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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Molecular mechanisms of the TGFβ1 Arg25Pro polymorphism related to acute radiotherapy-induced toxicity

Filonenko, Kateryna 25 March 2015 (has links)
No description available.
2

Integrin-linked Kinase (ILK) expression in moderately differentiated human oesophageal squamous carcinoma cell lines: A growth factor modulation, activity and link to adhesion

Driver, Glenn Alan 19 May 2008 (has links)
Abstract Integrin-linked Kinase (ILK) is an integrin-associated protein kinase, which regulates growth factor-signalling pathways and cell-ECM adhesion events. Abrogated ILK expression or activity has been implicated in contributing to oncogenic transformation. We examined the role played by ILK in growth factor-stimulated and integrin signalling events in five human oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines (HOSCCs), known to overexpress the EGF receptor. Western blot analysis revealed the presence of ILK (59kDa) in all the moderately differentiated HOSCC lines. ILK1 was confirmed as being the predominant isoform. Densitometrically analysed Western blots showed that, per unit of protein, ILK is expressed uniformly across the cell lines under standard culture conditions. Following EGF (10 ng/ml) and TGFβ1 (1 ng/ml) treatment, ILK expression increased in all five HOSCCs. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy showed the majority of ILK to localise at a cytoplasmic/nuclear level, with a proportion of ILK localising at the membrane, which resembled the distribution pattern of the β3 integrin subunit. This membranal distribution most likely follows that of the adhesion plaques although lesser, and variable, amounts were also identified throughout the cytoplasm. The functionality of the ILK1 kinase domain was demonstrated using myelin basic protein (MBP)-based kinase assays. EGF and TGFβ1 treatment produced an increase in ILK activity in the WHCO3 cell line of 3.5 fold, but a decrease in activity in the other cell lines, which are suggested to involve the actions of PTEN. The identification of nuclear ILK was surprising, and the mechanism for nuclear ILK localisation was suggested to involve a caveolae-associated protein, caveolin-1. Cell adhesion assays revealed that KP-392-mediated inhibition of ILK resulted in a nonsignificant reduction in cell adhesion to collagen and fibronectin. These data provide distinctive evidence for the influence of growth factors on ILK expression, but a duality in the effect on ILK activity. This apparent dichotomy is noteworthy and may be of particular relevance in HOSCC. It is further suggested that KP-392-induced ILK inhibition destabilises the αβ integrin heterodimer and that PI3K acts upstream of ILK-mediated cell adhesion events in HOSCCs. This suggests that ILK mediates integrin associated processes in human oesophageal SCC cell lines.
3

Perioperativer Verlauf der Plasmaspiegel von Osteopontin und TGF beta 1 bei HNO-Tumoren / Perioperative changes in osteopontin and TGFβ1 plasma levels in head and neck cancer

