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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Waveform Advancements and Synchronization Techniques for Generalized Frequency Division Multiplexing

Simões Gaspar, Ivan 20 April 2016 (has links) (PDF)
To enable a new level of connectivity among machines as well as between people and machines, future wireless applications will demand higher requirements on data rates, response time, and reliability from the communication system. This will lead to a different system design, comprising a wide range of deployment scenarios. One important aspect is the evolution of physical layer (PHY), specifically the waveform modulation. The novel generalized frequency division multiplexing (GFDM) technique is a prominent proposal for a flexible block filtered multicarrier modulation. This thesis introduces an advanced GFDM concept that enables the emulation of other prominent waveform candidates in scenarios where they perform best. Hence, a unique modulation framework is presented that is capable of addressing a wide range of scenarios and to upgrade the PHY for 5G networks. In particular, for a subset of system parameters of the modulation framework, the problem of symbol time offset (STO) and carrier frequency offset (CFO) estimation is investigated and synchronization approaches, which can operate in burst and continuous transmissions, are designed. The first part of this work presents the modulation principles of prominent 5G candidate waveforms and then focuses on the GFDM basic and advanced attributes. The GFDM concept is extended towards the use of OQAM, introducing the novel frequency-shift OQAM-GFDM, and a new low complexity model based on signal processing carried out in the time domain. A new prototype filter proposal highlights the benefits obtained in terms of a reduced out-of-band (OOB) radiation and more attractive hardware implementation cost. With proper parameterization of the advanced GFDM, the achieved gains are applicable to other filtered OFDM waveforms. In the second part, a search approach for estimating STO and CFO in GFDM is evaluated. A self-interference metric is proposed to quantify the effective SNR penalty caused by the residual time and frequency misalignment or intrinsic inter-symbol interference (ISI) and inter-carrier interference (ICI) for arbitrary pulse shape design in GFDM. In particular, the ICI can be used as a non-data aided approach for frequency estimation. Then, GFDM training sequences, defined either as an isolated preamble or embedded as a midamble or pseudo-circular pre/post-amble, are designed. Simulations show better OOB emission and good estimation results, either comparable or superior, to state-of-the-art OFDM system in wireless channels.
2

Waveform Advancements and Synchronization Techniques for Generalized Frequency Division Multiplexing

Simões Gaspar, Ivan 19 April 2016 (has links)
To enable a new level of connectivity among machines as well as between people and machines, future wireless applications will demand higher requirements on data rates, response time, and reliability from the communication system. This will lead to a different system design, comprising a wide range of deployment scenarios. One important aspect is the evolution of physical layer (PHY), specifically the waveform modulation. The novel generalized frequency division multiplexing (GFDM) technique is a prominent proposal for a flexible block filtered multicarrier modulation. This thesis introduces an advanced GFDM concept that enables the emulation of other prominent waveform candidates in scenarios where they perform best. Hence, a unique modulation framework is presented that is capable of addressing a wide range of scenarios and to upgrade the PHY for 5G networks. In particular, for a subset of system parameters of the modulation framework, the problem of symbol time offset (STO) and carrier frequency offset (CFO) estimation is investigated and synchronization approaches, which can operate in burst and continuous transmissions, are designed. The first part of this work presents the modulation principles of prominent 5G candidate waveforms and then focuses on the GFDM basic and advanced attributes. The GFDM concept is extended towards the use of OQAM, introducing the novel frequency-shift OQAM-GFDM, and a new low complexity model based on signal processing carried out in the time domain. A new prototype filter proposal highlights the benefits obtained in terms of a reduced out-of-band (OOB) radiation and more attractive hardware implementation cost. With proper parameterization of the advanced GFDM, the achieved gains are applicable to other filtered OFDM waveforms. In the second part, a search approach for estimating STO and CFO in GFDM is evaluated. A self-interference metric is proposed to quantify the effective SNR penalty caused by the residual time and frequency misalignment or intrinsic inter-symbol interference (ISI) and inter-carrier interference (ICI) for arbitrary pulse shape design in GFDM. In particular, the ICI can be used as a non-data aided approach for frequency estimation. Then, GFDM training sequences, defined either as an isolated preamble or embedded as a midamble or pseudo-circular pre/post-amble, are designed. Simulations show better OOB emission and good estimation results, either comparable or superior, to state-of-the-art OFDM system in wireless channels.
3

Pulse Shape Adaptation and Channel Estimation in Generalised Frequency Division Multiplexing Systems

