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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

Fish meal and dried brewers' yeast as sources of unidentified growth factors in turkey poult nutrition

Hunsaker, Walter George January 1952 (has links)
A series of four feeding tests, involving a total of 610 poults, was conducted to study fish meal and dried brewers' yeast as sources of unidentified factors required by turkey poults for maximum growth. A corn-soybean oil meal ration, supplemented with all known vitamins, was used as a basal ration. Wheat was substituted for corn in two tests. The poults were reared in batteries on wire screen floors for the duration of each test. The addition of 5 per cent fish meal to the all-vegetable ration resulted in an increase in the rate of growth of poults. Since the basal ration contained all the known vitamins, it was apparent that fish meal contained an unidentified factor(s) required by poults for maximum growth. The degree of response to fish meal varied in the different tests. It is suggested that the variation may have been due to a carry-over of the unidentified factor(s) from the parent stock, which varied with the different lots of poults used in the tests. The addition of 5 per cent dried brewers' yeast to the all-vegetable basal ration failed to produce a growth response in poults. This would indicate that the unidentified factor(s), postulated to be present iii dried brewers' yeast, was not required by the poults under the conditions of this experiment, nor was it supplied otherwise by some other ingredient in the ration. The unidentified factor(s) demonstrated to be present in fish meal did not appear to be present in dried brewers' yeast. Supplementation of various rations with an antibiotic preparation containing aureomycin resulted in an increase in the average weights of the male poults, but failed to produce an increase in the average weights of the female poults. The degree of response to aureomycin obtained in the male poults appeared to depend, in part, on the composition of the ration fed. The efficiency of feed utilization was improved slightly when aureomycin was included in the ration. There was no significant difference between the weights of the poults receiving wheat and those fed corn as the cereal part of the diet, although the efficiency of feed utilization was slightly better with the corn rations. The requirement of the poult for an unidentified growth factor present in fish meal has been demonstrated with rations containing either wheat or corn. / Land and Food Systems, Faculty of / Graduate

Evaluation of enteral feeding support in mechanically ventilated, critically-ill patients

李潔怡, Lee, Kit-yue, Samson. January 2008 (has links)
published_or_final_version / Community Medicine / Master / Master of Public Health

Infant feeding choices and practices of HIV-positive mothers at Lower Umfolozi District War Memorial Hospital, Empangeni, KwaZulu-Natal Province

Abusomwan, Osaigbovo Ebenezer 11 January 2012 (has links)
Introduction: KwaZulu-Natal is one of the provinces most affected by HIV/AIDS in South Africa. The estimated HIV prevalence among pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic at LUDWMH in Empangeni is high (40%). Infant feeding practices by these mothers are critical to reducing MTCT of HIV. The objectives of the study are: to describe the ante-natal infant feeding choices of a group of HIV-positive women attending the PMTCT clinic at LUDWMH; to determine the infant feeding practices of these women during the six weeks post-natal period; to determine the correlation between these mothers‟ infant feeding choices and their actual infant feeding practices six weeks after childbirth; to describe these women‟s socio-environmental conditions; and to determine the compliance of their infant feeding practices to safe infant feeding guidelines. Materials and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used. The mothers were from the predominantly poor-rural communities in Area 3 of northern KwaZulu-Natal. Data were obtained by the use of structured questionnaires which were directly administered to 395 mothers attending the PMTCT clinic six weeks after childbirth. Their ante-natal clinic records were also reviewed. Data entry was done with Microsoft Access. The data were analysed using Epi Info and Microsoft Excel. Results: The commonest ante-natal infant feeding choice was exclusive breastfeeding (78.2%) which was more than the combined number of women who chose replacement feeding (19.2%) and mixed feeding (2.5%). Majority of the mothers practiced their infant feeding choices in the six weeks post-natal period (p-value = 0.000). Expectedly, access to regular maternal income was low (36.7%; 95% CI 32.0 – 41.7). However, access to the other three individual socio-environmental resources was high [safe water (66.8%; CI 61.9 – 71.4); fuel (83%; CI 79.0 – 86.6); fridge/freezer (82.5%; CI 78.4 – 86.1)]. Approximately 61% of women had access to all three of these resources (cumulatively). Discussion and conclusions The study demonstrated that exclusive breastfeeding is the predominant infant feeding choice and practice amongst women attending LUDWMH, Empangeni in KwaZulu-Natal province. The high uptake of exclusive breastfeeding (77.7%) in the six weeks post-natal period is encouraging given the heavy burden of diarrhoeal diseases and protein-energy malnutrition with associated high mortality rates in this setting. Another encouraging finding that may help to improve prevention of MTCT of HIV was that mixed feeding was uncommon in these women. The finding that almost two-thirds of mothers who practiced replacement feeding complied with WHO/National guidelines for safe replacement feeding in this largely poor-rural setting is commendable.

