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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

Exploring the use and relevance of narrative approaches to psycho-social interventions in the south African context : a mixed methods content analysis

Smit, Christelle January 2016 (has links)
This study aims to explore the use and relevance of Narrative approaches to psycho-social interventions in the South African context. The profession of psychology in South Africa has been in a state of discontentment since the country’s turn to democracy in 1994 which has been voiced from both those within the profession and those it aims to assist. The loudest call is for a psychology that is relevant to the South African context – culturally, socially, and politically. Narrative approaches to psychotherapy and psycho-social intervention are grounded in post-modern and social-constructionist thought and offer an alternative to mainstream psychological theory. Narrative practice aims to promote social justice and views therapy as a political act. It is also an approach that values local knowledges and sees all therapeutic engagements as cross-cultural encounters which are approached with curiosity and a not-knowing stance, rather than an interpretive, analytical lens. This study has investigated what the existing literature has produced regarding the use and relevance of Narrative approaches in South Africa context. The research process was implemented using a mixed methods research methodology whereby a sample of 58 journal articles (n=58) were analysed using both quantitative and qualitative content analysis. The common themes that emerged from the articles were ‘viewing people in context’, ‘listening to the telling of stories’, ‘theoretical constructs of a narrative approach’, and ‘social phenomena’.

Exploring employees' need for the development of an employee assistance programme at a welfare organisation

Mncunzwa, Gcobisa January 2017 (has links)
The study was conducted in order to determine the employee needs for an employee assistance programme in a welfare organisation in East London, Eastern Cape. This study was born out of a need from the management of this welfare organisation in East London who identified a need for an employee assistance Programme (EAP) within their organisation. According to management, there was a decline in productivity, and high stress levels due to high caseloads and societal demands (Leeuw, May 15, 2015). The theoretical framework that guided this research was systems theory. The rationale for using systems theory is that this study deals with individuals within an organisation who must coexist on a daily basis. There is a general belief that people and their physical-social-cultural environment interact in processes of mutual reciprocity and complementary exchanges (Merton, 2009). A qualitative approach was used in this study. Eight (8) employees from various levels in a welfare organisation were purposively selected to participate in the study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the participants and the interviews took more than forty-five (45) minutes each and this enabled the acquisition of rich information which is described in the findings and is used as a basis for the recommendations in the study. After the examination of the needs of employees for an EAP from the observations of both the employer and the employee it was clear that there is a need for employee assistance programmes in welfare organisations. Employees in this organisation are experiencing stress, burnout and were highly concerned about high caseloads that makes them feel incompetent to render adequate and quality services to their employees. The study also revealed that both employees and management of this organisation have different needs, experience different types of problems and view the EAP in different contexts. Despite the differences in their outlook on the situation, the evidence indicates that both employer and employee perceive that there is a need for an EAP, especially clinical services. At the same time, the issue of funding such a programme is also a concern. Recommendations were made for the organisation to develop an EAP to address the needs identified by employees, and for a clear communication strategy be developed to make all levels of employees within the organisation aware of the existence of such a programme. Another recommendation was made for the organisation to identify specific days on which they will conduct preventative awareness and debriefing sessions for the employees. It was also recommended that the South African Council for Social Services Professionals must standardise, regulate and monitor caseloads for the social work profession.

Estimating maize grain yield from crop growth stages using remote sensing and GIS in the Free State Province, South Africa