Du, Jinfeng January 2008 (has links)
<p>Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is well known as an efficient technology for wireless communications and is widely used in many of the current and upcoming wireless and wireline communication standards. However, it has some intrinsic drawbacks, e.g., sensitivity to the inter-carrier interference (ICI) and high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR). Additionally, the cyclic prefix (CP) is not spectrum efficient and fails when the channel delay spread exceeds the length of CP, which will result in inter-symbol interference (ISI). In order to combat or alleviate these drawbacks various techniques have been proposed, which can be categorised into two main classes: techniques that keep the structure of OFDM and meanwhile increase the system robustness or re-organise the symbol streams on each sub-carrier, and techniques that increase the ISI/ICI immunity by adopting well designed pulse shapes and/or resorting to general system lattices. The latter class are coined as Generalised FDM (GFDM) throughout this thesis to distinguish with the former class.</p><p>To enable seamless handover and efficient usage of spectrum and energy, GFDM is expected to dynamically adopt pulse shapes that are optimal in doubly (time and frequency) dispersive fading channels. This is however not an easy task as the method of optimal pulse shape adaptation is still unclear, let alone efficient implementationmethods. Besides, performance of GFDM highly depends on the channel estimation quality, which is not straightforward in GFDM systems.</p><p>This thesis addresses, among many other aspects of GFDM systems, measures of the time frequency localisation (TFL) property, pulse shape adaptation strategy, performance evaluation and channel estimation.  We first provide a comparative study of state-of-the-art GFDM technologies and a brief overview of the TFL functions and parameters which will be used frequently in later analysis and discussion. A framework for GFDM pulse shape optimisation is formulated targeting at minimising the combined ISI/ICI over doubly dispersive channels. We also propose a practical adaptation strategy utilising the extended Gaussian functions (EGF) and discuss the trade-off between performance and complexity.  One realisation under the umbrella of GFDM, namely OFDM/OQAM, is intensively studied and an efficient implementation method by direct discretisation of the continuous time model has been proposed.  Besides, a theoretical framework for a novel preamble-based channel estimation method has been presented and a new preamble sequence with higher gain is identified. Under the framework, an optimal pulse shape dependent preamble structure together with a suboptimal but pulse shape independent preamble structure have been proposed and evaluated in the context of OFDM/OQAM.</p>
4

Unified Framework for Multicarrier and Multiple Access based on Generalized Frequency Division Multiplexing