Knowledge, attitudes, and practice of exclusive breast feeding amongst mothers attending postnatal clinic in Tswaing sub-district, North West Province

Ahmadu-Ali, Umaru 23 February 2012 (has links)
M.Fam.Med., Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, 2011

The influence of family members on adherence to exclusive breastfeeding; experiences of women in prevention of mother to child transmision of HIV programme in extension 8 clinic (Mhluzi)

Mphego, Zodwa Joyce January 2013 (has links)
Thesis (MPH) -- University of Limpopo (Medunsa Campus),2013. / Introduction HIV positive post natal women on a PMTCT program who have opted for exclusive breastfeeding are experiencing pressures from families to give solids, water based fluids, traditional medicines, and complimentary medicines as early as the first 48 hours of life of a newborn baby. The early feeding practice is in contradiction with the PMTCT recommended six months of exclusive breastfeeding or formula feeding Aim The aim of the study was to explore the influence of the family on adherence to exclusive breastfeeding among post natal women on PMTCT programme Objectives of the study were: To explore the influence of the family on adherence to exclusive breastfeeding among women on PMTCT Programme in Extension 8 clinic. To explore the ways in which women on PMTCT programme in Extension 8 clinic deal with the family influences on exclusive breastfeeding. Methodology Focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDls) were conducted with post natal women enrolled in the PMTCT program of a community health centre at the Steve Tshwete Local Municipality in Mpumalanga. A focus group guide developed by researcher in English and translated to IsiZulu was used to conduct the FGDS and IDls with 40 HIV positive women who opted for exclusive breastfeeding. A total of five FGDs and seven IDls $J were conducted. . Data analysis The data was analyzed using contents analysis which allowed the categories to emerge from the data. Data analysis began with the verbatim transcription of the transcript in IsiZulu which were later translated into English. This was followed by the identification and definition of emerging themes and the development of a code list. The initial application on themes on the transcripts was done manually to identify themes and subthemes, and new themes that emerged during this process were defined and added to the code list,transcriptswererecoded if a new theme emerged or if a theme was redefined. The fmal code list was adapted from seven codes to thirteen codes. The transcripts were then imported to NVivo 9 and the researcher started applying the codes to the remaining transcripts. Findings The study found that though it was a norm that babies must be given solids, water, traditional, and complementary medicines, most participants adhered to exclusive feeding. Good infant feeding coun~elling, and good knowledge and understanding of MTCT also served as a strong motivation for participants to adhere to their feeding options. The study also found that the family interfered in infant feeding throughout the exclusive breastfeeding life of the babies. Even when families supported exclusive breastfeeding, they still wanted the mother to give solids and water. The data suggest that the concept of exclusive breastfeeding is not well understood by the family and is contextualised as meaning breastfeeding. The data further show that participants had some fears and uncertainties about exclusive breast feeding, and lived in constant fear that they might infect their babies with HIV and that they were starving the babies. In addition, participants had fears of the consequences of delaying and or ignoring cultural practices. Conclusion: The study concludes that the family interfered in infant feeding throughout the exclusive breastfeeding life of the babies. They struggled to understand exclusive breastfeeding concept and expected the mother to give the baby solids and water because it was a norm. Recommendations ~ Given that the family lacks understanding of exclusive breastfeeding, it is recommended that the family be involved in the education and counselling for exclusive infant feeding practices to promote knowledge and understanding ofMTCT ofHIV. Involving the family in PMTCT will also highlight the risks of some of the cultural practices in transmission of HIV to the baby.

Determinants of the initiation and duration of breast-feeding.

