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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
51

Teacher education and competence in an intercultural perspective : some reflections in Brazil and the UK

Canen, Ana January 1996 (has links)
The present thesis aims to discuss the concept of competence in teacher education concerned with the preparation of teachers to deal with cultural diversity. It will focus particularly on the roles of educational theory and school experience in the development of that concept. The literature review discusses these roles as different paradigms in education, so as to locate the study with reference to them. Emphasis is given to a critical theory approach, in which the concept of intercultural perspective is understood in the scope of the study. A parallel between two countries - Brazil and the UK - attempts to contextualise the theoretical framework developed in the preceding chapter. It will be argued that, despite considerable differences, Brazil and the UK share the challenges imposed on their educational systems by the multicultural nature of their societies. The evidence of the role of teachers' perceptions and assumptions in the perpetration of education inequality in both countries is presented, and the contributions of the intercultural approach to change the situation is discussed. A case study undertaken in a higher teacher education institution in the UK highlighted the nature of some of the constraints for the development of intercultural sensitivity in the delivery of educational theory and in the school experience component. It will be argued that the persisting net of misconceptions associated with the intercultural approach, as well as the hierarchical culture in the institution in question, represented relevant factors detrimental to the development of competence in an intercultural perspective.
52

The political construction of social inclusion through Further Education policy (1997-2007)

Williams, Joanna January 2009 (has links)
This thesis explores ‘social inclusion’ as a political construction of the New Labour government between 1997 and 2007. The process of construction is frequently situated within policy from the Further Education (FE) sector. A critical discourse analysis of government documents, and interviews conducted with key policy makers, exposes the underlying ideologies and politics which were involved in the process of constructing social inclusion. The analysis reveals three dominant constructions of social inclusion that have emerged between 1997 and 2007. Most significant as a result of its recent emergence and pervasive impact, is the analysis of a psychological construction of social inclusion. This model constructs those labelled socially excluded as psychologically vulnerable; perhaps as a result of learning difficulties; a lack of self-esteem or selfconfidence; or low aspirations. FE is presented as bringing about social inclusion through offering young people guidance and support as well as raising the aspirations and self-esteem of students. A social model constructs inclusion as the development of social capital between individuals and communities, primarily through participation in FE. This thesis does not seek to laud the social model as a more positive alternative to educational instrumentalism but instead examines how a focus upon the act of participation allows for FE to become a process of social modification, which results in subject specific content being replaced with participation in any activity. An instrumental model equates social exclusion with unemployment and social inclusion with getting people re-engaged with the labour market. FE comes to be concerned with meeting the needs of the economy and providing unemployed people with the skills for employability they need to enter the workplace. This construction continues to dominate FE discourse and practice. Paradoxically, attempts to enhance employability skills, build social capital or to raise levels of self-esteem primarily through “pre-vocational” learning and training may reinforce social exclusion as those attending FE receive little in the way of high level knowledge or technical skills.
53

The effectiveness of the English language programme in Saudi state female schools with particular reference to students of medicine

Emara, Hala R. January 1994 (has links)
No description available.
54

The impact of critical reflection on a private practice singing teacher's thinking

Leiper, Tara E. January 2012 (has links)
This situated self-as-researched investigation explores the impact of critical reflection on a private practice singing teacher’s thinking. The project is based upon the use of five ‘vehicles’ through which to develop the skills of critical reflection, these being journal writing, personal writing, critical incident technique, narrative inquiry and ideology critique. Each of these vehicles is used to undertake critical reflection of singing teaching practices whereby values and assumptions are interrogated. Each of the vehicles of critical reflection used in this inquiry is evaluated for their ease of use and effectiveness in enabling critical reflection processes to be developed in the participant. Engaging in critical reflection presents the possibility for transformative learning (Mezirow 1990) whereby frames of reference are challenged and altered as a result of the processes undertaken and examples of this in action are included in this research report. This dissertation contributes to the small but growing body of research in the area of private professional music education. The private instrumental and vocal teacher often works in an isolated environment with limited development opportunities available. This research proposes that critical reflection may be a viable tool for professional development and practice improvement.
55

Education and work in Scotland : global knowledge economy, enterprise culture and entrepreneurship