Mditshwa, Sithembele January 2017 (has links)
Early yield prediction of a maize crop is important for planning and policy decisions. Many countries, including South Africa use the conventional techniques of data collection for maize crop monitoring and yield estimation which are based on ground-based visits and reports. These methods are subjective, very costly and time consuming. Empirical models have been developed using weather data. These are also associated with a number of problems due to the limited spatial distribution of weather stations. Efforts are being made to improve the accuracy and timeliness of yield prediction methods. With the launching of satellites, satellite data are being used for maize crop monitoring and yield prediction. Many studies have revealed that there is a correlation between remotely sensed data (vegetation indices) and crop yields. The satellite based approaches are less expensive, save time, data acquisition covers large areas and can be used to estimate maize grain yields before harvest. This study applied Landsat 8 satellite based vegetation indices, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) and Moisture Stress Index (MSI) to predict maize crop yield. These vegetation indices were derived at different growth stages. The investigation was carried out in the Kopanong Local Municipality of the Free State Province, South Africa. Ground-based data (actual harvested maize yields) was collected from Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF). Satellite images were acquired from Geoterra Image (Pty) Ltd and weather data was from the South African Weather Service (SAWS). Multilinear regression approaches were used to relate yields to the remotely sensed indices and meteorological data was used during the development of yield estimation models. The results showed that there are significant correlations between remotely sensed vegetation indices and maize grain yield; up to 63 percent maize yield was predicted from vegetation indices. The study also revealed that NDVI and SAVI are better yield predictors at reproductive growth stages of maize and MSI is a better index to estimate maize yield at both vegetative and reproductive growth stages. The results obtained in this study indicated that maize grain yields can be estimated using satellite indices at different maize growth stages.

Synthesis of modified zinc oxide nanoparticles using pneumatic spray pyrolysis for solar cell application

Ntozakhe, Luyolo January 2017 (has links)
In this work, the pneumatic spray pyrolysis was used to synthesize un-doped and carbon doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles. The zinc acetate, tetrabutylammonium bromide and ethanol were used as starting materials for the desired ZnO nanoparticles and the prepared samples were annealed at 400 oC in the furnace. The as synthesized un-doped and carbon doped ZnO NPs were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopy (RS) and Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis). XRD analysis of the synthesized NPs revealed peaks at 31.90°, 34.50°, 36.34°, 47.73°, 56.88°, 63.04°, 68.20°, and 77.33° belonging to the hexagonal Wurtzite ZnO crystal structure. The incorporation of C species into ZnO lattice was cross examined by monitoring the peak positions of the (100), (002) and (001) planes. These three main peaks of C-ZnO NPs show a peak shift to higher 2θ values which indicates substitutional carbon doping in ZnO NPs. SEM analysis has revealed that the as synthesized NPs have spherical shape and the morphology of the NPs change as the concentration of carbon increases. The EDX spectra of both un-doped and doped ZnO nanoparticles have revealed prominent peaks at 0.51 keV, 1.01 keV, 1.49 keV, 8.87 keV and 9.86 keV. Peaks at, X-ray energies of 0.51 keV and 1.01 keV respectively represent the emissions from the K-shell of oxygen and L-shell of zinc. The L-shell emission at 1.01 keV is considered as convolution of Zn 2p3/2 and Zn 2p1/2 photoelectron energies. The occurrence of these peaks in the EDX endorses the existence of Zn and O atoms in the PSP prepared samples. HRTEM analysis has revealed NPs size modal range from 6.65-14.21 nm for the PSP synthesized samples which is in mutual agreement with the XRD data calculated values. More over the selected area diffraction images displaying the fact that only the diffraction planes of (101), (002) and (100) are responsible for the diffraction pattern belonging to Wurtzite ZnO. RS analysis has revealed that the un-doped ZnO and doped ZnO samples have characteristic Raman vibration modes at 325 cm-1, and 434 cm-1 belonging to Wurtzite ZnO structure. Moreover, the prominent peak at 434 cm-1 which is the characteristic peak of E2(2) (high) mode of the Wurtzite ZnO and the E2(2) (high) has been red shifted by 4 cm-1, as compared to that found in the bulk ZnO. Additionally, the effect of carbon doping through Raman spectroscopy peak shifts of the E2(2) (high) mode, A1(LO) mode and multi-phonon has also been considered and discussed in detail. UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy has revealed a red shift of the absorption edge with increase in C doping. Finally, the effect of nano-crystallite size and gradual prominence of C into ZnO lattice due to increase in C doping concentration in the PSP prepared nanoparticles was meticulously elaborated through Raman Spectroscopy analysis.

