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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

Combustion Control of Refuse Incineration Plant by DA Type Fuzzy PID Controller

Tsai, Cheng-Yu 04 August 2005 (has links)
For the operation of refuse incineration plant, the major difficulties with trash are the unstable nature and the uncertainty. The complexity of trash ingredient causes the traditional control method fail to obtain a stable combustion condition and steam flow rate. It is necessary to seek a new control method to adapt to the volatile combustion features of refuse incinerator. Based on correlation literature research [2], the fuzzy control theory is proposed to provide a good combustion condition to stabilize the steam flow rate for the combustion control of refuse furnace, and effectively reduce the rate of personnel involvement. Different from the rule based fuzzy theory, the Direct Action type Fuzzy Proportion-Integral-Differential control theory (Direct Action type Fuzzy PID) is designed to combine a single input variable and three-rule fuzzy inference system. With a traditional PID controller, the DA type Fuzzy PID controller will have a simple structure as well as the nonlinear output property. Object of control is a reverse-acting grate type incinerator. Establishment of the model is done with estimates of the value of LHV and steam flow rate, coordinating the actual structure of furnace to infer the speed variable feeder model. Establishment and simulation of the control system works under the MATLAB environment. Parameter-tuning of the controller uses the Genetic Algorithm (GA) for optimization. By joining the furnace model and the controller for simulation, it proves that the Direct Action type Fuzzy PID controller has good performance and is feasible to the combustion control for refuse incineration plant.

A physiochemical study of the heating of low cement castable refractories and the problem of explosive spalling

Clayton, Daniel James January 2000 (has links)
Low cement castable (LCC) refractory linings, over recent years, have superseded refractory bricks in many high temperature applications. There are concerns however, pertaining to their dry-out. In particular the catastrophic destruction of LCC shapes or linings as a result of phenomenate rmede xplosives palling. This thesis describes the study of both the on-site treatments of LCCs and the physicochemical changes that occur during heating. Two types of explosive spalling event are classified,b asedo n on-siteo bservationsa ndp ost-mortems tudy. A model is presented that describes the physicochemical changes in a LCC system as it is heated from ambient to 450°C. From this model a zone of high vulnerability to explosion has been identified between 230-280°C. The dehydration of the hydrated alumina phase gibbsite (AH3), within this zone, is identified as a possible cause of explosive spalling. An investigation of polypropylene fibres, which are added to LCCs as anti-explosion additives, found that the fibres block porosity between1 60-240°CI.t is suggested that this additive system is not optimised and that polymer fibre blends may be more advantageous. The diffusion characteristics of a LCC system cured at 5 and 20°C is presented. It was found that at the lower curing temperature the diffusion rate was lower. This supports the recommendation for the use of high curing temperature to facilitate the drying of LCCs and reduce the risk of explosive spalling. A list of guidelines that could be used to establish benchmark standards for the development of best practice in industry has been compiled from the results of these studies.

Incinerator 2.0

Warolin, Alexander, Sunesson, Jonathan January 2014 (has links)
Detta examensarbete är i grunden ett konstruktionsprojekt med syfte att utveckla en ny generation av dekontamineringsutrustning kallad Incinerator åt Getinge Sterilization AB. Incineratorn är en tryckbehållare som ska avdöda farliga sporer och utvecklades ursprungligen på 70-talet. Denna har uppdaterats flera gånger under dess livsspann men konstruktionen för med sig flera problem som nu ska lösas med en helt ny generation, kallad Incinerator 2.0. Projektet har främst handlat om konstruktion men beskriver även processteknik och dekontamineringprocess av farligt media. Då detta examensarbete berör tryckbehållare och dekontamineringsprocesser så har flera standarder och direktiv som t.ex. ASME BPVC och AFS2005:01 följts.  I detta examensarbete har en grund till Incineratorn 2.0 tagits fram i form av princip- och primärkonstruktion. Den här rapporten är en sammanställning av resultaten som har uppkommit under arbetets gång samt det slutliga resultatet som har uppnåtts.