Fagan, Catherine January 2008 (has links)
This thesis has grown out of interest in and observation of dilemmas for practice and attitudes to enterprise education in primary and secondary schools in Scotland. There seem to be mixed views on the purpose of enterprise education and its justification to be part of the curriculum, its relationship to other means of addressing work-related purposes of education and shifting policy interpretations that propose to link enterprise education with entrepreneurship education. This latter consideration has been highlighted more recently with the provision of financial support for enterprise education from successful and influential Scottish entrepreneurs. These circumstances are examined in the later parts of the thesis and are preceded by an analysis of the wider context and variety of connections and interrelationships between work and education. Historical, social, political, economic and cultural connections emerge as necessary disciplines for understanding work, how our concept of work has developed and how it has been related to education along the way. Historical analysis is needed in order to analyse and forecast how education and work relationships are developing today and so a history of work and its relationship with education in industrial and post-industrial economies is provided as well as consideration of developments in the traditional but more narrowly defined area of vocational education. More recent developments in global interconnectedness, communications technology and the emergence of knowledge as the major requirement of our 21st Century lives have altered the balance in the education and work relationship making education the more proactive agent in the pair. Educational policy and practice have in the past been shaped by political and economic changes in society but contemporary attitudes to the importance of knowledge, its application and its transfer, in stimulating economic growth have made learning a sought after ‘commodity’ and education, although slow to make major changes to school practice, is now in a position to shape the nature and practice of work and workplaces. It emerges in the thesis that although education has been and is influenced by political, social and economic requirements, policy makers arguably have not paid much attention to the social sciences or to philosophical considerations when considering curriculum development. Likewise social science and philosophical enclaves have not shown much interest in educational theory and practice. Only recently have education faculties been established in many UK universities and begun to develop research cultures that in other disciplines already have long traditions and prestige. The chapters of the thesis bring together a broad and original compilation of areas of study that provide a scenario of connections that have the potential to inform, motivate and increase the understanding of educators and the makers of education policy when addressing the work-related aims of education. The final chapter sums up the scope of the variety of influences on the relationship between education and work and proposes that, although they provide very necessary bases for understanding, they have over time diminished what the thesis claims to be a necessary element in all education and educational policy deliberations, including those on education for work: that of value-based considerations for the development of the human person. Suggested ways forward for schools and course design, teacher education and education policy making are provided in the light of the deliberations of the thesis.
56

Lessons from language : tensions and dichotomies in the policy and practice of CPD in Scotland, 2001-2011

Murray, Frances Marion MacFarlane January 2012 (has links)
Continuing Professional Development (CPD) was situated as both a right and an obligation at the heart of Scottish education by the McCrone Report of 2000, and the ensuing agreement, A Teaching Profession for the 21st Century (2001). CPD was, and continues to be, construed as having the potential to transform teaching and improve learning. Further, CPD was promoted by the Report as having a key role in the re-professionalisation of the teaching profession. In the decade since the Teachers’ Agreement, however, levels of engagement with CPD initiatives, the review and repositioning of particular schemes, and the perceived impact on learning and teaching point to a tension between the discourse of CPD and the reality of its implementation. The publication of the McCormac Report in September 2011 signalled anticipated changes to teachers’ conditions of employment, which will inevitably include changes to CPD. This publication provides an opportunity to reflect on whether the Teachers’ Agreement has delivered the intended benefits for both teachers and pupils in terms of CPD, and to examine the impact of language or discourse in shaping attitudes to, uptake of, and engagement with CPD. This thesis looks at the language and implementation of the Teachers’ Agreement and related policies within the wider educational landscape in order to explore the tensions between discourse and actuality, to suggest reasons for such tensions, and to suggest transformed practice in terms of the discourse of CPD. In terms of methodology, critical discourse analysis is used to examine the language of CPD closely; policy analysis to describe and analyse the implementation of particular initiatives; narrative analysis to contextualise developments in CPD; and insider reflection to bring a personal perspective to bear on particular aspects of CPD. This combination of methodologies has been chosen in order to allow an in-depth study of nuances of language in policy discourse, changes in policy implementation, and location of such policy in the broader educational agenda. The study contends that CPD is not generally viewed as an uncontested good; indeed, engagement with various CPD initiatives has been limited for a number of reasons, including an underlying and fundamental tension between the concept of professionalism and a view of CPD which is related to a ‘standards’ framework. In contending that discourse is fundamental to the interpretation of and engagement with policy, the thesis points up the necessity to pay due regard to the nuances of language employed in denoting policy, and to addressing underlying tensions in the concept of CPD. Policy makers need to be acutely aware of the central role which language plays in the shaping and interpretation of policy and to learn from the experience of the last decade. CPD continues to be described by many influential figures and bodies as fundamental to the future development of Scottish education. At the same time, however, the educational agenda is dominated by the introduction of a new curriculum (Curriculum for Excellence or CfE), and CPD budgets are threatened by financial and economic imperatives, driven by the continued constraints on local and national government spending. It is vital that the discourse of the McCormac Report, and subsequent policy, is carefully constructed to avoid cynical and negative interpretations, such as suggestions that fewer ‘set piece’ CPD events are as a result of cost-cutting. I contend that lessons must be learned from the experiences of the last decade in the discourse and implementation of the policy related to CPD in order to ensure the intended impact on learners.
57

