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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

Amyloid plaque deposition accelerates tau propagation via activation of microglia in a humanized app mouse model

Clayton, Kevin A. 17 June 2021 (has links)
Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by the formation of two major pathological hallmarks: amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Although there have been many studies to understand the role of microglia in Alzheimer’s disease, it is not yet known how microglia can promote disease progression while actively phagocytosing amyloid plaques or phosphorylated tau (p-tau). Through stereotaxic injection of adeno-associated virus expressing mutant P301L tau (AAV-P301L-tau) into the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) of both wild-type (WT) and APPNL-G-F mice, we demonstrate how amyloid plaques exacerbate p-tau propagation to the granule cell layer (GCL) of the hippocampus. However, in mice receiving the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor inhibitor (PLX5622), ~95% of microglia were depleted, which dramatically reduced p-tau propagation to the GCL. Although microglia depletion curtailed p-tau propagation, it also led to reduced plaque compaction and an increase in overall amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaque presence. Additionally, we found microglia depletion resulted in greater p-tau aggregation in dystrophic neurites surrounding amyloid plaques. We investigated neurodegenerative microglia (MGnD), which are activated in response to amyloid plaques, for their propensity to release extracellular vesicles in comparison to homeostatic microglia. We discovered that MGnD, identified by Clec7a or Mac2 staining, strongly express Tumor susceptibility gene 101 (Tsg101), which is an ESCRT-1 protein and a marker for extracellular vesicles (EVs). To further investigate EV release and MGnD, a novel lentivirus expressing fluorescent mEmerald conjugated to CD9 (mE-CD9) was constructed and injected into the MEC of both WT and APPNL-G-F mice which allowed for visualization of mE-CD9+ puncta around individual microglia. CD9 is a tetraspanin and also a marker for EVs. We observed that the number of mEmerald+ particles surrounding MGnD was three-fold higher compared to non-diseased, homeostatic microglia. Sequential injection of mE-CD9 and AAV-P301L-tau into the MEC revealed that microglia-derived EVs encapsulate pathologic p-tau, which is augmented by the MGnD phenotype. Taken together, these data provide strong evidence that MGnD exhibit increased secretion of tau-containing EVs, providing a possible mechanism for how amyloid deposition indirectly exacerbates tau propagation.

Topical Photodynamic Therapy Generates Microvesicle Particles

Oyebanji, Oladayo Ayobami 08 June 2020 (has links)
No description available.

Colorectal cancer-derived CAT1-positive extracellular vesicles alter nitric oxide metabolism in endothelial cells and promote angiogenesis / 大腸癌由来のCAT1陽性細胞外小胞は血管内皮細胞内で一酸化窒素代謝経路を調節し、血管新生を促進する

Ikeda, Atsushi 26 July 2021 (has links)
京都大学 / 新制・課程博士 / 博士(医学) / 甲第23411号 / 医博第4756号 / 新制||医||1052(附属図書館) / 京都大学大学院医学研究科医学専攻 / (主査)教授 妹尾 浩, 教授 藤田 恭之, 教授 山下 潤 / 学位規則第4条第1項該当 / Doctor of Medical Science / Kyoto University / DFAM

Particle Balances in Therapeutic Extracellular Vesicle Development and in depth Characterization of Fluorescence Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis

Deighan, Clayton J. January 2015 (has links)
No description available.

Effects of RALA/B Knockdown on Extracellular Vesicle Biogenesis and Isolation of CD63+ Vesicles with Microfluidic Device of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

Gladkiy, Yevgeniy Vyacheslavovich January 2021 (has links)
No description available.

Extracellular vesicles from UVB irradiated keratinocytes contain cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers

Ginugu, Meghana Reddy 07 June 2021 (has links)
No description available.