The detoxification of dioxin contaminated APC residue by energy efficient sintering

Ward, David Barry January 2001 (has links)
No description available.

Durability of Incinerator Fly Ash Concrete

Yousef Shebani, A. January 2015 (has links)
The main theme of this research was to investigate the durability of concrete made using waste materials as a cement replacement. This is a method to produce green sustainable concrete. The objective was to use locally available wastes to produce a concrete that could be used by the local authority. The mechanical, physical and chemical properties of concrete made predominantly with IFA as a partial cement replacement have been tested. The IFA was won locally from the domestic waste incinerator at Coventry, UK. The other materials used in the mixes included Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS), silica fume and by-pass dust, which was used as an activator and was also won locally from the Rugby cement plant. Compressive strength and tensile strength, workability, corrosion of embedded steel, shrinkage and expansion, freeze and thaw, corrosion and chloride ingress were studied. Water permeability was studied by the author on mortar samples during one year and on concrete samples during the following. Carbonation was studied on concrete samples and finally mechanical experiments were carried out on concrete beams and slabs. Two further experiments were carried out to complete the study of durability of concrete made with waste materials being, the ASR (Alkaline Silica Reaction) and sulphate attack experiments. One main physical experiment, in the form of a trial mix, was carried out in one of the waste recycling sites of Warwickshire in September 2013. Subsequent to observations during the site trial, the author compared results of setting time, heat of hydration and strength of the trial mix and control mixes. The outcome of this research was a novel mix that had more than 30 percent waste material and a further 40 percent of secondary materials, making it as sustainable as possible. Both laboratory and site trial results have achieved compressive strength which are higher than 30 MPa, indicating that the novel mix concrete could be used for structural purposes. Most of the durability results of the novel mix were comparable with the control OPC mix and the novel mix concrete, in terms of transport properties, induced less electrical current seepage. Furthermore the tensile strength of the novel mix concrete was higher than the control OPC concrete and this is due to the higher ductility index of the novel mix.

Návrh technologické jednotky pro odstraňování perzistentních látek při termickém zpracování kontaminované biomasy / Design of technology unit for removal of persistent pollutans for thermal processing of contaminated biomass

Plch, Michal January 2009 (has links)
The Diploma’s work deals with design to use new methods of cleaning the combustion products for the incinerator of biomass, which guarantees removal of dioxins from the combustion products. Thesis depicts methods of cleaning the combustion products, like ADIOX, using ceramic filters, catalytically filters and methods REMEDIA. Thesis compares constituent methods in terms of effectiveness and according to economic analysis applicable to incinerator of biomass-power output 1 MW. Thesis acquaints with the conception of biomass and with thermic processing, which produces dioxins. Thesis processes using biomass in Czech Republic and plan for using in the future. Thesis processes detailed model of filter using the fabric filters REMEDIA. Suggestion of position of the filter and it is connection to original products line of cleaning the combustion products. Increased pressure loss of the new pipework way and increased consumption of ventilator incinerator is calculated for the new connection. In quest of decreasing the thermal loss of combustion products and in quest of increasing safety of operation is calculated and in quest of increasing safety of operation is calculated proposal of isolation for the filter and pipework. In the end of the thesis is depicted using the technology for decreased amount of dioxins from the fly ash from dioxin filter.

Hodnocení efektivity využití odpadů k výrobě energie / Effectiveness Evaluation of Waste-to-energy process

Klimek, Petr January 2010 (has links)
This diploma thesis is focused on the evaluation of the effectiveness of using municipal waste to produce energy. On the basis of legislation applicable in the EU methodology is summarized evaluation of the facility as an energy recovery of waste. In the thesis is also created a consecution to determine decisive coefficients of legislatively-based criteria. The consecution is applied to the case study. Thesis serves as the basis for a software application.