An investigation of influences affecting Libyan English as Foreign Language University Teachers (LEFLUTs), teaching approaches in the language classrooms

Elabbar, Ageila Ali January 2011 (has links)
Abstract: In this thesis I aim to investigate the influences affecting the teaching approaches adopted by Libyan English as foreign Language University teachers (LEFLUTs) in language classrooms. The thesis explores the context in which LEFLUTs work in terms of the opportunities and challenges of teaching English in Libyan universities. In particular, the concept of two generations of teachers, Older Generation Teachers (OGTs) and Newer Generation Teachers (NGTs),resulting from significant political and cultural shifts in attitudes to the English speaking world that have occurred in Libya in recent times, is critically examined . The perceptions of teachers in one university in Libya were analysed through their responses to a series of scenarios presenting typical problems encountered by EFL teachers in the classroom. The scenarios were designed to elicit their interpretation of the situation, the kinds of knowledge and experience they drew upon and the pedagogical strategies they might employ to deal with the situation. In addition to scenarios, semi-structured interviews enabled the respondents to develop and expand on their interpretations. The design and use of scenarios represents an innovative approach to research in the Libyan context where very little work has been done to try to understand how teachers make sense of their practice and how the negotiate the challenges of the political and cultural context. The investigation of the influences affecting LEFLUTs has drawn upon the work of Shulman on the different forms of knowledge required in teaching and the absence of a well developed body of pedagogical content knowledge within the LEFLUTs community is discussed. The need for more opportunities for initial and continuing professional development (CPD), raised in the interviews is set within the context of typology of CPD that emphasises the benefits of working within a community of practice, and an approach to professional development through action research is proposed. The overarching theoretical framework for the thesis is social constructivism both in terms of understanding the dynamic influencing how the LEFLUTs make sense of their experience and also in the proposals for developing an approach to CPD.
58

Empirical modelling as a new paradigm for educational technology

Harfield, Antony James January 2007 (has links)
Educational technology has yet to deliver the benefits or successes that were expected in educational practice, especially in relation to issues other than the communication and delivery of teaching materials. Evidence suggests that these difficulties stem from the mismatch between formalised virtual learning environments and everyday sensemaking and between the rich potential for enhanced learning afforded by new technology and the constraints of old-style educational practice. In addressing this mismatch, some commentators suggest that the primary need is for a new culture of educational practice-and even that such a culture is already emerging, and others identify the need for a new paradigm for educational technology. The aim of this thesis is to explore the potential for a new paradigm for educational technology based on the principles and tools of Empirical Modelling (see http://dcs.warwick.ac.uk/modelling). The thesis builds upon previous research on Empirical Modelling as a constructionist approach to learning, and in particular Roe's doctoral thesis 'Computers for learning: an Empirical Modelling perspective'. Roe's treatment of Empirical Modelling can be viewed as generalising the use of spreadsheets for learning through applying 'programming by dependency' within the framework of existing educational practice. In contrast, this thesis is concerned at a more fundamental level with the contribution that Empirical Modelling can make to technology enhanced learning that may lead to new educational practices. In particular, it identifies eight significant characteristics of learning that are well-matched to Empirical Modelling activity, and associates these with experimental, flexible and meaningful strands in learning. The credentials of Empirical Modelling as a potential new foundation for educational technology are enhanced by demonstrating that Empirical Modelling is radically different from traditional software development and use. It provides a methodology for modelling with dependency that is more closely related to the use of spreadsheets for learning. The thesis elaborates on the relationship between Empirical Modelling and learning in a variety of different contexts, ways and applications. Three examples drawn from computer science higher education are explored to emphasise the experimental, flexible and meaningful characteristics of Empirical Modelling. This discussion of Empirical Modelling in a specific educational context is complemented by an investigation of its relevance to learning in a wider context, with reference to a broad range of subjects, to specific issues in language learning, and to the topics of lifelong learning and collaborative learning. Although the application of Empirical Modelling for learning is as yet too immature for large scale empirical studies, its potential is evaluated using informal empirical evidence arising from Empirical Modelling practice at Warwick. The sources for this evaluation are well-established teaching activities relating to Empirical Modelling in Computer Science at the University of 'Warwick, comprising an introductory module and a number of final year undergraduate projects. The thesis concludes by considering the extent to which Empirical Modelling can go beyond the support for constructionism envisaged by Roe, to address the broader agenda of supporting constructivist learning using computers. To this end, a close relationship between Empirical Modelling and a vision of constructivism recently set out by Bruno Latour in his paper 'The Promises of Constructivism' is demonstrated.
59

