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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

A Role for Integrin-linked Kinase In Oligodendrocyte Mediated Myelination of the Central Nervous System

Michalski, John-Paul January 2014 (has links)
The interplay between oligodendrocyte (OL) and extracellular matrix (ECM) is critical to the proper maturation of this unique cell type. Recent work has established the β1 integrin-signaling pathway, a mediator for ECM/OL interactions, as an essential component of myelin sheath formation in the central nervous system (CNS). A major downstream effector of β1 integrin is integrin-linked kinase (ILK), an adaptor and structural platform protein. Herein, we (1) generated a model system to study ILK in vivo and (2) employed the model to elucidate ILK’s role in regulating OL biology. To assess the importance of ILK in OL-mediated myelination, we ablated ILK in primary OLs. ILK loss delayed morphological maturation and led to filamentous actin accumulation in the processes and cell body. Further, we noted an upregulation in RhoA activity, with pathway inhibition rescuing an OL subset. We next moved our studies in vivo. First, we assessed the proteolipid protein promoter’s utility as OL-specific Cre driver. Protocols established, we generated an ILK conditional knockout line (Ilk cKO). Ultrastructural analysis of Ilk cKO optic nerves revealed increased number of amyelinated nerve fibers at P14 with subsequent recovery by P28. The observed transient defects were due neither to a loss nor a gain in total number of mature or progenitor OLs. To rationalize recovery, we grew ILK-depleted OLs on an “inert” substrate. Here, while morphology improved, ILK-depleted OLs were characterized by enlarged and sluggish growth cones as well as microtubule disorganization. Taken together, our data suggests a role for ILK in regulating the morphological maturation of OLs both in vitro and in vivo, the loss of which results in defective OL branching and membrane formation with phenotype and subsequent recovery dependent upon niche complexity.
2

Integrin-linked Kinase (ILK) expression in moderately differentiated human oesophageal squamous carcinoma cell lines: A growth factor modulation, activity and link to adhesion

Driver, Glenn Alan 19 May 2008 (has links)
Abstract Integrin-linked Kinase (ILK) is an integrin-associated protein kinase, which regulates growth factor-signalling pathways and cell-ECM adhesion events. Abrogated ILK expression or activity has been implicated in contributing to oncogenic transformation. We examined the role played by ILK in growth factor-stimulated and integrin signalling events in five human oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines (HOSCCs), known to overexpress the EGF receptor. Western blot analysis revealed the presence of ILK (59kDa) in all the moderately differentiated HOSCC lines. ILK1 was confirmed as being the predominant isoform. Densitometrically analysed Western blots showed that, per unit of protein, ILK is expressed uniformly across the cell lines under standard culture conditions. Following EGF (10 ng/ml) and TGFβ1 (1 ng/ml) treatment, ILK expression increased in all five HOSCCs. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy showed the majority of ILK to localise at a cytoplasmic/nuclear level, with a proportion of ILK localising at the membrane, which resembled the distribution pattern of the β3 integrin subunit. This membranal distribution most likely follows that of the adhesion plaques although lesser, and variable, amounts were also identified throughout the cytoplasm. The functionality of the ILK1 kinase domain was demonstrated using myelin basic protein (MBP)-based kinase assays. EGF and TGFβ1 treatment produced an increase in ILK activity in the WHCO3 cell line of 3.5 fold, but a decrease in activity in the other cell lines, which are suggested to involve the actions of PTEN. The identification of nuclear ILK was surprising, and the mechanism for nuclear ILK localisation was suggested to involve a caveolae-associated protein, caveolin-1. Cell adhesion assays revealed that KP-392-mediated inhibition of ILK resulted in a nonsignificant reduction in cell adhesion to collagen and fibronectin. These data provide distinctive evidence for the influence of growth factors on ILK expression, but a duality in the effect on ILK activity. This apparent dichotomy is noteworthy and may be of particular relevance in HOSCC. It is further suggested that KP-392-induced ILK inhibition destabilises the αβ integrin heterodimer and that PI3K acts upstream of ILK-mediated cell adhesion events in HOSCCs. This suggests that ILK mediates integrin associated processes in human oesophageal SCC cell lines.
3

Integrin-linked Kinase Functions as a Cytoskeletal Scaffold in Oligodendrocyte Migration, Differentiation and Central Nervous System Myelination

