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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

Development of paleo-oxygenation proxies : new insights into Mn/Ca ratios and pore patterns of benthic foraminiferal tests / Développement de proxies de paléo-oxygénation basés sur la géochimie des foraminifères benthiques

Petersen, Jassin 03 April 2017 (has links)
L’objectif principal de cette thèse était de comprendre comment la variabilité temporelle et spatiale de l’oxygénation de l’eau de fond est enregistrée dans le test des foraminifères benthiques, à travers le rapport Mn/Ca et les paramètres des pores. Pour atteindre cet objectif, Ammonia tepida, un groupe d’espèces pseudocryptiques, du Grevelingenmeer (Pays-Bas) a été principalement étudié. A ce site, le gradient bathymétrique est accompagné par une augmentation de la durée et de l’intensité de l’hypoxie/anoxie saisonnière qui influence indirectement le rapport Mn/Ca et directement la porosité d’A. tepida. Notre étude de la Zone à Oxygène Minimum de la Mer d’Arabie suggère la présence d’un important biais diagénétique dans le signal Mn/Ca lors de la transition d’un foraminifère vivant vers un test fossile. En conclusion de cette thèse, la composition Mn/Ca d’un test des foraminifères benthiques dans notre zone d’étude semble être influencée par trois facteurs temporelles 1) l’oxygénation du milieu benthique et la position de la zone redox enrichie en Mn2+ dans l’eau interstitielle, 2) l’activité des bactéries câblées et 3) la période de calcification, ainsi que par trois facteurs spatiaux qui déterminent la position du foraminifère par rapport à la zone de Mn2+ lors de la calcification 4) le microhabitat, 5) la migration verticale des foraminifères et 6) la bioturbation de la macrofaune. Dans le Grevelingenmeer, la porosité d’A. tepida montre une relation avec l’oxygénation. Le couplage entre porosité et oxygénation semble être direct, une plus grande porosité permettant des échanges de gaz plus intensifs. Au contraire, la relation entre le rapport Mn/Ca et l’oxygénation serait plus indirecte, puisque celle-ci est également influencée par l’activité microbienne. L’utilisation simultanée de ces deux proxies totalement indépendants nous semble prometteuse, spécialement parce que ces proxies réagissent à différentes échelles de temps. / The main objective of this thesis was to investigate how the temporal and spatial variability of bottom water oxygenation is recorded in the benthic foraminiferal test, by the Mn/Ca ratio, and by the pore parameters. To achieve this objective, Ammonia tepida, a group of pseudocryptic species, of the Lake Grevelingen (Netherlands) was mainly studied. At this site, the depth gradient is accompanied by an increase in duration and intensity of seasonal hypoxia/anoxia which indirectly influences the Mn/Ca ratio and directly the porosity of A. tepida. Our study of the Oxygen Minimum Zone in the Arabian Sea suggests the presence of a significant diagenetic effect during the transition of a Mn/Ca signal from a living foraminifer to a fossil signal. In conclusion of this PhD research, the Mn/Ca signal of a benthic foraminiferal test seems to be influenced by three temporal factors: 1) the oxygenation of the benthic ecosystem and the position of the Mn2+ zone in the interstitial water, 2) the cable bacteria activity, and 3) the period of calcification, as well as by three spatial factors which determine the position of the foraminifer with respect to the Mn2+ zone during calcification 4) the microhabitat, 5) the vertical migration of the foraminifer and 6) the bioturbation of macrofauna. In the Lake Grevelingen, the porosity of A. tepida shows a relationship with oxygenation of the benthic ecosystem. The coupling between porosity and oxygenation could be rather direct, a greater porosity allowing more intensive gas exchanges. In contrast, the relationship between the Mn/Ca ratio and the oxygenation would be more indirect, being influenced in particular by the microbial activity. The simultaneous use of these two totally independent proxies seems promising, especially because these proxies react at different time scales.

Sample introduction into inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

Lofthouse, Simon D. January 1999 (has links)
No description available.