Continuing professional development for teachers in Thailand

Tantranont, Nuttiya January 2009 (has links)
Continuing Professional Development (CPD) of teachers has been seen as one of a key element to improve teacher quality and the quality of education in many countries, as well as in Thailand. The current Thai education reforms have recognized the importance of CPD for teachers to maintain and update their knowledge and skills to be able to teach students effectively. They also recognized the need of effective leadership in schools to lead, manage, and support teachers in order to achieve such change. The purpose of this study is to support CPD experiences for teachers to enhance teaching practice and improve student achievement. It was undertaken using a combined methods investigations of both quantitative and qualitative data to understand the current situation of CPD experiences for teachers in Thailand, and extend the knowledge of effective CPD. The study covered respondents from a survey of teachers, and the interviews of headteachers and teachers from selected schools in Chiang Mai, which is located in the North of the country. It was concluded in the study that most respondents were appreciated opportunities for CPD and valued the benefits of CPD to teachers, students, and the schools as a whole. With the increased expectations for highly qualified teachers, all schools need to provide the necessary support for teachers through a range of CPD experiences to enable them to teach to high standards. CPD must be of the highest quality to be effective in order to enhance the teaching practice and student achievement. The study hope that the results and information provided here would be valuable for anyone who are interested in, as well as those who are responsible for an improvement and implementation of CPD.
60

A study of methods of evaluating multimedia materials for language learning

Sherazi, Saima Nawaz January 2007 (has links)
There is a long tradition of paper based materials evaluation in ELT, but at this juncture, a scarcity of studies on ELT Multimedia (MM) materials evaluation. Such studies as have been undertaken have tended to adopt the perspective of the materials developer rather than the end user. But there have been no developed studies of evaluation methods which could be adopted by potential users. Despite calls being made for systematic evaluation, not many proposals have been developed, and there has been little exploration of potential best practice, or of the 'goodness of fit' between methods and evaluation puposes. This study aims to investigate evaluation methods in order to establish best practice in the evaluation of multimedia CALL applications, with a focus on learners' experience and opinions, and with the aim of enabling potential teacher-users of CALL materials to gauge the suitability of materials for their learners. Chapter one of this thesis provides a rationale for this study and an overview of the background to this research. Chapter two presents a review of literature undertaken in four domains: educational evaluation and research methods; Human Computer Interaction (HCI) usability evaluation methods; ELT materials evaluation; and studies ofCALL materials in use. Chapter three focuses on the design and conduct of the study by explaining how some methods of evaluation were trialled in a pilot study and four were selected for adoption and analysis in the main study. The methods selected were Foeu.r Groups, Rttrospective Protorolr, PLUM and SUM! Questionnaires and Activity Monitonitg. To determine the qualities and limitations of these methods, a set of criteria was developed from the literature on software usability evaluation methods in HCI and a broader literature on educational evaluation and research methods. The four data study chapters (4-7) each discuss one of the chosen methods and descnbe how the method was ,6perationalised in an evaluation of learner responses to multimedia software. The final chapter draws together the discussion of the findings and presents different proposals for best practice. The focus in the discussion of findings is on how the chosen methods performed according to the set of criteria. The findings confirm that focus groups and questionnaires are quick and efficient methods whereas retrospective protocols and activity monitoring provide more detailed and protracted data. Teacher evaluators can be guided by the objectives of their evaluation to explore different combinations ofthese methods. Participants in the pilot were 12 ESL students from the University of Warwick and in the main study 45 Freshman/sophomore students from a university in Pakistan. The materials used to operationalise methods were the EASE CD-ROMS listening to Lectures and Seminar Skills 1: Presentations. The research contributes to the field in undertaking an in-depth and extensive study of evaluation methods applicable to CALL materials, whi~ adopt a leamer-centred perspective, and conform to sound principles within educational evaluation, yet which draw on practice in the field of HCI, since this expertise is so relevant in the rapid development of multimedia materials for use in ELT. Moreover, by developing the composite set of core criteria this study has created a tool which practitioners in the field can use to select most appropriate methods for their particular evaluation purposes.

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