O'Meara, Ryan January 2014 (has links)
In the central nervous system (CNS), oligodendrocytes (OLs) generate myelin to facilitate the rapid propagation of neuronal impulses. In multiple sclerosis (MS), chronic demyelination leads to irreversible neurodegeneration that eventually impairs physical and cognitive function. Much effort is directed at elucidating the mechanisms underlying OL development in hope to unveil therapeutic targets for promoting remyelination in MS. Many aspects of OL biology are regulated by the integrins, a large family of transmembrane extracellular matrix (ECM) receptors. ECM components such as laminin and fibronectin bind to OL integrin receptors and initiate downstream signaling cascades involved in survival, proliferation, differentiation/myelination and migration. Integrin-linked kinase (ILK), an adaptor protein that binds to integrin cytosolic tails, works to stabilize the ECM-integrin connection by indirectly targeting the actin cytoskeleton to ECM adhesion sites. We hypothesized that ILK played an important role in OL migration, differentiation and capacity to myelinate neuronal projections. To address this hypothesis, we developed three cell culture techniques to assess these cellular phenomena in vitro. Conditional knockout of Ilk compromised both the morphological and molecular differentiation of primary mouse OLs in vitro, and reduced their capacity to produce myelin-like membrane. ILK was required for proper OL ensheathment of neuronal extensions when co-cultured with primary neurons. Conditional ablation of Ilk in vivo produced a transient amyelination defect that was endogenously compensated for at later time points. Loss of ILK in primary OLs was associated with upregulated RhoA signaling, and pharmacological inhibition of the RhoA axis restored the morphology of a distinct subset of NG2+ OPCs. ILK depletion in OL precursor cells (OPCs) resulted in a substrate-dependent defect in migration velocity and migration initiation. Inhibition of the RhoA signaling pathway enhanced the migratory velocity of wild-type OPCs, an effect that was dependent on ILK expression. In sum, we established three primary mouse OL cell culture techniques, with which we defined roles for ILK in OL biology. Our work highlights the importance of integrin signaling in OLs and provides new experimental methods useful in MS research.
4

Μελέτη της συμμετοχής των ενδοκυτταρικών κινασών FAK και ILK στην επαγόμενη από τον αυξητικό παράγοντα πλειοτροπίνη κυτταρική μετανάστευση / Role of intracellular kinases FAK and ILK in PTN-induced cell migration