Kaiser, Philipp Johannes January 2018 (has links) (PDF)
Hintergrund: Über den Verlauf der Expression von Osteopontin (OPN) nach Tumorresektion ist bisher wenig bekannt. In dieser Studie bestimmten wir den zeitlichen Verlauf der OPN Plasmaspiegel vor und nach Operation. Methoden: Zwischen 2011 und 2013 wurden 41 Patienten mit HNO-Tumoren in einer prospektiven Studie erfasst (Gruppe A). Zu verschiedenen Zeitpunkten wurden Plasmaproben entnommen: T 0) vor, T1) am ersten postoperativen Tag, T2) eine Woche nach Operation und T3) vier Wochen nach Operation. Osteopontin und TGF β1 Plasmaspiegel wurden mit kommerziellen ELISA-Systemen bestimmt. Die Ergebnisse wurden mit 131 HNO-Tumorpatienten verglichen, von denen n=42 (Gruppe B1) primär bestrahlt, beziehungsweise n=89 (Gruppe B2) postoperativ bestrahlt wurden. Ergebnisse: Es zeigte sich ein signifikanter OPN Anstieg am ersten postoperativen Tag (T0 vs T1, p<0,01). OPN Plasmaspiegel sanken drei bis 4 Wochen nach der Operation zurück auf ihren Ausgangswert. OPN Plasmaspiegel waren positiv mit der postoperativen TGF β1 Expression korreliert, was ein Zusammenhang zu Wundheilungsprozessen vermuten lässt. Die Auswertung der Überlebenszahlen zeigte einen signifikanten Vorsprung für Patienten mit niedrigen OPN Plasmaspiegeln sowohl in der primär bestrahlten, als auch in der postoperativ bestrahlten Gruppe (B1: 33 vs 11,5 Monate, p>0,017, B2: Median nicht erreicht vs 33,4 Monate, p=0,031). TGF β1 war in Gruppe B1 ebenso prognostisch signifikant (33,0 vs 10,7 Monate, p=0,003). Schlussfolgerung: Patienten mit HNO-Tumoren zeigten einen Anstieg von Osteopontin Plasmaspiegeln unmittelbar nach Operation. Innerhalb der folgenden vier Wochen sinken die OPN Plasmaspiegel wieder auf ihr präoperatives Niveau. Der langanhaltende Anstieg hängt wahrscheinlich mit Wundheilprozessen zusammen. Die prätherapeutischen Plasmaspiegel von Osteopontin und TGF β1 hatten prognostische Aussagekraft. / Background: In head and neck cancer little is known about the kinetics of osteopontin (OPN) expression after tumor resection. In this study we evaluated the time course of OPN plasma levels before and after surgery. Methods: Between 2011 and 2013 41 consecutive head and neck cancer patients were enrolled in a prospective study (group A). At different time points plasma samples were collected: T0) before, T1) 1 day, T2) 1 week and T3) 4 weeks after surgery. Osteopontin and TGFβ1 plasma concentrations were measured with a commercial ELISA system. Data were compared to 131 head and neck cancer patients treated with primary (n=42) or postoperative radiotherapy (n=89; group B1 and B2). Results: A significant OPN increase was seen as early as 1 day after surgery (T0 to T1, p<0.01). OPN levels decreased to base line 3-4 weeks after surgery. OPN values were correlated with postoperative TGFβ1 expression suggesting a relation to wound healing. Survival analysis showed a significant benefit for patients with lower OPN levels both in the primary and postoperative radiotherapy group (B1: 33 vs 11.5 months, p=0.017, B2: median not reached vs 33.4, p=0.031). TGFβ1 was also of prognostic significance in group B1 (33.0 vs 10.7 months, p=0.003). Conclusions: Patients with head and neck cancer showed an increase in osteopontin plasma levels directly after surgery. Four weeks later OPN concentration decreased to pre-surgery levels. This long lasting increase was presumably associated to wound healing. Both pretherapeutic osteopontin and TGFβ1 had prognostic impact.
4

Transcriptional regulation of ski and scleraxis in primary cardiac myofibroblasts

Zeglinski, Matthew January 2016 (has links)
Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1) is a mediator of the fibrotic response through activation of quiescent cardiac fibroblasts to hypersynthetic myofibroblasts. Scleraxis (Scx) is a pro-fibrotic transcription factor that is induced by TGFβ1-3 and works synergistically with Smads to promote collagen expression. Ski is a negative regulator of TGFβ/Smad signaling through its interactions with Smad proteins at the promoter region of TGFβ regulated genes. To date, no studies have examined the direct DNA:protein transcriptional mechanisms that regulate Scx expression by TGFβ1-3 or Ski, nor the mechanisms that govern Ski expression by Scx. We hypothesize that Ski and Scx regulate one another, and form a negative feedback loop that represses gene expression and is a central regulator of the fibrotic response in cardiac myofibroblasts. Primary adult rat cardiac myofibroblasts were isolated via retrograde Langendorff perfusion. First passage (P1) cells were infected with adenovirus encoding HA-Ski, HA-Scx, or LacZ at the time of plating. Twenty-four hours later, cells were harvested for Western blot, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), and electrophoretic gel shift assays (EMSA). NIH-3T3 or Cos7 cells were transfected with equal quantities of plasmid DNA for 24 hours prior to harvesting for luciferase, qPCR, and EMSA analysis. Ski overexpression in P1 myofibroblasts resulted in a reduction in both Scx mRNA and protein levels. Overexpression of Scx had no effect on Ski expression. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that Scx was induced by TGFβ1 treatment in a concentration dependent manner. However, ectopic Smad2/3 expression was unable to transactivate the Scx promoter in a luciferase reporter assay. Inhibition of p44/42-MAPK signaling modestly counteracted the effect of TGFβ1 on Scx expression. Scx had no effect on Ski promoter expression, however, both tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and p65 expression repressed the Ski promoter and correlated with reduced Ski mRNA levels. We conclude that Ski is a repressor of Scx and that Scx expression is partially mediated through a Smad-independent, p44/42-MAPK pathway in cardiac myofibroblasts. Furthermore, this study proposes a role for TNFα/p65 NF-κΒ signaling in the regulation of Ski gene expression in the cardiac myofibroblast. / October 2016
5

Cell Surface GRP78 and α2-Macroglobulin in Kidney Disease / THE PROFIBROTIC ROLE OF CSGRP78/ ACTIVATED α2M SIGNALING IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF DIABETIC AND CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE

Trink, Jacqueline January 2023 (has links)
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the leading cause of end stage renal disease worldwide and occurs in up to 40% of patients with diabetes. The standard of care for DKD treatment has not kept up with the current health epidemic, which has led to a heavy economic toll and substantial health burden. Targeting either cell surface (cs)GRP78, activated α2-macroglobulin (α2M*) or preventing their interaction may provide a novel anti-fibrotic therapeutic target for the treatment of DKD and potentially non-diabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD) as well. Previously our lab has shown that HG-induced csGRP78 is a mediator of PI3k/Akt signaling and downstream extracellular matrix (ECM) protein production in glomerular mesangial cells (MC). However, the ligand responsible for activating high glucose (HG)-induced csGRP78 had not yet been determined. We have shown thus far that α2M is endogenously produced, secreted, and activated (denoted α2M*) in HG by MC, which leads to its binding to and activation thereof csGRP78. Further, α2M knockdown or α2M* neutralization attenuated Akt activation, the production of the profibrotic cytokine connective growth tissue factor (CTGF) and ECM proteins fibronectin and collagen IV. We have also shown that integrin β1 (Intβ1), a transmembrane receptor, associated with csGRP78 under HG conditions and likely acts as a tether to present csGRP78 completely extracellularly on MC. Interestingly, Intβ1 activation, even in the absence of HG, was sufficient to induce csGRP78 translocation. Further, inhibition of either csGRP78 or Intβ1 prevented synthesis, secretion and signaling of TGFβ1. This data implicates a role for Intβ1 as a required signaling partner for csGRP78-mediated profibrotic signaling. To further our understanding of csGRP78/ α2M*’s role in DKD, we investigated their ability to mediate TGFβ1 signaling through its non-proteolytic activator thrombospondin-1 (TSP1). Here, HG-induced TSP1 expression, ECM deposition, and activation of TGFβ1 was regulated by the PI3k/Akt pathway via csGRP78/α2M* in MC. Furthermore, we assessed whether this csGRP78/ α2M* axis is relevant to promoting profibrotic signaling in other renal cell types, including proximal tubule epithelial cells (PTEC) and renal fibroblasts (RF), that contribute to the pathogenesis of both later stage DKD and non-diabetic CKD. We show evidence here that HG and direct treatment with TGFβ1, a key pathologic regulator of kidney fibrosis, induce GRP78 surface translocation as well as the endogenous production and activation of α2M in both PTEC and RF. Inhibition of either csGRP78 or α2M* prevented TGFβ1 signaling measured as Smad3 activation as well as downstream ECM production. Interestingly, inhibition of this pathway under direct TGFβ1 treatment did not prevent Smad3 activation, implicating a role for Smad-independent TGFβ1 signaling through this axis. We identified the known noncanonical TGFβ1 signaling partners, yes associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional co-activator with PDZ binding motif (TAZ), are mediated by csGRP78 and α2M*. Lastly, we evaluated the potential therapeutic benefit of inhibiting csGRP78/α2M* interaction in the kidney fibrosis model, unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Here, we show evidence that inhibition of this signaling axis using an inhibitory peptide can prevent renal fibrosis. Whether this peptide also prevents fibrosis in DKD is currently being assessed. Together, these studies strongly implicate targeting csGRP78/α2M* interaction as a novel anti-fibrotic therapeutic intervention for early and late stage DKD, as well as a potential role in non-diabetic CKD. / Thesis / Doctor of Philosophy (Medical Science) / Diabetic kidney disease is the leading cause of kidney failure in developed nations. This progressive disease leads to the loss of kidney function due to an accumulation of scar proteins in the kidney over time. High glucose is a major factor that causes this to occur. Our lab studies specific kidney cells called mesangial cells, proximal tubule epithelial cells, and fibroblasts that produce scar proteins in the presence of high glucose. We have shown that when these cells are treated with high glucose, this causes the movement of a protein called GRP78 that normally resides inside the cell to move to the cell’s surface where it can interact with other proteins. My research has established that the proteins alpha 2-macroglobulin (ɑ2M), integrin β1 (Intβ1), and thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) can bind to GRP78 on the cell surface and cause cells to make scar proteins. Preventing ɑ2M or Intβ1 from binding to GRP78 or preventing TSP1 production prevents mesangial cells from making scar proteins when exposed to high glucose. In a mouse model that overproduces these scar proteins, we showed that preventing cell surface GRP78 and α2M interaction prevents scar protein production and is thus a novel potential treatment option for kidney disease.
6