Nimr, Ahmad 08 July 2021 (has links)
The advancements in wireless communications are the key-enablers of new applications with stringent requirements in low-latency, ultra-reliability, high data rate, high mobility, and massive connectivity. Diverse types of devices, ranging from tiny sensors to vehicles, with different capabilities need to be connected under various channel conditions. Thus, modern connectivity and network techniques at all layers are essential to overcome these challenges. In particular, the physical layer (PHY) transmission is required to achieve certain link reliability, data rate, and latency. In modern digital communications systems, the transmission is performed by means of a digital signal processing module that derives analog hardware. The performance of the analog part is influenced by the quality of the hardware and the baseband signal denoted as waveform. In most of the modern systems such as fifth generation (5G) and WiFi, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is adopted as a favorite waveform due to its low-complexity advantages in terms of signal processing. However, OFDM requires strict requirements on hardware quality. Many devices are equipped with simplified analog hardware to reduce the cost. In this case, OFDM does not work properly as a result of its high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) and sensitivity to synchronization errors. To tackle these problems, many waveforms design have been recently proposed in the literature. Some of these designs are modified versions of OFDM or based on conventional single subcarrier. Moreover, multicarrier frameworks, such as generalized frequency division multiplexing (GFDM), have been proposed to realize varieties of conventional waveforms. Furthermore, recent studies show the potential of using non-conventional waveforms for increasing the link reliability with affordable complexity. Based on that, flexible waveforms and transmission techniques are necessary to adapt the system for different hardware and channel constraints in order to fulfill the applications requirements while optimizing the resources. The objective of this thesis is to provide a holistic view of waveforms and the related multiple access (MA) techniques to enable efficient study and evaluation of different approaches. First, the wireless communications system is reviewed with specific focus on the impact of hardware impairments and the wireless channel on the waveform design. Then, generalized model of waveforms and MA are presented highlighting various special cases. Finally, this work introduces low-complexity architectures for hardware implementation of flexible waveforms. Integrating such designs with software-defined radio (SDR) contributes to the development of practical real-time flexible PHY.:1 Introduction 1.1 Baseband transmission model 1.2 History of multicarrier systems 1.3 The state-of-the-art waveforms 1.4 Prior works related to GFDM 1.5 Objective and contributions 2 Fundamentals of Wireless Communications 2.1 Wireless communications system 2.2 RF transceiver 2.2.1 Digital-analogue conversion 2.2.2 QAM modulation 2.2.3 Effective channel 2.2.4 Hardware impairments 2.3 Waveform aspects 2.3.1 Single-carrier waveform 2.3.2 Multicarrier waveform 2.3.3 MIMO-Waveforms 2.3.4 Waveform performance metrics 2.4 Wireless Channel 2.4.1 Line-of-sight propagation 2.4.2 Multi path and fading process 2.4.3 General baseband statistical channel model 2.4.4 MIMO channel 2.5 Summary 3 Generic Block-based Waveforms 3.1 Block-based waveform formulation 3.1.1 Variable-rate multicarrier 3.1.2 General block-based multicarrier model 3.2 Waveform processing techniques 3.2.1 Linear and circular filtering 3.2.2 Windowing 3.3 Structured representation 3.3.1 Modulator 3.3.2 Demodulator 3.3.3 MIMO Waveform processing 3.4 Detection 3.4.1 Maximum-likelihood detection 3.4.2 Linear detection 3.4.3 Iterative Detection 3.4.4 Numerical example and insights 3.5 Summary 4 Generic Multiple Access Schemes 57 4.1 Basic multiple access and multiplexing schemes 4.1.1 Infrastructure network system model 4.1.2 Duplex schemes 4.1.3 Common multiplexing and multiple access schemes 4.2 General multicarrier-based multiple access 4.2.1 Design with fixed set of pulses 4.2.2 Computational model 4.2.3 Asynchronous multiple access 4.3 Summary 5 Time-Frequency Analyses of Multicarrier 5.1 General time-frequency representation 5.1.1 Block representation 5.1.2 Relation to Zak transform 5.2 Time-frequency spreading 5.3 Time-frequency block in LTV channel 5.3.1 Subcarrier and subsymbol numerology 5.3.2 Processing based on the time-domain signal 5.3.3 Processing based on the frequency-domain signal 5.3.4 Unified signal model 5.4 summary 6 Generalized waveforms based on time-frequency shifts 6.1 General time-frequency shift 6.1.1 Time-frequency shift design 6.1.2 Relation between the shifted pulses 6.2 Time-frequency shift in Gabor frame 6.2.1 Conventional GFDM 6.3 GFDM modulation 6.3.1 Filter bank representation 6.3.2 Block representation 6.3.3 GFDM matrix structure 6.3.4 GFDM demodulator 6.3.5 Alternative interpretation of GFDM 6.3.6 Orthogonal modulation and GFDM spreading 6.4 Summary 7 Modulation Framework: Architectures and Applications 7.1 Modem architectures 7.1.1 General modulation matrix structure 7.1.2 Run-time flexibility 7.1.3 Generic GFDM-based architecture 7.1.4 Flexible parallel multiplications architecture 7.1.5 MIMO waveform architecture 7.2 Extended GFDM framework 7.2.1 Architectures complexity and flexibility analysis 7.2.2 Number of multiplications 7.2.3 Hardware analysis 7.3 Applications of the extended GFDM framework 7.3.1 Generalized FDMA 7.3.2 Enchantment of OFDM system 7.4 Summary 7 Conclusions and Future works
5

