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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Differentiation and contractility of colon smooth muscle under normal and diabetic conditions

Touw, Ketrija 07 October 2013 (has links)
Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) / Intestinal smooth muscle development involves complex transcriptional regulation leading to cell differentiation of the circular, longitudinal and muscularis mucosae layers. Differentiated intestinal smooth muscle cells express high levels of smooth muscle-specific contractile and regulatory proteins, including telokin. Telokin is regulatory protein that is highly expressed in visceral smooth muscle. Analysis of cis-elements required for transcriptional regulation of the telokin promoter by using hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (Hprt)-targeted reporter transgenes revealed that a 10 base pair large CC(AT)₆GG ciselement, called CArG box is required for promoter activity in all tissues. We also determined that an additional 100 base pair region is necessary for transgene activity in intestinal smooth muscle cells. To examine how transcriptional regulation of intestinal smooth muscle may be altered under pathological conditions we examined the effects of diabetes on colonic smooth muscle. Approximately 76% of diabetic patients develop gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms such as constipation due to intestinal dysmotility. Mice were treated with low-dose streptozotocin to induce a type 1 diabetes-like hyperglycemia. CT scans revealed decreased overall GI tract motility after 7 weeks of hyperglycemia. Acute (1 week) and chronic (7 weeks) diabetic mice also had decreased potassium chloride (KCl)-induced colon smooth muscle contractility. We hypothesized that decreased smooth muscle contractility at least in part, was due to alteration of contractile protein gene expression. However, diabetic mice showed no changes in mRNA or protein levels of smooth muscle contractile proteins. We determined that the decreased colonic contractility was associated with an attenuated intracellular calcium increase, as measured by ratio-metric imaging of Fura-2 fluorescence in isolated colonic smooth muscle strips. This attenuated calcium increase resulted in decreased myosin light chain phosphorylation, thus explaining the decreased contractility of the colon. Chronic diabetes was also associated with increased basal calcium levels. Western blotting and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed significant changes in calcium handling proteins in chronic diabetes that were not seen in the acute state.These changes most likely reflect compensatory mechanisms activated by the initial impaired calcium response. Overall my results suggest that type 1 diabetes in mice leads to decreased colon motility in part due to altered calcium handling without altering contractile protein expression.
2

Effect of coronary perivascular adipose tissue on vascular smooth muscle function in metabolic syndrome

Owen, Meredith Kohr 19 December 2013 (has links)
Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) / Obesity increases cardiovascular disease risk and is associated with factors of the “metabolic syndrome” (MetS), a disorder including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and/or impaired glucose tolerance. Expanding adipose and subsequent inflammation is implicated in vascular dysfunction in MetS. Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) surrounds virtually every artery and is capable of releasing factors that influence vascular reactivity, but the effects of PVAT in the coronary circulation are unknown. Accordingly, the goal of this investigation was to delineate mechanisms by which lean vs. MetS coronary PVAT influences vasomotor tone and the coronary PVAT proteome. We tested the hypothesis that MetS alters the functional expression and vascular contractile effects of coronary PVAT in an Ossabaw swine model of the MetS. Utilizing isometric tension measurements of coronary arteries in the absence and presence of PVAT, we revealed the vascular effects of PVAT vary according to anatomical location as coronary and mesenteric, but not subcutaneous adipose tissue augmented coronary artery contractions to KCl. Factors released from coronary PVAT increase baseline tension and potentiate constriction of isolated coronary arteries relative to the amount of adipose tissue present. The effects of coronary PVAT are elevated in the setting of MetS and occur independent of endothelial function. MetS is also associated with substantial alterations in the coronary PVAT proteome and underlying increases in vascular smooth muscle Ca2+ handling via CaV1.2 channels, H2O2-sensitive K+ channels and/or upstream mediators of these ion channels. Rho-kinase signaling participates in the increase in coronary artery contractions to PVAT in lean, but not MetS swine. These data provide novel evidence that the vascular effects of PVAT vary according to anatomic location and are influenced by the MetS phenotype.

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