Christopher Kargl (13113030) 18 July 2022 (has links)
<p>Skeletal muscle is dependent upon its microvasculature to deliver oxygen and substrates to support the metabolic demands of muscle contraction. Skeletal muscle capillary density is determined by a variety of factors including muscle fiber metabolic phenotype and mitochondrial volume as well as prior exercise training status. Additionally, muscle microvascular density and function can diminish with age, contributing to several age-related muscle dysfunctions. Skeletal muscle fibers regulate their surrounding microvasculature through the release of angiogenic and angiostatic signaling factors. A robust increase in angiogenic signaling from skeletal muscle facilitates increases in muscle capillarization following endurance exercise. Extracellular vesicles (EV) are membrane bound signaling factors secreted by every cell type. Skeletal muscle-derived EVs (SkM-EVs) may help facilitate numerous signaling functions of skeletal muscle including between skeletal muscle and its microvasculature.</p> <p>The primary aim of my dissertation research was to determine the signaling roles that SkM-EVs in regulating endothelial cell homeostasis and angiogenesis in states of aging and health. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the relevant literature. Chapter 2 represents an investigation into how age-related cellular senescence impacts the angiogenic potential of skeletal muscle progenitor cells. We found that stress-induced senescence increases release of small EVs and has pro-senescent and angiostatic effects on culture endothelial cells. In Chapter 3 we compared the release, contents, and angiogenic potential of SkM-EVs collected from primarily oxidative or primarily glycolytic skeletal muscle tissue in mice. We found that oxidative muscle tissue secretes more EVs than glycolytic muscle tissue, and the miR contents of EVs differ greatly between the two phenotypes. Additionally, EVs from oxidative tissue enhanced endothelial cell migration and tube formation compared to glycolytic tissue EVs, in a potentially nitric oxide mediated fashion. In Chapter 4, we tested how PGC-1α overexpression effected myotube EV release and angiogenic potential. We found that PGC-1α overexpression did not impact myotube EV release, but increased the angiogenic signaling potential of SkM-EVs. Chapter 5 is a brief summary of the results and limitations of the projects presented in Chapters 2-4, with a short discussion of potential future research directions.</p>

Extracellular vesicles as mediators of intercellular communication in human breast cancer progression

Menck, Kerstin 31 March 2014 (has links)
No description available.

Les vésicules extracellulaires comme vecteurs de macromolécules bioactives : modèle du transporteur ABCC7 (CFTR) et application à la biothérapie de la mucoviscidose / Extracellular vesicles as bioactive macromolecules vectors : model of the ABCC7 transporter (CFTR) and application to the biotherapy of cystic fibrosis

Vituret, Cyrielle 18 December 2015 (has links)
La mucoviscidose est une maladie génétique due à des mutations du gène CFTR (Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator), conduisant à un défaut d'adressage de la protéine CFTR à la membrane apicale des cellules épithéliales, ou à un déficit de sa fonction de canal à ions chlorure. Ce travail a consisté à étudier les vésicules extracellulaires (EV), microvésicules (MV) et exosomes (Exo), comme vecteurs de la protéine CFTR et de son ARN messager. La preuve de concept du transfert de matériel biologique d'intérêt par l'intermédiaire d'EV, d'abord apportée sur un modèle de cellules animales (CHO), a été validée en cellules humaines. Les EV ont été isolées à partir de surnageant de Calu-3, cellules exprimant la protéine CFTR de manière endogène, et de A549 transduites par le vecteur adenoviral Ad5-GFP-CFTR, surexprimant la protéine de fusion GFP-CFTR. Les cellules cibles choisies, A549 et CF15, étaient déficientes en CFTR. Le transfert s'est révélé plus efficace en système homologue (A549/A549) qu'en système hétérologue (A549/CF15). Par ailleurs, l'utilisation d'inhibiteurs métaboliques suggère que les EV ne suivent pas une voie d'internalisation cellulaire unique, mais que plusieurs mécanismes sont mis en jeu, dont l'endocytose clathrine dépendante et la macropinocytose. Les deux types d'EV sont capables de rétablir la fonction canal associée au CFTR dans les cellules CF15 de façon dose-dépendante, mais avec un effet de seuil minimum. L'activité CFTR reste stable pendant 3 jours, et à un niveau encore détectable après 5 jours. Notre travail démontre l'intérêt potentiel des MV et Exo comme vecteurs de biothérapie de pathologies génétiques / Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disease in which its prognosis depends on the lung damage. It is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR), resulting in a dysfunctional CFTR protein normally located at the plasma membrane of epithelial cells. This thesis is a study of a novel therapeutic approach to use extracellular vesicles (EVs), microvesicles and exosomes, as transfer vectors for CFTR mRNA and protein to target cells. The proof of concept for the transfer of CFTR mRNA and protein was first done in the CHO hamster model. To validate this concept on human cells, we used human bronchial Calu-3 cells, which express the endogenous CFTR protein, and A549 lung epithelial cells transduced by the adenoviral vector Ad5-GFP-CFTR to overexpress the fusion exogenous protein GFP-CFTR. We show that EVs produced by these cells could transfer a new functionality to CF15 target cells carrying the CFTRdeltaF508 mutation and the transfer seems to be more efficient in a homologous cell system versus a heterologous system. Interestingly, the exosomes seem to be more efficient in CFTR transfer than the microvesicles. A study of the mechanism of EVs cellular uptake show that it is temperature dependent and that endocytosis and macropinocytosis are implicated. Collectively, this study demonstrates the potential application of EVs for CFTR transfer and functional correction of the genetic defect in human CF cells