Prevalence of Group B streptococcus and staphylococcus aureus colonization in the anogenital tract of pregnant women in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

Stofile, P Z January 2017 (has links)
Neonatal sickness and death is increasingly becoming a public health problem worldwide. The colonization of Group B Streptococcus and Staphylococcus in the rectovaginal area is among the sources of infections in neonates which can result in illness and mortality. The over exposure of humans to antibiotics is the possible cause of resistance in bacteria. These resistant strains can be passed onto offspring, leading to resistant infections and increasing the morbidity of neonates because of treatment failures. Many people, including healthcare personnel are not aware of the effect of these bacteria, and informing clinics and hospitals can help create awareness and monitoring the levels of resistance among bacteria can assist in preventing the transference of the bacteria. In this study we investigated the prevalence of group B Streptococcus (GBS) and Staphylococcus aureus in the anogenital tract of pregnant women in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. A total of 49 isolates from 25 (30.5 percent) pregnant women colonized with GBS were isolated from vaginal and rectal swabs of 82 pregnant women at 25-37 gestation who participated in this study. These isolates were obtained using standard microbiological methods and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique aimed at the ScpB gene. The isolates were further screened for the presence of 9 serogroups (Ia, Ib, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VII) and serogroups Ib 2 (4.8 percent), II 20 (40.8 percent) and IV 5 (10.2 percent) and 22 non-typable (44.9 percent) were identified. Susceptibility profiling of the isolates to 12 antibiotics (tetracycline, clindamycin, erythromycin, gentamycin, naladixic acid, norfloxacin, chloramphenicol, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, imipenem, penicillin and vancomycin) was tested in vitro by the standardized disc diffusion method. All the confirmed GBS isolates (49) were resistant to erythromycin, tetracycline and clindamycin. A higher percentage of the isolates were resistant to gentamycin 44 (90 percent), nalidixic acid 41 (84 percent), penicillin 41 (84 percent), chloramphenicol 38 (78 percent), cefuroxime 36 (74 percent), imipenem 36 (74 percent), cefotaxime 35 (71 percent), norfloxacin 32 (65 percent) and vancomycin 31 (78 percent). Multiple antimicrobial resistance patterns ranged from 9‒11 and indices ranged from 0.7‒0.9, respectively. Among the antimicrobial resistance determinants examined, genes encoding for resistance to erythromycin ermB 25 (51 percent), tetracycline tetM 32 (65 percent) and penicillin bla-Z 4 (8 percent) only were identified. On the other hand, screening for S. aureus yielded a total of 7 isolates from 4 study participants as confirmed by PCR based on staphylococcal, nuc gene. The isolates were further screened for the presence of six virulence genes (Hla, Hlb, LUKM, LUKED, PVL, Eta and Etb) and antibiotic susceptibility pattern by the disc diffusion method using 12 (penicillin, vancomycin, tetracycline, rifampicin, imipenem, gentamycin, chloramphenicol, norfloxacin, oxacillin, erythromycin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim) antibiotics that are adopted in the treatment of infections caused by the organism. PVL 6 (85.7 percent) and eta 1 (14.3 percent) were the two virulence genes detected. The following percentages of antibiotics resistance among the isolates were observed; penicillin G 7 (100 percent), clindamycin 7 (100 percent), vancomycin 5 (100 percent), rifampicin 5 (71 percent), oxacillin 5 (71 percent), erythromycin 5 (71 percent) gentamycin 3 (43 percent), norfloxacin 3 (43 percent), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim 3 (43 percent), chloramphenicol 2 (29 percent), imipenem 1 (14 percent). Multiple antimicrobial resistance patterns ranged from 7‒8 and indices ranged from 0.6‒0.7, respectively. Genetic profiling of the resistance genes identified erythromycin ermB 5(71.4 percent), tetracycline tetM 5(71.4 percent) and penicillin bla-Z 1(14.3 percent) only. The findings from the study have revealed GBS and S. aureus colonization of pregnant women in the Eastern Cape Province, and these have great public health implications especially for the neonates who are mostly likely to be infected during birth. The unidentifiable multidrug resistant serogroups of GBS as well as resistant S. aureus limit the choice of drugs in the management of infections caused by these pathogens more so if transmitted to infants. Therefore asymptomatic pregnant women needed to be properly educated about the bacteria as well as the precautions that need to be taken.