Real-Time Waveform Prototyping

Danneberg, Martin 01 March 2022 (has links)
Mobile Netzwerke der fünften Generation zeichen sich aus durch vielfältigen Anforderungen und Einsatzszenarien. Drei unterschiedliche Anwendungsfälle sind hierbei besonders relevant: 1) Industrie-Applikationen fordern Echtzeitfunkübertragungen mit besonders niedrigen Ausfallraten. 2) Internet-of-things-Anwendungen erfordern die Anbindung einer Vielzahl von verteilten Sensoren. 3) Die Datenraten für Anwendung wie z.B. der Übermittlung von Videoinhalten sind massiv gestiegen. Diese zum Teil gegensätzlichen Erwartungen veranlassen Forscher und Ingenieure dazu, neue Konzepte und Technologien für zukünftige drahtlose Kommunikationssysteme in Betracht zu ziehen. Ziel ist es, aus einer Vielzahl neuer Ideen vielversprechende Kandidatentechnologien zu identifizieren und zu entscheiden, welche für die Umsetzung in zukünftige Produkte geeignet sind. Die Herausforderungen, diese Anforderungen zu erreichen, liegen jedoch jenseits der Möglichkeiten, die eine einzelne Verarbeitungsschicht in einem drahtlosen Netzwerk bieten kann. Daher müssen mehrere Forschungsbereiche Forschungsideen gemeinsam nutzen. Diese Arbeit beschreibt daher eine Plattform als Basis für zukünftige experimentelle Erforschung von drahtlosen Netzwerken unter reellen Bedingungen. Es werden folgende drei Aspekte näher vorgestellt: Zunächst erfolgt ein Überblick über moderne Prototypen und Testbed-Lösungen, die auf großes Interesse, Nachfrage, aber auch Förderungsmöglichkeiten stoßen. Allerdings ist der Entwicklungsaufwand nicht unerheblich und richtet sich stark nach den gewählten Eigenschaften der Plattform. Der Auswahlprozess ist jedoch aufgrund der Menge der verfügbaren Optionen und ihrer jeweiligen (versteckten) Implikationen komplex. Daher wird ein Leitfaden anhand verschiedener Beispiele vorgestellt, mit dem Ziel Erwartungen im Vergleich zu den für den Prototyp erforderlichen Aufwänden zu bewerten. Zweitens wird ein flexibler, aber echtzeitfähiger Signalprozessor eingeführt, der auf einer software-programmierbaren Funkplattform läuft. Der Prozessor ermöglicht die Rekonfiguration wichtiger Parameter der physikalischen Schicht während der Laufzeit, um eine Vielzahl moderner Wellenformen zu erzeugen. Es werden vier Parametereinstellungen 'LLC', 'WiFi', 'eMBB' und 'IoT' vorgestellt, um die Anforderungen der verschiedenen drahtlosen Anwendungen widerzuspiegeln. Diese werden dann zur Evaluierung der die in dieser Arbeit vorgestellte Implementierung herangezogen. Drittens wird durch die Einführung einer generischen Testinfrastruktur die Einbeziehung externer Partner aus der Ferne ermöglicht. Das Testfeld kann hier für verschiedenste Experimente flexibel auf die Anforderungen drahtloser Technologien zugeschnitten werden. Mit Hilfe der Testinfrastruktur wird die Leistung des vorgestellten Transceivers hinsichtlich Latenz, erreichbarem Durchsatz und Paketfehlerraten bewertet. Die öffentliche Demonstration eines taktilen Internet-Prototypen, unter Verwendung von Roboterarmen in einer Mehrbenutzerumgebung, konnte erfolgreich durchgeführt und bei mehreren Gelegenheiten präsentiert werden.:List of figures List of tables Abbreviations Notations 1 Introduction 1.1 Wireless applications 1.2 Motivation 1.3 Software-Defined Radio 1.4 State of the art 1.5 Testbed 1.6 Summary 2 Background 2.1 System Model 2.2 PHY Layer Structure 2.3 Generalized Frequency Division Multiplexing 2.4 Wireless Standards 2.4.1 IEEE 802.15.4 2.4.2 802.11 WLAN 2.4.3 LTE 2.4.4 Low Latency Industrial Wireless Communications 2.4.5 Summary 3 Wireless Prototyping 3.1 Testbed Examples 3.1.1 PHY - focused Testbeds 3.1.2 MAC - focused Testbeds 3.1.3 Network - focused testbeds 3.1.4 Generic testbeds 3.2 Considerations 3.3 Use cases and Scenarios 3.4 Requirements 3.5 Methodology 3.6 Hardware Platform 3.6.1 Host 3.6.2 FPGA 3.6.3 Hybrid 3.6.4 ASIC 3.7 Software Platform 3.7.1 Testbed Management Frameworks 3.7.2 Development Frameworks 3.7.3 Software Implementations 3.8 Deployment 3.9 Discussion 3.10 Conclusion 4 Flexible Transceiver 4.1 Signal Processing Modules 4.1.1 MAC interface 4.1.2 Encoding and Mapping 4.1.3 Modem 4.1.4 Post modem processing 4.1.5 Synchronization 4.1.6 Channel Estimation and Equalization 4.1.7 Demapping 4.1.8 Flexible Configuration 4.2 Analysis 4.2.1 Numerical Precision 4.2.2 Spectral analysis 4.2.3 Latency 4.2.4 Resource Consumption 4.3 Discussion 4.3.1 Extension to MIMO 4.4 Summary 5 Testbed 5.1 Infrastructure 5.2 Automation 5.3 Software