Scott, Jane A. January 1997 (has links)
The primary objectives of this study were to determine the initiation and prevalence, up to six months post-partum, of breast-feeding amongst Perth women and to identify factors that influence the initiation and duration of breast-feeding. A self-administered baseline questionnaire was completed by 556 mothers prior to discharge. Those mothers who were breast-feeding at the time of completing the baseline questionnaire were followed-up by telephone interview at 2, 6, 10, 14, 18 and 24 weeks postpartum, or until they ceased to breast-feed.In total, 88.1% of mothers commenced breast-feeding whilst in hospital. On discharge from hospital 83.8% of women were breast-feeding either fully (77.7%) or partially (6.1%) but by six months this figure had decreased to 49.9% of mothers breast-feeding.Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine which factors were associated with the initiation of breast-feeding. There was a strong association between the father's reported preference for breast-feeding and the initiation of breast-feeding (OR=10.18). The Cox's proportional hazards model was used to estimate the effect of independent variables on the duration of breast-feeding. The factor most strongly associated with breast-feeding duration was intended duration. Women who intended to breast-feed for less than four months were more likely to stop breast-feeding at any time compared with women who intended to breast-feed for at least four months (RR=5.01).The results of this study suggest that breast-feeding initiation and duration rates in Perth have remained relatively stable over the last decade. However, breast-feeding duration continues to fall well short of the target of 80% of infants being either partially or fully breast-fed at six months. Recommendations are made for interventions which actively promote increased breast-feeding duration. In particular, ++ / emphasis should be placed on those strategies which will influence intended duration; influence the attitudes and beliefs of the mother's support network, particularly partners; and promote breast-feeding as the social norm.

Comparison of two nutrient admixtures for total parenteral nutrition

Aguzzi, Anna January 1993 (has links)
The goal of Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN) is to provide protein and non-protein energy in order to promote nitrogen retention and meet energy requirements. Controversy exists on whether glucose or lipid is the optimal source of non-protein energy. A randomized clinical trial was conducted for one week to compare the effects of TPN providing 34% of non-protein energy as lipid (Group 1; n = 7) to those of hypertonic glucose TPN (Group 2; n = 6). Indices of nitrogen retention, metabolic abnormalities, physiologic stress, and fat clearance were measured. The energy and protein intakes of Group 1 exceeded those of Group 2 from days 0 to 7 (p $<$ 0.05). Nitrogen balance improved significantly in both groups (p $<$ 0.005). Group 1 achieved zero nitrogen balance within two days; Group 2 never achieved net positive nitrogen balance. Significant elevations in insulin levels (p $<$ 0.025) were associated with both TPN admixtures. However, between the two groups the changes in nitrogen balance, albumin, glucose, fructosamine, insulin, liver enzymes, bilirubin, cortisol, and free fatty acid levels were not statistically different. It would appear that the lipid-carbohydrate TPN is more beneficial for patients who require TPN for a short period of time, but due to the small sample size and short study period further research is recommended.

Modelling the physiology, behaviour and ecology of dive foraging seabirds : determining the availability of prey and predicting the pelagic distribution of the common guillemot Uria aalge in Moray Firth

Liu, Kenwin January 2002 (has links)
A mathematical but mechanistic model is presented that is based upon the simplified physiology and feeding ecology of an individual dive foraging animal. In previous theoretical studies of dive foraging behaviour, models assumed dive foraging animals dive optimally based on oxygen as the sole state variable, thus ignoring other likely important physiological factors that are related to the instantaneous energetic requirements of the diving animal. The physiological mechanistic dive foraging model presented includes the additional state variables, namely food (in the gut) and the body mass of the diving animal, for which the oxygen is ultimately required to burn for energy. The physiological model was parameterised for the Common Guillemot <i>Uria aalge,</i> although it may also be applied to other dive foraging animals. Various output parameters are possible from the model, and these were generated from computer simulations to investigate the merits of optimal diving behaviour. The physiological dive foraging model was also used to estimate possible feeding rates of Guillemots from fisheries data made available, which were recorded during winter 1997, in the Moray Firth. These were then used in further computer simulations of the dive foraging model and the various possible output parameters obtained from the model were subsequently used as habitat suitability indices in a novel application of the Ideal Free Distribution, to generate predicted maps of Guillemot distribution, which were tested against the actual concurrently recorded distribution of Guillemots in the Moray Firth. The potential value of the physiological dive foraging model, its limitations and where it, or how its predictions, may further improve, are also discussed. It is hoped that the model will eventually provide an invaluable tool for industrial fisheries, and even wider marine ecosystem management.

Human newborn behavior during exposure to maternal and other odors /

Varendi, Heili, January 2001 (has links)
Diss. (sammanfattning) Stockholm : Karol. inst., 2001. / Härtill 6 uppsatser.

Use of a slide-tape presentation to teach school-age maternity mothers feeding skills a systematic comparison of the results of training sessions with or without an instructor /

Albert, Susan, Conte, Sylvia. January 1976 (has links)
Thesis--Wisconsin. / Includes bibliographical references (leaves 90-91).

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