Physiochemical, fatty acids, lipid oxidation, sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of warthog cabanossi produced with pork backfat and fat-tailed sheep backfat

Mahachi, Leo Nyikadzino January 2017 (has links)
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different fat inclusion levels and fat types on the physical and chemical attributes, lipid oxidation, fatty acid composition and sensory characteristics of warthog cabanossi. To achieve this, three types of cabanossi with different pork backfat levels (10 percent, 20 percent and 30 percent) were produced for the first experiment. The results from the study showed that different inclusion levels of pork backfat had an influence (P ≤ 0.05) on the physicochemical and fatty acid composition of warthog cabanossi but did not influence lipid oxidation (P > 0.05). The highest (P ≤0.05) pH, weight and moisture decline was observed in the 10 percent pork backfat cabanossi compared to the 20 percent and 30 percent treatments. However, no differences (P > 0.05) in the water activity of the product were observed. As expected total fat was lower in the 10 percent fat treatment and increased concomitantly. Similarly, protein, ash and salt were higher in the 10 percent fat cabanossi and decreased concomitantly. Differences in the fatty acid composition were observed between treatments. Furthermore, backfat level affected the sensory attributes and consumer acceptance of the cabanossi. Ten percent backfat cabanossi was scored higher (P ≤0.05) for most sensory attributes. Consequently, it was observed that the consumer panel preferred and scored the 10 percent fat cabanossi higher with regards to appearance and taste. In the second experiment, two cabanossi treatments of different fat types (pork backfat and fat-tailed sheep backfat) were produced. The weight loss, moisture content, pH, water activity and salt content did not differ (P > 0.05) between the two cabanossi products. However, there were differences (P ≤0.05) in the protein, fat and ash contents; where protein and ash were higher in the pork backfat cabanossi whilst fat was higher in the sheep backfat cabanossi. Thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) were similar (P > 0.05) between the two fat types cabanossi which could be explained by similar fatty acid profiles being reported for the two cabanossi although the n-6:n-3 ratio was higher (P ≤0.05) in sheep backfat cabanossi. Results from the descriptive sensory analysis showed two distinct products (P ≤0.01) where pork backfat cabanossi scored higher for most attributes. However, the lower scores for sheep backfat cabanossi were within an acceptable range. Sheep backfat cabanossi were also scored for unique attributes that were not detected in the pork backfat cabanossi. This study concluded that fat-tailed sheep backfat can be used to produce an unique cabanossi product of acceptable quality.

The relationship between religion/spirituality and the general psychological well-being of the institutionalized elderly population in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

Walton, Karen Lynn January 2015 (has links)
Psychological well-being has a number of known benefits and is important for the quality of life of the elderly in particular. South Africa can be considered a religious country with the majority of citizens identifying with some religious orientation. The elderly are considered to be a more religious segment of the population, leading to a quantitative exploratory study being undertaken in order to ascertain whether a correlation exists between psychological well-being and religiosity/spirituality in the elderly institutionalised population of South Africa. The General Psychological Well-Being Scale and ASPIRES was administered to a convenience sample of 336 participants in the Eastern Cape Province. A significant but weak positive correlation was found between the variables of psychological well-being and religiosity. A difference was also found between White and African participants’ level of psychological well-being. An ANOVA was performed on the demographic information collected from participants. It was found that higher levels of education and access to private medical care were associated with higher levels of psychological well-being. A regression analysis was also performed on the data. It was found that although religiosity/spirituality does account for some of the variance, there were still a large number of other factors that influence psychological well-being in the elderly that were not captured in this study. Limitations of the study are that the results can’t be generalised to elderly residing at home. All of the participants also lived in urban areas and so differences may be found with rural elderly. Some further directions for research are discussed.

