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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Effect of coronary perivascular adipose tissue on vascular smooth muscle function in metabolic syndrome

Owen, Meredith Kohr 19 December 2013 (has links)
Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) / Obesity increases cardiovascular disease risk and is associated with factors of the “metabolic syndrome” (MetS), a disorder including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and/or impaired glucose tolerance. Expanding adipose and subsequent inflammation is implicated in vascular dysfunction in MetS. Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) surrounds virtually every artery and is capable of releasing factors that influence vascular reactivity, but the effects of PVAT in the coronary circulation are unknown. Accordingly, the goal of this investigation was to delineate mechanisms by which lean vs. MetS coronary PVAT influences vasomotor tone and the coronary PVAT proteome. We tested the hypothesis that MetS alters the functional expression and vascular contractile effects of coronary PVAT in an Ossabaw swine model of the MetS. Utilizing isometric tension measurements of coronary arteries in the absence and presence of PVAT, we revealed the vascular effects of PVAT vary according to anatomical location as coronary and mesenteric, but not subcutaneous adipose tissue augmented coronary artery contractions to KCl. Factors released from coronary PVAT increase baseline tension and potentiate constriction of isolated coronary arteries relative to the amount of adipose tissue present. The effects of coronary PVAT are elevated in the setting of MetS and occur independent of endothelial function. MetS is also associated with substantial alterations in the coronary PVAT proteome and underlying increases in vascular smooth muscle Ca2+ handling via CaV1.2 channels, H2O2-sensitive K+ channels and/or upstream mediators of these ion channels. Rho-kinase signaling participates in the increase in coronary artery contractions to PVAT in lean, but not MetS swine. These data provide novel evidence that the vascular effects of PVAT vary according to anatomic location and are influenced by the MetS phenotype.
2

Coronary artery disease progression and calcification in metabolic syndrome

McKenney, Mikaela Lee January 2014 (has links)
Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) / For years, the leading killer of Americans has been coronary artery disease (CAD), which has a strong correlation to the U.S. obesity epidemic. Obesity, along with the presence of other risk factors including hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, dyslipidemia, and high blood pressure, comprise of the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The presentation of multiple MetS risk factors increases a patients risk for adverse cardiovascular events. CAD is a complex progressive disease. We utilized the superb model of CAD and MetS, the Ossabaw miniature swine, to investigate underlying mechanisms of CAD progression. We studied the influence of coronary epicardial adipose tissue (cEAT) and coronary smooth muscle cell (CSM) intracellular Ca2+ regulation on CAD progression. By surgical excision of cEAT from MetS Ossabaw, we observed an attenuation of CAD progression. This finding provides evidence for a link between local cEAT and CAD progression. Intracellular Ca2+ is a tightly regulated messenger in CSM that initiates contraction, translation, proliferation and migration. When regulation is lost, CSM dedifferentiate from their mature, contractile phenotype found in the healthy vascular wall to a synthetic, proliferative phenotype. Synthetic CSM are found in intimal plaque of CAD patients. We investigated the changes in intracellular Ca2+ signaling in enzymatically isolated CSM from Ossabaw swine with varying stages of CAD using the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator, fura-2. This time course study revealed heightened Ca2+ signaling in early CAD followed by a significant drop off in late stage calcified plaque. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is a result of dedifferentiation into an osteogenic CSM that secretes hydroxyapatite in the extracellular matrix. CAC is clinically detected by computed tomography (CT). Microcalcifications have been linked to plaque instability/rupture and cannot be detected by CT. We used 18F-NaF positron emission tomography (PET) to detect CAC in Ossabaw swine with early stage CAD shown by mild neointimal thickening. This study validated 18F-NaF PET as a diagnostic tool for early, molecular CAC at a stage prior to lesions detectable by CT. This is the first report showing non-invasive PET resolution of CAC and CSMC Ca2+ dysfunction at an early stage previously only characterized by invasive cellular Ca2+ imaging.

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