Estudo comparativo dos efeitos do laser de baixa intensidade e do ultrassom terapêutico no reparo tecidual de feridas cirúrgicas cutâneas em ratos Wistar: avaliação histomorfométrica e imunoistoquímica

Lopes, Karine Helena de Souza 27 August 2012 (has links)
Submitted by Renata Lopes (renatasil82@gmail.com) on 2016-07-01T13:51:16Z No. of bitstreams: 1 karinehelenadesouzalopes.pdf: 1140714 bytes, checksum: b276a86b4727bee8ef060477fc027e6b (MD5) / Approved for entry into archive by Adriana Oliveira (adriana.oliveira@ufjf.edu.br) on 2016-07-13T16:01:04Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 karinehelenadesouzalopes.pdf: 1140714 bytes, checksum: b276a86b4727bee8ef060477fc027e6b (MD5) / Made available in DSpace on 2016-07-13T16:01:04Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 karinehelenadesouzalopes.pdf: 1140714 bytes, checksum: b276a86b4727bee8ef060477fc027e6b (MD5) Previous issue date: 2012-08-27 / O laser de baixa intensidade e o ultrassom terapêutico têm se mostrado opções para modulação da cicatrização, porém, os mecanismos de ação destas técnicas não são bem esclarecidos. Para avaliar os efeitos da laserterapia e do ultrassom terapêutico em feridas cutâneas cirúrgicas em ratos Wistar (n=24), foram utilizados quatro grupos: I (controle), II (LLLT), III (ultrassom) e IV (laserterapia e ultrassom). No décimo dia, as lesões foram fotografadas e medidas e, após removidas excisionalmente no momento da eutanásia, foram processadas para avaliação histopatológica para avaliação da densidade e organização das fibras colágenas; avaliação histomorfométrica para quantificação da angiogênese e infiltrado inflamatório; e imunoistoquímica, para expressão de TGFβ1. As amostras dos grupos tratados exibiram aspecto macroscópico mais maduro em relação ao grupo não tratado, sem diferença significativa no fechamento das lesões; microscopicamente, os resultados sugeriram que a laserterapia exerceu melhor efeito imunomodulador quando utilizado isoladamente e que o ultrassom terapêutico mostrou maior potencial angiogênico. A avaliação imunoistoquímica revelou que a maioria das células inflamatórias na área cicatricial não expressava TGFβ1. Ainda, embora a laserterapia e a aplicação do ultrassom atuem diretamente na redução do infiltrado, as terapias concomitantes não potencializam o efeito observado quando aplicadas isoladamente; apesar do tempo de fechamento das feridas não ter sido influenciado pelas terapias isoladas ou associadas, todos os tratamentos favoreceram a organização da matriz extracelular colagenosa. A LLLT isoladamente e a combinação de ambas as técnicas possibilitaram a reepitelização das feridas submetidas a estas modalidades terapêuticas. A maioria das células que migraram ou entraram em proliferação na área cicatricial não expressavam o TGFβ1, sugerindo que o controle do infiltrado inflamatório exercido pela LLLT e pelo UST não é modulado por esta citocina. / Low level laser therapy (LLLT) and therapeutic ultrasound have been demonstrated to be options for healing modulation, but the mechanisms of action involved in these processes are not clear. The effects of laser therapy and therapeutic ultrasound on surgical skin wounds in Wistar rats (n=24) were evaluated using four groups: I (control), II (LLLT), III (ultrasound) and IV (laser therapy and ultrasound). On the tenth day, the wounds were photographed and measured, and after excision at the moment of euthanasia, they were processed for histopathological evaluation to assess the density and organization of collagen fibers. In addition, histomorphometric evaluations were conducted to quantify angiogenesis and inflammatory infiltrates, and immunohistochemistry was performed to assess TGF1 expression. The samples from the treated group had a more mature macroscopic appearance compared to the untreated group, with no significant difference in wound closure. Microscopically, the results suggested that the laser therapy had a better immunomodulatory effect when used alone and that the therapeutic ultrasound showed a higher angiogenic potential. The immunohistochemical evaluation revealed that most of the inflammatory cells in the scar area did not express TGF1. Still, although the application of laser therapy and ultrasound act directly in the reduction of infiltration, the concomitant therapies do not potentiate the effect observed when applied in isolation, despite the time of wound closure was not influenced by therapy alone or associated, all treatments favored collagenous extracellular matrix organization. The LLLT alone and the combination of both techniques allowed the re-epithelialization of wounds under these treatment modalities. The majority of cells that migrated in the proliferation or entered in the cicatricial area is not expressed TGFβ1, suggesting that the control exercised by the inflammatory infiltrate and the LLLT UST is not modulated by this cytokine.

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