiment information. Thirdly we propose two different methods which jointly use an emotion-labelled corpus of tweets and emotion-sentiment mapping proposed in psychology to learn word-level numerical quantification of sentiment strengths over a positive to negative spectrum. Finally we evaluate all the proposed methods in this thesis through a variety of emotion detection and sentiment analysis tasks on benchmark data sets covering domains from blogs to news articles to tweets and incident reports.

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