Θεοχάρη, Αικατερίνη 03 August 2009 (has links)
Ο αυξητικός παράγοντας πλειοτροπίνη (Pleiotrophin, PTN) έχει μοριακή μάζα 18 kDa και ανήκει σε μια διακριτή οικογένεια αυξητικών παραγόντων που δεσμεύονται στην ηπαρίνη και σχετίζονται με αγγειογένεση και καρκινική ανάπτυξη. Στην παρούσα εργασία, μελετήσαμε τη συμμετοχή των ενδοκυτταρικών κινασών FAK και ILK στην επαγόμενη από PTN κυτταρική μετανάστευση σε ανθρώπινα ενδοθηλιακά κύτταρα από φλέβα ομφάλιου λώρου (HUVEC). Εξωγενής χορήγηση ΡΤΝ επάγει τη φωσφορυλίωση της κινάσης FAK στις τυροσίνες 397 και 925, ενώ μειώνει τη φωσφορυλίωση της κινάσης FAK στη τυροσίνη 576. Η κινάση ILK φαίνεται να εμπλέκεται στη διεγερτική δράση της PTN στη μετανάστευση των κυττάρων HUVEC, αφού μείωση της έκφρασης της κινάσης ILK με παρεμβαλλόμενο RNA στα κύτταρα HUVEC, οδήγησε σε αναστολή της επαγόμενης από ΡΤΝ κυτταρικής μετανάστευσης. Επιπλέον, διέγερση των κυττάρων HUVEC με PTN είχε ως αποτέλεσμα την επαγωγή της ενεργοποίησης της κινάσης ILK. Με σκοπό να διερευνηθεί η θέση της κινάσης ILK στο μονοπάτι μεταγωγής σήματος που ενεργοποιείται από τη PTN στα κύτταρα HUVEC, μελετήσαμε την πιθανή αλληλεπίδραση της ILK με μόρια που είναι γνωστό ότι συμμετέχουν σε αυτό το μονοπάτι. Παρατηρήθηκε ότι η κινάση ILK αλληλεπιδρά σε μεγάλο βαθμό με την κινάση FAK, ενώ μικρού βαθμού αλληλεπίδραση φαίνεται και με τις ιντεγκρίνη β3 και κινάση c-Src. Ενδιαφέρον παρουσιάζει το γεγονός ότι η διέγερση με PTN των κυττάρων HUVEC αυξάνει την αλληλεπίδραση μεταξύ των κινασών FAK και ILK. Τέλος, με δεδομένο ότι η β-κατενίνης εμπλέκεται στη κυτταρική μετανάστευση, ερευνήσαμε κατά πόσο η PTN και η κινάση ILK εμπλέκονται στο σηματοδοτικό μονοπάτι της β-κατενίνης στα κύτταρα HUVEC. Η ΡΤΝ αυξάνει με δοσο-εξαρτώμενο και χρονο-εξαρτώμενο τρόπο τη φωσφορυλίωση της β-κατενίνης σε κύτταρα HUVEC, φαινόμενο που αναστέλλεται μετά τη μείωση της έκφρασης της κινάσης ILK με siRNA. Συμπερασματικά, στην παρούσα εργασία καταδεικνύεται ότι η ΡΤΝ έχει διαφορική δράση στη φωσφορυλίωση τυροσινών της κινάσης FAK διαφορετικών θέσεων και ότι η κινάση ILK συμμετέχει στη διεγερτική δράση της PTN στη μετανάστευση των κυττάρων. / Pleiotrophin (PTN) is an 18 kDa secreted growth factor that displays high affinity for heparin. A growing body of evidence indicates that PTN is involved in cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. In the present work, we studied the possible role of two intracellular kinases, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and integrin-linked kinase (ILK), in the PTN-induced migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Exogenous administration of PTN significantly increased the phosphorylation of FAK kinase in tyrosines 397 and 925 and decreased phosphorylation in tyrosine 576. ILK seems to be involved in PTN-induced migration of HUVEC, since suppression of the ILK kinase using small interfering RNA (siRNA) abolished the stimulatory effect of PTN in migration of HUVEC. In addition, stimulation of HUVEC with PTN increased the ILK kinase activity. In order to determine which other signaling mediators are involved in the PTN signaling pathway, we studied the interaction of ILK with other proteins that have been implicated in the PTN-induced signal transduction. ILK strongly interacted with FAK kinase and to a lesser extent with c-src kinase and integrin ανβ3. Interestingly, PTN increased the degree of interaction between ILK and FAK kinases. Finally, it has been well described that β-catenin is involved in cell migration and that PTN increases β-catenin phosphorylation. We therefore investigated whether PTN affects β-catenin phosphorylation in HUVEC through activation of ILK kinase. PTN significantly increased phosphorylation of β-catenin in a concentration and time dependent manner, which seemed to be abolished after suppression of the ILK kinase using siRNA. Collectively, these results suggest a role of FAK and ILK kinases in the PTN-related signaling cascade which leads to cell migration both human endothelial cells.
5

Elucidating the Effects of Integrin-linked Kinase Modulation on Sarco/endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium ATPase Function in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived Cardiomyocytes

Li, Mark 04 December 2013 (has links)
Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is an important mechanoreceptor that mediates many cellular signaling pathways. Its dysregulation causes dilated cardiomyopathy and other complications in the heart. Restoration of ILK improves cardiac function and survival, but the exact mechanism is unknown. Recent studies in our lab suggest that the cardioprotective properties of ILK may be related to its regulation of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA2a). The protein expressions of ILK and SERCA2a are positively correlated based on adenoviral transduction of ILK and siRNA targeting ILK in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. From analysis of their calcium transients, ILK transduction resulted in increased beat rate and faster calcium clearance while siRNA knockdown produced the opposite effect. The use of SERCA-specific inhibitor thapsigargin nullified the observed effects of ILK transduction. Based on these results, we conclude that ILK’s cardioprotective properties are partly related to improving calcium handling in cardiomyocytes through the regulation of SERCA2a.
6

Elucidating the Effects of Integrin-linked Kinase Modulation on Sarco/endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium ATPase Function in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived Cardiomyocytes

Li, Mark 04 December 2013 (has links)
Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is an important mechanoreceptor that mediates many cellular signaling pathways. Its dysregulation causes dilated cardiomyopathy and other complications in the heart. Restoration of ILK improves cardiac function and survival, but the exact mechanism is unknown. Recent studies in our lab suggest that the cardioprotective properties of ILK may be related to its regulation of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA2a). The protein expressions of ILK and SERCA2a are positively correlated based on adenoviral transduction of ILK and siRNA targeting ILK in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. From analysis of their calcium transients, ILK transduction resulted in increased beat rate and faster calcium clearance while siRNA knockdown produced the opposite effect. The use of SERCA-specific inhibitor thapsigargin nullified the observed effects of ILK transduction. Based on these results, we conclude that ILK’s cardioprotective properties are partly related to improving calcium handling in cardiomyocytes through the regulation of SERCA2a.
7