Defined Radio Platform 5.4 Radio Frequency Front-end 5.4.1 Sub 6 GHz front-end 5.4.2 26 GHz mmWave front-end 5.5 Performance evaluation 5.6 Summary 6 Experiments 6.1 Single Link 6.1.1 Infrastructure 6.1.2 Single Link Experiments 6.1.3 End-to-End 6.2 Multi-User 6.3 26 GHz mmWave experimentation 6.4 Summary 7 Key lessons 7.1 Limitations Experienced During Development 7.2 Prototyping Future 7.3 Open points 7.4 Workflow 7.5 Summary 8 Conclusions 8.1 Future Work 8.1.1 Prototyping Workflow 8.1.2 Flexible Transceiver Core 8.1.3 Experimental Data-sets 8.1.4 Evolved Access Point Prototype For Industrial Networks 8.1.5 Testbed Standardization A Additional Resources A.1 Fourier Transform Blocks A.2 Resource Consumption A.3 Channel Sounding using Chirp sequences A.3.1 SNR Estimation A.3.2 Channel Estimation A.4 Hardware part list / The demand to achieve higher data rates for the Enhanced Mobile Broadband scenario and novel fifth generation use cases like Ultra-Reliable Low-Latency and Massive Machine-type Communications drive researchers and engineers to consider new concepts and technologies for future wireless communication systems. The goal is to identify promising candidate technologies among a vast number of new ideas and to decide, which are suitable for implementation in future products. However, the challenges to achieve those demands are beyond the capabilities a single processing layer in a wireless network can offer. Therefore, several research domains have to collaboratively exploit research ideas. This thesis presents a platform to provide a base for future applied research on wireless networks. Firstly, by giving an overview of state-of-the-art prototypes and testbed solutions. Secondly by introducing a flexible, yet real-time physical layer signal processor running on a software defined radio platform. The processor enables reconfiguring important parameters of the physical layer during run-time in order to create a multitude of modern waveforms. Thirdly, by introducing a generic test infrastructure, which can be tailored to prototype diverse wireless technology and which is remotely accessible in order to invite new ideas by third parties. Using the test infrastructure, the performance of the flexible transceiver is evaluated regarding latency, achievable throughput and packet error rates.:List of figures List of tables Abbreviations Notations 1 Introduction 1.1 Wireless applications 1.2 Motivation 1.3 Software-Defined Radio 1.4 State of the art 1.5 Testbed 1.6 Summary 2 Background 2.1 System Model 2.2 PHY Layer Structure 2.3 Generalized Frequency Division Multiplexing 2.4 Wireless Standards 2.4.1 IEEE 802.15.4 2.4.2 802.11 WLAN 2.4.3 LTE 2.4.4 Low Latency Industrial Wireless Communications 2.4.5 Summary 3 Wireless Prototyping 3.1 Testbed Examples 3.1.1 PHY - focused Testbeds 3.1.2 MAC - focused Testbeds 3.1.3 Network - focused testbeds 3.1.4 Generic testbeds 3.2 Considerations 3.3 Use cases and Scenarios 3.4 Requirements 3.5 Methodology 3.6 Hardware Platform 3.6.1 Host 3.6.2 FPGA 3.6.3 Hybrid 3.6.4 ASIC 3.7 Software Platform 3.7.1 Testbed Management Frameworks 3.7.2 Development Frameworks 3.7.3 Software Implementations 3.8 Deployment 3.9 Discussion 3.10 Conclusion 4 Flexible Transceiver 4.1 Signal Processing Modules 4.1.1 MAC interface 4.1.2 Encoding and Mapping 4.1.3 Modem 4.1.4 Post modem processing 4.1.5 Synchronization 4.1.6 Channel Estimation and Equalization 4.1.7 Demapping 4.1.8 Flexible Configuration 4.2 Analysis 4.2.1 Numerical Precision 4.2.2 Spectral analysis 4.2.3 Latency 4.2.4 Resource Consumption 4.3 Discussion 4.3.1 Extension to MIMO 4.4 Summary 5 Testbed 5.1 Infrastructure 5.2 Automation 5.3 Software Defined Radio Platform 5.4 Radio Frequency Front-end 5.4.1 Sub 6 GHz front-end 5.4.2 26 GHz mmWave front-end 5.5 Performance evaluation 5.6 Summary 6 Experiments 6.1 Single Link 6.1.1 Infrastructure 6.1.2 Single Link Experiments 6.1.3 End-to-End 6.2 Multi-User 6.3 26 GHz mmWave experimentation 6.4 Summary 7 Key lessons 7.1 Limitations Experienced During Development 7.2 Prototyping Future 7.3 Open points 7.4 Workflow 7.5 Summary 8 Conclusions 8.1 Future Work 8.1.1 Prototyping Workflow 8.1.2 Flexible Transceiver Core 8.1.3 Experimental Data-sets 8.1.4 Evolved Access Point Prototype For Industrial Networks 8.1.5 Testbed Standardization A Additional Resources A.1 Fourier Transform Blocks A.2 Resource Consumption A.3 Channel Sounding using Chirp sequences A.3.1 SNR Estimation A.3.2 Channel Estimation A.4 Hardware part list
6

