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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Effect of coronary perivascular adipose tissue on vascular smooth muscle function in metabolic syndrome

Owen, Meredith Kohr 19 December 2013 (has links)
Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) / Obesity increases cardiovascular disease risk and is associated with factors of the “metabolic syndrome” (MetS), a disorder including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and/or impaired glucose tolerance. Expanding adipose and subsequent inflammation is implicated in vascular dysfunction in MetS. Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) surrounds virtually every artery and is capable of releasing factors that influence vascular reactivity, but the effects of PVAT in the coronary circulation are unknown. Accordingly, the goal of this investigation was to delineate mechanisms by which lean vs. MetS coronary PVAT influences vasomotor tone and the coronary PVAT proteome. We tested the hypothesis that MetS alters the functional expression and vascular contractile effects of coronary PVAT in an Ossabaw swine model of the MetS. Utilizing isometric tension measurements of coronary arteries in the absence and presence of PVAT, we revealed the vascular effects of PVAT vary according to anatomical location as coronary and mesenteric, but not subcutaneous adipose tissue augmented coronary artery contractions to KCl. Factors released from coronary PVAT increase baseline tension and potentiate constriction of isolated coronary arteries relative to the amount of adipose tissue present. The effects of coronary PVAT are elevated in the setting of MetS and occur independent of endothelial function. MetS is also associated with substantial alterations in the coronary PVAT proteome and underlying increases in vascular smooth muscle Ca2+ handling via CaV1.2 channels, H2O2-sensitive K+ channels and/or upstream mediators of these ion channels. Rho-kinase signaling participates in the increase in coronary artery contractions to PVAT in lean, but not MetS swine. These data provide novel evidence that the vascular effects of PVAT vary according to anatomic location and are influenced by the MetS phenotype.

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