Modulation des réponses inflammatoires par les microparticules / Modulation of inflammatory responses by microparticles

Gaceb, Abderahim 05 December 2014 (has links)
Les microvésicules (MVs) sont des petites vésicules membranaires libérées par les cellules, ayant des effets bénéfiques et/ou délétères dans le sepsis. Nous avons déjà démontré que la délétion de l’isoforme non musculaire de la kinase de la chaîne légère de la myosine (MLCKnm) protège les souris contre le choc endotoxique en réduisant l'inflammation. Ici, nous avons évalué les conséquences de la délétion de MLCKnm sur le phénotype et les effets inflammatoires des MVs au cours du choc endotoxique. La délétion de MLCKnm augmente le taux circulant des MVs et ceux dérivées des cellules progénitrices. Les souris MLCKnm-/- présentent une augmentation du nombre des plaquettes, mais leurs capacité à libérer les MVs est réduite et une diminution du nombre des leucocytes et des MVs leucocytaires. Une diminution du relâchement de l’aorte a été observé chez les souris injectées avec des MVs dérivées des souris MLCKnm+/+ (MVsMLCKnm+/+), mais pas les MVs dérivées des souris MLCKnm-/- (MVsMLCKnm-/-). En présence de lipopolysaccharide (LPS), MVsMLCKnm+/+ augmentent la sécrétion des cytokines pro-inflammatoires par les cellules endothéliales de l’aorte de souris alors que les MVsMLCKnm-/- induisent la libération des cytokines anti-inflammatoires. L’injection des MVsMLCKnm-/-, prévient partiellement l'augmentation du stress oxydatif, nitrosatif, et la dysfonction endothéliale induites au niveau des souris par le LPS. Ces résultats montrent que MLCKnm joue un rôle important dans l'activation cellulaire, la libération des MVs, ainsi que le nombre des cellules circulantes. La délétion de MLCKnm permet de générer des MVs circulantes moins inflammatoires avec un potentiel protecteur. / Microvesicles (MVs), small membrane vesicles released from cells, have beneficial and/or deleterious effects in sepsis. We previously reported that non-muscle myosin light chain kinase (nmMLCK) deletion protects mice against endotoxic shock by reducing inflammation. Here, we evaluated the consequences of nmMLCK deletion on the phenotype and inflammatory effects of cell-derived MVs during endotoxic shock. nmMLCK deletion increased circulating levels of MVs. In nmMLCK-/- mice, platelet count was increased but the platelet ability to release MVs was reduced, and both leukocyte-derived MVs and leukocyte count were reduced. Endothelium-dependent relaxation of aorta was reduced in mice injected with MVs from nmMLCK+/+ (MVsnmMLCK+/+) but not from nmMLCK-/- mice (MVsnmMLCK-/-). In presence of lipopolysaccharide, MVsnmMLCK+/+ increased pro-inflammatory cytokine release by mouse aortic endothelial cells whereas MVsnmMLCK-/- enhanced anti-inflammatory secretome. Injection of MVsnmMLCK-/-, but not MVsnmMLCK+/+, prevented the increase of oxidative and nitrative stresses and reduced endothelial dysfunction in aorta from lipopolysaccharide-treated mice. Altogether, nmMLCK plays an important role in cellular activation and release of circulating MVs. Moreover, nmMLCK deletion generates MVs with low inflammatory properties and high protective effects.

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