Advanced Channel Estimation Techniques for Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Multi-Carrier Systems in Doubly-Dispersive Channels

Ehsan Far, Shahab 04 March 2020 (has links)
Flexible numerology of the physical layer has been introduced in the latest release of 5G new radio (NR) and the baseline waveform generation is chosen to be cyclic-prefix based orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CP-OFDM). Thanks to the narrow subcarrier spacing and low complexity one tap equalization (EQ) of OFDM, it suits well to time-dispersive channels. For the upcoming 5G and beyond use-case scenarios, it is foreseen that the users might experience high mobility conditions. While the frame structure of the 5G NR is designed for long coherence times, the synchronization and channel estimation (CE) procedures are not fully and reliably covered for diverse applications. The research on alternative multi-carrier waveforms has brought up valuable results in terms of spectral efficiency, applications coexistence and flexibility. Nevertheless, the receiver design becomes more challenging for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) non-orthogonal multi-carriers because the receiver must deal with multiple dimensions of interference. This thesis aims to deliver accurate pilot-aided estimations of the wireless channel for coherent detection. Considering a MIMO non-orthogonal multi-carrier, e.g. generalized frequency division multiplexing (GFDM), we initially derive the classical and Bayesian estimators for rich multi-path fading channels, where we theoretically assess the choice of pilot design. Moreover, the well time- and frequency-localization of the pilots in non-orthogonal multi-carriers allows to reuse their energy from cyclic-prefix (CP). Taking advantage of this feature, we derive an iterative approach for joint CE and EQ of MIMO systems. Furthermore, exploiting the block-circularity of GFDM, we comprehensively analyze the complexity aspects, and propose a solution for low complexity implementation. Assuming very high mobility use-cases where the channel varies within the symbol duration, further considerations, particularly the channel coherence time must be taken into account. A promising candidate that is fully independent of the multi-carrier choice is unique word (UW) transmission, where the CP of random nature is replaced by a deterministic sequence. This feature, allows per-block synchronization and channel estimation for robust transmission over extremely doubly-dispersive channels. In this thesis, we propose a novel approach to extend the UW-based physical layer design to MIMO systems and we provide an in-depth study of their out-of-band emission, synchronization, CE and EQ procedures. Via theoretical derivations and simulation results, and comparisons with respect to the state-of-the-art CP-OFDM systems, we show that the proposed UW-based frame design facilitates robust transmission over extremely doubly-dispersive channels.:1 Introduction 1 1.1 Multi-Carrier Waveforms 1 1.2 MIMO Systems 3 1.3 Contributions and Thesis Structure 4 1.4 Notations 6 2 State-of-the-art and Fundamentals 9 2.1 Linear Systems and Problem Statement 9 2.2 GFDM Modulation 11 2.3 MIMO Wireless Channel 12 2.4 Classical and Bayesian Channel Estimation in MIMO OFDM Systems 15 2.5 UW-Based Transmission in SISO Systems 17 2.6 Summary 19 3 Channel Estimation for MIMO Non-Orthogonal Waveforms 21 3.1 Classical and Bayesian Channel Estimation in MIMO GFDM Systems 22 3.1.1 MIMO LS Channel Estimation 23 3.1.2 MIMO LMMSE Channel Estimation 24 3.1.3 Simulation Results 25 3.2 Basic Pilot Designs for GFDM Channel Estimation 29 3.2.1 LS/HM Channel Estimation 31 3.2.2 LMMSE Channel Estimation for GFDM 32 3.2.3 Error Characterization 33 3.2.4 Simulation Results 36 3.3 Interference-Free Pilot Insertion for MIMO GFDM Channel Estimation 39 3.3.1 Interference-Free Pilot Insertion 39 3.3.2 Pilot Observation 40 3.3.3 Complexity 41 3.3.4 Simulation Results 41 3.4 Bayesian Pilot- and CP-aided Channel Estimation in MIMO NonOrthogonal Multi-Carriers 45 3.4.1 Review on System Model 46 3.4.2 Single-Input-Single-Output Systems 47 3.4.3 Extension to MIMO 50 3.4.4 Application to GFDM 51 3.4.5 Joint Channel Estimation and Equalization via LMMSE Parallel Interference Cancellation 57 3.4.6 Complexity Analysis 61 3.4.7 Simulation Results 61 3.5 Pilot- and CP-aided Channel Estimation in Time-Varying Scenarios 67 3.5.1 Adaptive Filtering based on Wiener-Hopf Approac 68 3.5.2 Simulation Results 69 3.6 Summary 72 4 Design of UW-Based Transmission for MIMO Multi-Carriers 73 4.1 Frame Design, Efficiency and Overhead Analysis 74 4.1.1 Illustrative Scenario 74 4.1.2 CP vs. UW Efficiency Analysis 76 4.1.3 Numerical Results 77 4.2 Sequences for UW and OOB Radiation 78 4.2.1 Orthogonal Polyphase Sequences 79 4.2.2 Waveform Engineering for UW Sequences combined with GFDM 79 4.2.3 Simulation Results for OOB Emission of UW-GFDM 81 4.3 Synchronization 82 4.3.1 Transmission over a Centralized MIMO Wireless Channel 82 4.3.2 Coarse Time Acquisition 83 4.3.3 CFO Estimation and Removal 85 4.3.4 Fine Time Acquisition 86 4.3.5 Simulation Results 88 4.4 Channel Estimation 92 4.4.1 MIMO UW-based LMMSE CE 92 4.4.2 Adaptive Filtering 93 4.4.3 Circular UW Transmission 94 4.4.4 Simulation Results 95 4.5 Equalization with Imperfect Channel Knowledge 96 4.5.1 UW-Free Equalization 97 4.5.2 Simulation Results 99 4.6 Summary 102 5 Conclusions and Perspectives 103 5.1 Main Outcomes in Short 103 5.2 Open Challenges 105 A Complementary Materials 107 A.1 Linear Algebra Identities 107 A.2 Proof of lower triangular Toeplitz channel matrix being defective 108 A.3 Calculation of noise-plus-interference covariance matrix for Pilot- and CPaided CE 108 A.4 Bock diagonalization of the effective channel for GFDM 109 A.5 Detailed complexity analysis of Sec. 3.4 109 A.6 CRLB derivations for the pdf (4.24) 113 A.7 Proof that (4.45) emulates a circular CIR at the receiver 114
7