Power Structures in the Age of Sanatoria : A digital examination of historical patient experience in Mörsil, Sweden

Hansson, Elin January 2022 (has links)
Introduction. This thesis examines historical patients’ experiences of staying in sanatoria in Mörsil, Sweden, with a special focus on power structures within the institution. This thesis project is simultaneously a scholarly digital humanities inquiry using digitised sources as the material of study, and a hands-on digital humanities project in the form of a digital archive containing the materials examined in this study. Previous research suggests that there is a need to nuance the modern narrative about patients in sanatoria, and that studying patients’ own accounts is one way to do this. Method. Letters, brochures, programs, and newspaper articles and notices were studied in this thesis. Handwritten materials were automatically transcribed using the artificial intelligence tool Transkribus Lite. Omeka.net was used to publish the digitised collection online. A qualitative conventional content analysis was used to aid interpretation and processing of the study’s materials. Analysis. This study used Foucault’s (1995) theory of discipline to analyse patients’ own stories, and printed materials from the sanatoria, in order to examine the presence of power imbalances. Results. The results of this study show many varied signs of institutionalised discipline. They also provide insight into patients’ experiences at the sanatoria related to medical treatments and sanatoria practices. Conclusion. This study concludes that studying patients’ stories can provide unique insight into the practices, treatments, and the patient experience in sanatoria. This knowledge contributes to nuancing the modern view on sanatoria and its patients. / Introduktion. Den här uppsatsen undersöker historiska patienters upplevelser av att spendera tid på de sanatorier som fanns i Mörsil, Jämtland, med ett särskilt fokus på maktstrukturer inom institutionen. Uppsatsen består både av en akademisk digital humaniorafrågeställning med digitaliserade källor som empiriskt material, och ett praktiskt digitaliseringsprojekt. Tidigare forskning föreslår att det finns anledning att nyansera det moderna narrativet kring sanatoriepatienter, samt att studie av patienternas egna berättelser är ett bra sätt att åstadkomma detta på.  Metod. Brev, broschyrer, program samt tidskriftsartiklar och -notiser studerades i denna uppsats. Handskrivet material transkriberades automatiskt genom Transkribus Lite som är baserat på artifciell intelligens. Omeka.net användes för att publicera studiens digitaliserade material online. En kvalitativ konventionell innehållsanalys användes för att tolka och tematisera studiens material.  Analys. Den här uppsatsen använde Foucaults (1995) teori om disciplin för att analysera patienters berättelser och publicerat material från sanatorierna. Resultat. Resultaten av den här studien visar på många olika typer av institutionaliserad disciplin. Resultaten ger även inblick i andra aspekter av patienternas upplevelser, exempelvis kopplat till medicinska behandlingar och sanatoriverksamheten i stort. Slutsats. Uppsatsen visar att studien av patienters egna berättelser kan ge en unik inblick i de praktiker, behandlingar och uppplevelser som ägde rum på svenska sanatorier. Den här kunskapen bidrar till att nyansera den moderna synen på sanatorier och dess patienter.

An appraisal of the role of the National Rural Youth Service Corps in youth development in peri-urban Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality, South Africa