Efficacy Evaluation for Melting Treatment of Municipal Incinerator Fly Ash by Electric Arc Furnace in a Steel Mill

Huang, Chien-wen 12 July 2005 (has links)
The objective of this study was to utilize an electric arc furnace ¡]EAF¡^in a steel mill to melt municipal incinerator fly ash ¡]MIFA¡^of different sources ¡]Plants K1 and K2¡^ and evaluate its effectiveness in aspects of environment and economy. The results of full-scale tests have shown that slag thus generated by the EAF was found to be non-hazardous based on the TCLP result and also met the standard of CNS 14602. However, EAF dust thus obtained remained hazardous as it was originally a listed waste by Taiwan EPA. Test results have indicated that this novel treatment technology would not deteriorate the quality of steel billets and bars produced. Moreover, when melting MIFAs from Plant K1¡]with 2.00 wt¢H of MIFA¡^ and Plant K2 ¡]with 3.28 wt¢H of MIFA¡^, the air quality in the steel mill surroundings and off-gas from the stack were all below the regulatory limits. Thus, it would not cause additional pollution problems from this practice. Based on the total capacity of EAFs in Taiwan, it was estimated that these EAFs would be capable of melting fly ash generated by municipal incinerators in Taiwan. From the economic perspective, this melting practice would not lower the production rate of EAF steel-making and increase the tap-to-tap cycle time, consumption of electrical energy, consumption of oxygen, and consumption of graphite electrodes. Furthermore, through this novel practice, the contents of MIFA have turned out to be able to replace some portions of quick-lime and coke powder required for steel-making. Test results have also shown that 1 wt¢H of MIFA injection would generate additional 8.93 kg of slag and 2.76 kg of EAF dust. It was found that an additional cost of NT¢C318 per ton of MIFA treated would be resulted through this practice. This treatment cost is very low as compared with NT¢C8,000 per ton of waste treated by solidification and followed by landfilling. Assuming a melting cost of NT¢C5,000 per ton of MIFA is charged by EAFs, it would save more than ten million NT¢C per year for a municipal incinerator with an annual generation of 5,840 tons of MIFA. On the other hand, for a mini-mill with an annual capacity of 264,000 tons of billets, it would have an additional income of 37 million NT¢C if 3 wt¢H of MIFA is melted while making steel.

Operational Knowledge Acquisition of Refuse Incinerator Using Data Mining Techniques

Lai, Po-Chuan 05 August 2005 (has links)
The physical and chemical mechanisms in a refuse ncinerator are complex. It is difficult to make a full comprehension of the system without a thorough research and long-term on-site experiments. In addition, many sensors are equipped in refuse incineration plant and much data are collected, those data were supposed to be useful since there may be some operational experience within. But to cope with the huge data that may exceed the computation capability, sequential Forward Floating Search algorithm (SFFS) is used to reduce the data dimension and find relevant features as well as to remove redundant information. In this research, data mining technique is applied toward three critical target attributes, steam production, NOx and SOx, to build decision tree models and extract operational experiences in the form of decision rules. Those models are evaluated by predicting accuracies, and rules extracted from decision tree models are also of great help to the on-site operation and prediction as well.

A Three Dimensional Numerical Modeling of a Rotary Kiln Incinerator and On-Site Measurement

HSU, WEI-DI 14 July 2000 (has links)
Finite volume method was employed for analyzing the three-dimensional turbulent flow structures, species distributions, and mixing behaviors of combustion flows in a rotary kiln under various operation conditions. The modified £e-£`turbulence model together with wall functions was adopted. Devolatilization of solid wastes were simulated by gaseous methane (CH4) non-uniformly distributed along the kiln bed. Combustion process was considered as a two-step reaction when primary air entered and mixed with methane gas in the first combustion chamber. Mixing-controlled eddy-dissipation model was employed for predicting the reaction rates of CH4, O2, CO2, CO and H2O. Effects of inleakage air, kiln rotation speed and methane distribution along the kiln bed were also examined. Results show that 128% excess air will get the best combustion efficiency, above which the combustion efficiency will decrease. The temperature and species are not uniformly distributed and are vertically stratified on cross-sectional plane. The combustion efficiency will also be lowered if there is inleakage airflow. Results also show rotation speed and methane distributions have little effect on combustion efficiency.

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