Targeting the phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-2 for anticancer drug discovery

Lee, Su-Lin 25 June 2012 (has links)
No description available.
8

Μελέτη της έκφρασης του πρωτεϊνικού συμπλέγματος ΙLK-PINCH-Parvin (IPP) και της πρωτεΐνης RSU1 στο μη-μικροκυτταρικό καρκίνωμα του πνεύμονα στον άνθρωπο

Νίκου, Σοφία 22 May 2015 (has links)
Το ετεροτριμερές πρωτεϊνικό σύμπλεγμα IPP (ILK-PINCH-Parvin) εντοπίζεται στις εστιακές συνδέσεις και ρυθμίζει την σηματοδότηση από την εξωκυττάρια ουσία μέσω ιντεγκρινών και αυξητικών παραγόντων, αλληλεπιδρώντας με τον κυτταροσκελετό ακτίνης και με ποικίλες σηματοδοτικές οδούς. Οι πρωτεΐνες του συμπλεγματος IPP ελέγχουν σημαντικές κυτταρικές λειτουργίες όπως ο πολλαπλασιασμός, η επιβίωση, η κυτταρική κίνηση-μετανάστευση και ενέχονται σημαντικά στην καρκινογένεση (Legate et al., 2006). Συγκεκριμένα η πρωτεΐνη ILK (integrin-linked kinase) έχει συσχετιστεί με την εξέλιξη-προαγωγή του όγκου και δυσμενή πρόγνωση στο μη μικροκυτταρικό καρκίνωμα του πνεύμονα (Ζhao et al., 2013). Η πρωτεΐνη Ras supressor protein 1 (Rsu-1), γνωστή για την ογκοκατασταλτική της δράση και την συμμετοχή της στη σηματοδοτική οδό του ογκογονιδίου Ras, πρόσφατα βρέθηκε οτι αλληλεπιδρά με την πρωτεΐνη PINCH του ΙPP συμπλέγματος και μέσω αυτής της αλληλεπίδρασης ρυθμίζει διεργασίες όπως η κυτταρική μετανάστευση και διήθηση(Gonzalez-Nieves et al., 2013). Σκοπός της παρούσας μελέτης είναι η διερεύνηση του ρόλου του IPP συμπλέγματος και της πρωτεΐνης Rsu-1 στο μη μικροκυτταρικό καρκίνωμα του πνεύμονα στον άνθρωπο καθώς και της συμμετοχής του ΙPP συμπλόκου στην σηματοδότηση από το ογκογονιδίο Ras. Για το σκοπό αυτό μελετάται η πρωτεϊνική έκφραση των ILK, PINCH, α-Parvin, β- Parvin και Rsu-1 1) σε ιστικά δείγματα μη-μικροκυτταρικού καρκινώματος του πνεύμονα σε σχέση με κλινικοπαθολογοανατομικές παραμέτρους της νόσου και 2) σε καρκινικές κυτταρικές σειρές με διαφορετικά επίπεδα ενεργοποίησης της Ras σηματοδότησης. Για τα στοιχεία του ΙΡΡ συμπλέγματος παρατηρήθηκε αυξημένη ανοσοϊστοχημική έκφραση ενώ για την πρωτεΐνη Rsu1 βρέθηκε μειωμένη στα μη μικροκυτταρικά καρκινώματα του πνεύμονα σε σχέση με το μη νεοπλασματικό παρέγχυμα του πνεύμονα. Η έκφραση των ILK και PARVA ήταν σημαντικά υψηλότερη στα χαμηλής διαφοροποίησης νεοπλάσματα και σε όγκους προχωρημένου pT αντίστοιχα. Η έκφραση της πρωτεΐνης PINCH σχετίστηκε στατιστικώς σημαντικά με την παρουσία λεμφαδενικών μεταστάσεων. Δεν παρατηρήθηκε εξάρτηση της πρωτεϊνικής έκφρασης των Rsu-1 και PINCH από τη σηματοδοτική οδό Ras. Τα αποτελέσματα υποστηρίζουν ότι η υπερέκφραση των στοιχείων του ΙΡΡ συμπλέγματος και η μειωμένη έκφραση του Rsu1 ενέχονται στην παθογένεια του καρκίνου του πνεύμονα. / The integrin-linked kinase (ILK)-PINCH-parvin (IPP) complex at integrin adhesion sites is a critical regulator of cell migration, invasion and metastasis. Deregulation of the IPP complex has been implicated in human carcinogenesis (Legate et al, 2006). Recent observations suggest that RSU-1, a protein first identified as a suppressor of v-Ras mediated cell transformation is a PINCH-binding partner that regulates PINCH mediated adhesion and migration (Gonzalez-Nieves et al., 2013). This study aims to evaluate the expression of the IPP complex and RSU-1 in human non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC). Protein expression of ILK, PINCH, alpha-parvin, beta-parvin and RSU-1 in relation to clinicopathological parameters was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 82 FFPE tissue samples of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). All components of the IPP complex were overexpressed while RSU-1 was downregulated in lung cancer cells compared to non-neoplastic lung parenchyma. ILK and alpha-parvin expression was significantly higher in high grade (p=0.002) and high pT (p=0.047) tumors respectively. Expression of PINCH associated significantly with lymph node metastasis (p=0.045). Our results suggest that overexpression of the IPP complex and downregulation of RSU-1 may be implicated in lung carcinogenesis.
9