Pulse Shape Adaptation and Channel Estimation in Generalised Frequency Division Multiplexing Systems

Du, Jinfeng January 2008 (has links)
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is well known as an efficient technology for wireless communications and is widely used in many of the current and upcoming wireless and wireline communication standards. However, it has some intrinsic drawbacks, e.g., sensitivity to the inter-carrier interference (ICI) and high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR). Additionally, the cyclic prefix (CP) is not spectrum efficient and fails when the channel delay spread exceeds the length of CP, which will result in inter-symbol interference (ISI). In order to combat or alleviate these drawbacks various techniques have been proposed, which can be categorised into two main classes: techniques that keep the structure of OFDM and meanwhile increase the system robustness or re-organise the symbol streams on each sub-carrier, and techniques that increase the ISI/ICI immunity by adopting well designed pulse shapes and/or resorting to general system lattices. The latter class are coined as Generalised FDM (GFDM) throughout this thesis to distinguish with the former class. To enable seamless handover and efficient usage of spectrum and energy, GFDM is expected to dynamically adopt pulse shapes that are optimal in doubly (time and frequency) dispersive fading channels. This is however not an easy task as the method of optimal pulse shape adaptation is still unclear, let alone efficient implementationmethods. Besides, performance of GFDM highly depends on the channel estimation quality, which is not straightforward in GFDM systems. This thesis addresses, among many other aspects of GFDM systems, measures of the time frequency localisation (TFL) property, pulse shape adaptation strategy, performance evaluation and channel estimation.  We first provide a comparative study of state-of-the-art GFDM technologies and a brief overview of the TFL functions and parameters which will be used frequently in later analysis and discussion. A framework for GFDM pulse shape optimisation is formulated targeting at minimising the combined ISI/ICI over doubly dispersive channels. We also propose a practical adaptation strategy utilising the extended Gaussian functions (EGF) and discuss the trade-off between performance and complexity.  One realisation under the umbrella of GFDM, namely OFDM/OQAM, is intensively studied and an efficient implementation method by direct discretisation of the continuous time model has been proposed.  Besides, a theoretical framework for a novel preamble-based channel estimation method has been presented and a new preamble sequence with higher gain is identified. Under the framework, an optimal pulse shape dependent preamble structure together with a suboptimal but pulse shape independent preamble structure have been proposed and evaluated in the context of OFDM/OQAM. / QC 20101108
8