Noruka, Asanda January 2017 (has links)
Youth unemployment is a global problem, but more-so in Southern globally positioned countries such as South Africa. The government of South Africa has implemented different interventions that attempt to alleviate national youth unemployment. Some of these programmes, such as the National Rural Youth Service Corps (NARYSEC), specifically target youth in rural and peri-urban areas. NARYSEC aims to develop skills of the youth in rural and peri-urban areas as well as assist in rural development. Despite the introduction of NARYSEC, unemployment among the youth continues to be a problem. Against this background, this study sought to examine rural youth and development interventions implemented by NARYSEC in peri-urban Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality. Furthermore, the study assessed the extent to which NARYSEC interventions are contributing to rural youth and development in peri-urban Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality. Lastly, the study examined the limitations of NARYSEC interventions in peri-urban youth development. To achieve the above objectives, the study used a qualitative research approach. The sampling procedure was purposive as the research required specific participants who have gone through NARYSEC training. A total of 24 respondents were eventually selected. In-depth, semi-structured interviews and key informant interviews were the primary data collection tools. Some of the main findings are that NARYSEC provides various skills training programmes which prepare young people for the labour market. NARYSEC interventions are also helping communities to reduce crime through providing youth employment opportunities. Furthermore, some youth actively participate in rural development projects such as rehabilitation of local clinics and construction projects. However, the study also found that there are a number of limitations and challenges that are experienced in the implementation of the NARYSEC programme. These challenges include lack of strategic planning in the programme, irregular stipend payments, strained professional relationships between NARYSEC programme facilitators and youth participants, limited passion and commitment to the programme by both youth participants and facilitators.

Evaluation of some pseudomonas species isolated from Hogsback forest reserve for the production of antibacterial compounds

Mkono, Yonela Pelokazi January 2017 (has links)
Pseudomonas species are Gram-negative bacteria most abundant in soil and water bodies, with the capacity to thrive in varied environments. They are largely associated with resistant pathogenic bacteria linked to human and plant diseases. Species such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been particularly targeted as case studies due to the extremity to which they pose a threat to human health. With more focus directed at using these species for biocontrol and bioremediation purposes, their role in bioactive compound production may be equally important. As the crisis on antimicrobial resistance still persists, the need for effective antimicrobial compounds is ever more urgent and solutions may possibly still be dormant in bacterial species whose potential has not been fully investigated. On a bid to source out potential antimicrobial compound producers, soil samples were collected from Hogback forest reserve in the province of the Eastern Cape, South Africa. For bacterial screening, M1 and R2A agar were used and the cultures grown at 37˚C for a period of seven days. After the presumed Pseudomonas species were identified, antimicrobial production was determined by submerged fermentation method using nutrient broth as media of choice. Active isolates were further studied to determine the optimum conditions which best facilitate for antimicrobial compound production, with parameters such as temperature (25˚C – 40˚C) and pH (4 – 9) considered. The role plasmids play in antimicrobial compound production was also investigated. Each isolate was grown in fermentation media containing Sodium dodecyl sulphate and Ethedium Bromide, at varying concentrations, to facilitate for plasmid curing. With each sample, distinct colonies were identified with varying pigmentations most dominant being a cream colour. The identity of the isolated strains was achieved through sequencing of 16S rDNA. Phylogenetic analysis showed that isolate A16 had 80 percent homology with Pseudomonas plecoglossicida strain P4 and share a close ancestor with isolates Y52 and Y81, also isolate Y89 showed a 90 percent homology with Pseudomonas sp. Co-11a. With the exception of isolate A16, the isolates which were active against Gram-negative bacteria lost activity as the screening processes continued. When looking at temperature variations, isolates Y81 and A16 were highly active with maximum activity observed at 35˚C while Y89 performed best at 25˚C and Y52 showed constant activity across all studied temperatures. The plasmids in all isolates were found to be 48.5 kb in size with the exception of isolate Y89 which was 20 kb. The plasmids were cured at concentrations of (1 mg/ml; 5 mg/ml; 7 mg/ml; 10 mg/ml; 11 mg/ml) SDS and (125 μg/ml; 6.5 μg/ml; 5μg/ml) EtBr. The curing process also showed changes in both the antimicrobial activity of the isolates as well as their physical characteristics. The isolates are the first reported Pseudomonas species from Hogsback forest reserve with the ability to produce antimicrobial compounds which are active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. These mesophilic bacteria also show that plasmids do not pay any role in the production of antimicrobial compounds and that the biosynthesis genes are highly likely to be chromosomal borne meaning that the production cannot be linked to horizontal transfer of genes. Therefore, these isolated Pseudomonas species provide a potential reservoir of antimicrobial compounds which may play an important role in the antimicrobial resistance phenomenon.

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