Studies on Signal Transduction Mechanisms in Rhabdomyosarcoma

Durbin, Adam 06 August 2010 (has links)
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft-tissue sarcoma of childhood, with two predominant histologic subtypes: embryonal and alveolar. These histologies display distinct clinical courses, and despite refinements in dose and duration of multimodality therapy, the 5-year overall survival of patients diagnosed with metastatic RMS remains <30%. Thus, there is an urgent need to define novel targets for therapeutic intervention. Interrogation of cancer cell signal transduction pathways that regulate the pathogenic behaviours of tumor cells has been successful in defining targets in numerous tumor types. These have ultimately yielded clinically-relevant drugs that have improved the disease-free and overall survival of patients diagnosed with cancer. Work contained in this thesis describes the interrogation of several potential targets for inhibition in RMS. Interruption of RMS cell proliferation, survival and apoptosis is examined through disruption of the protein kinase integrin-linked kinase (ILK) and the nuclear receptor estrogen-receptor β. ILK, in particular, is demonstrated to have dual competing functions through the regulation of c-jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling: an oncogene in alveolar, and a tumor suppressor in embryonal RMS. These findings are recapitulated in other tumor cell lines, indicating that expression levels of JNK1 correlate with ILK function in a broad spectrum of tumor types. Furthermore, interruption of rhabdomyosarcoma cell migration as a surrogate marker of metastasis is examined through disruption of the stromal-cell derived factor 1α/chemokine (CXC)receptor 4 signaling network, as well as through cooperative interactions between ILK and the mammalian target of rapamycin. Finally, we demonstrate that the insulin-like growth factor pathway is a potential target for therapeutic inhibition, which also distinguishes tumors of embryonal and alveolar histology. These studies provide a rationale for the development of novel agents, as well as the use of established drugs targeting these pathways in rhabdomyosarcoma.
10

Studies on Signal Transduction Mechanisms in Rhabdomyosarcoma

Durbin, Adam 06 August 2010 (has links)
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft-tissue sarcoma of childhood, with two predominant histologic subtypes: embryonal and alveolar. These histologies display distinct clinical courses, and despite refinements in dose and duration of multimodality therapy, the 5-year overall survival of patients diagnosed with metastatic RMS remains <30%. Thus, there is an urgent need to define novel targets for therapeutic intervention. Interrogation of cancer cell signal transduction pathways that regulate the pathogenic behaviours of tumor cells has been successful in defining targets in numerous tumor types. These have ultimately yielded clinically-relevant drugs that have improved the disease-free and overall survival of patients diagnosed with cancer. Work contained in this thesis describes the interrogation of several potential targets for inhibition in RMS. Interruption of RMS cell proliferation, survival and apoptosis is examined through disruption of the protein kinase integrin-linked kinase (ILK) and the nuclear receptor estrogen-receptor β. ILK, in particular, is demonstrated to have dual competing functions through the regulation of c-jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling: an oncogene in alveolar, and a tumor suppressor in embryonal RMS. These findings are recapitulated in other tumor cell lines, indicating that expression levels of JNK1 correlate with ILK function in a broad spectrum of tumor types. Furthermore, interruption of rhabdomyosarcoma cell migration as a surrogate marker of metastasis is examined through disruption of the stromal-cell derived factor 1α/chemokine (CXC)receptor 4 signaling network, as well as through cooperative interactions between ILK and the mammalian target of rapamycin. Finally, we demonstrate that the insulin-like growth factor pathway is a potential target for therapeutic inhibition, which also distinguishes tumors of embryonal and alveolar histology. These studies provide a rationale for the development of novel agents, as well as the use of established drugs targeting these pathways in rhabdomyosarcoma.

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