[pt] ANÁLISE ESPECTRAL, DETECÇÃO DE SINAIS E ESTIMAÇÃO DE CANAL EM SISTEMAS GFDM / [en] SPECTRAL ANALYSIS, SIGNAL DETECTION AND CHANNEL ESTIMATION IN GFDM SYSTEMS

RANDY VERDECIA PENA 26 April 2019 (has links)
[pt] Este trabalho tem como finalidade o estudo das possibilidade do sistema GFDM (Generalized Frequency Division Multiplexing). Para o estudo feito foi apresentado um modelo matricial para representar os sinais gerados no sistema GFDM, a semelhança do modelo de sinal do sistema OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing). Tal modelo permitiu a obtenção de expressões analíticas para a Densidade Espectral de Potência (DEP, Spectral Power Density) dos sinais e sua comparação com a DEP dos sinais transmitidos em sistemas OFDM. A partir do modelo matricial apresentado são estudados o desempenho de diferentes tipos de equalizadores/detectores lineares clássicos passíveis de utilização neste sistema de comunicações digitais, tais como Zero Forcing, Minimum Mean Square Error e Matched Filter. Além disso o trabalho propõe e analisa o desempenho resultante da aplicação de técnicas de supressão de interferência PIC (Parallel Interference Cancellation) em conjunto com os detectores lineares mencionados e dos detectores LAS (Likelihood Ascent Search) precedidos por equalizadores Matched Filter (MF-LAS). O número de estágios PIC realizados em cada detecção é controlado por uma estratégia de parada baseada na métrica de distância. Diferentes esquemas de detecção MF-LAS em conjunto com PIC são também propostos e examinadas. Finalmente, partindo do modelo matricial desenvolvido neste trabalho é realizada a estimação de canal empregando a estratégia de símbolos pilotos ortogonais. As diferentes estratégias de detecção examinadas para o sistemas GFDM são comparadas em termos de desempenho BER (Bit Error Rate) e da complexidade computacional associada aos respectivos detectores. Comparações entre os sistemas GFDM e OFDM com destaque na complexidade na geração de sinais, eficiência espectral e desempenho estão também incluídos nesta dissertação. / [en] The main goal of the presented work is to study the possibilities of the GFDM system (Generalized Frequency Division Multiplexing). For achieving this purpose, a matrix model is presented which represents the signals generated in the GFDM system, similar to the signal model of the OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) system. This model allows the obtainment analytical expressions for the Spectral Power Density (DEP) of the signals and their comparison with the DEP of the signals transmitted in OFDM systems. Furthermore, we study the performance of different types of classical linear equalizers/detectors that can be used in the digital communications systems, such as Zero Forcing, Minimum Mean Square Error and Matched Filter. In addition, we propose and analyze the performance resulting from the application of PIC (Parallel Interference Cancellation) interference suppression techniques together with the linear detectors mentioned and LAS (Likelihood Ascent Search) detectors preceded by Matched Filter (MF-LAS) equalizers. The number of PIC stages performed at each detection is controlled by a stop strategy based on the distance metric. Different MF-LAS detection schemes together with PIC are also proposed and examined. Finally, the channel estimation is performing based on the matrix model developed in this work and using orthogonal pilots symbols. The differents strategies of detection examined for GFDM systems are compared in terms of BER performance (Bit Error Rate) and the computational complexity associated with the respective detectors. Comparisons between GFDM and OFDM systems based on criterions as the complexity of the signal generation, spectral efficiency and performance are also included in this dissertation.

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