Investigation of Novel Electrochemical Synthesis of Bioapatites and Use in Elemental Bone Analysis

DeLeon, Vallerie H. 12 1900 (has links)
In this research, electrochemical methods are used to synthesize the inorganic fraction of bone, hydroxyapatite, for application in biological implants and as a calibration material for elemental analysis in human bone. Optimal conditions of electrochemically deposited uniform apatite coatings on stainless steel were investigated. Apatite is a ceramic with many different phases and compositions that have beneficial characteristics for biomedical applications. Of those phases hydroxyapatite (HA) is the most biocompatible and is the primary constituent of the inorganic material in bones. HA coatings on metals and metal alloys have the ability to bridge the growth between human tissues and implant interface, where the metal provides the strength and HA provides the needed bioactivity. The calcium apatites were electrochemically deposited using a modified simulated body fluid adjusted to pH 4-10, for 1-3 hours at varying temperature of 25-65°C while maintaining cathodic potentials of -1.0 to -1.5V. It was observed that the composition and morphology of HA coatings change during deposition by the concentration of counter ions in solution, pH, temperature, applied potential, and post-sintering. The coatings were characterized by powder x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The precipitated powders from the experiment were also characterized, with results showing similarities to biological apatite. There is a need for quantitative elemental analysis of calcified biological matrices such as bone and teeth; however there are no suitable calibration materials commercially available for quantitative analysis. Matrix-matched standards are electrochemically synthesized for LA-ICP-MS analysis of human bone. The synthetic bioapatite is produced via a hydrothermal electrochemical process using a simulated body fluid solution to form hydroxyapatite. Additional bioapatite standards are synthesized containing trace amounts of metals. The x-ray diffraction of the synthesized standards shows an increase in cell volume for the crystal structure from 0.534 to 0.542 nm3 with the substitution of metals into the crystal structure. The analyte concentration and recoveries for the synthesized standards and reference materials were determined by ICP-MS with % RSD below 6.3% and limits of detection below 1.2 ng/mL for trace metals. The electrochemically synthesized bioapatite was also compared to standard reference materials with X-ray diffraction, FTIR, and Raman spectroscopy. Optimum laser ablation parameters were determined for the standards and human bone. The synthesized standards were homogeneous and the reproducibility for the isotope concentrations determined by LA-ICP-MS was between 3-10 % compared to 10-35% for SRM 1486 Bone Meal and SRM 1486 Bone Ash. A quantitative method has been developed for 2D mapping using LA-ICP-MS and the matrix-matched standards of metal-doped biopaptite to characterize metal concentrations in human bone. Laser ablation parameters for the method are refined resulting in concentration (ug/g) contour map measurements for each isotope measured in the human bone. Essential and non-essential metals, Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn are quantitatively mapped using these parameters. Limit of detection for the metals in the bone range from 0.001 to 0.08 ug/g. The LA-ICP-MS analysis method developed proves to be a straightforward and simple method for quantitative analysis of human bone.

Quality assurance of 61Cu using ICP mass spectroscopy and metal complexation

Asad, A. H., Morandeau, L., Chan, S., Jeffery, C. M., Smith, S. V., Price, R. I. 19 May 2015 (has links) (PDF)
Introduction 61Cu (T1/2 = 3.33 hr, Eβ= 1.22 MeV, 61.4 %) is an attractive isotope for positron emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceutical agents such as ATSM and PTSM. Various separation processes have been reported for the production of 61Cu on a medium cyclotron using 13–22 MeV protons on natural and enriched 64Zn target materials [1,2]. This work, investigates production of 61Cu using both natural and enriched 64Zn targets and its separation. Three types of resins were used to assess for their efficiency and speed to separate the desired 61Cu from the 66,67,68Ga and 64Zn and for the recycling of 64Zn target material. The effective specific activity of purified 61Cu, was determined by ICP-MS and its titration with various polyaza and polycarboxylate complexing ligands. Material and Methods 1. Production and Separation Targets were irradiated by proton beam of IBA cyclotron 18/18MeV via the 64Zn(p,α) 61Cu and natZn(p,x) 61Cu reactions using an enriched 64Zn foil(15×15×0.05mm, ~50 mg) and natural foil (diameter 25 mm, 0.05 mm,~ 60 mg). Thirty minute irradiations were conducted with incident proton energies between 11.7–12.0 MeV and beam currents of 20 and 40 µA. Irradiated Zn targets were dissolved in 8M HCl at 150 oC then evaporated to dryness. Trace water to the resultant residue (twice) and resultant solutions evaporated to dryness. The residue was re-dissolved in 2ml of 0.01M HCl before loading onto a Cu-resin column (FIG. 1) Zn and Ga isotopes were collectively eluted using 30 ml of 0.01M HCl. The Cu was then removed using 1.5 ml of 8M HCl and passed directly onto a cation exchange followed by an anion exchange column. An additional 3 ml of 8M HCl was used to rinse the cation exchange column and ensure quantitatively removal of Cu (II) ions. The Cu was finally eluted from the anion exchange column using 3 ml of 2M HCl. The Cu solution was heated up at 150 oC until evaporated to dryness and 61Cu final product dissolved in 400–800 μL of 0.01M HCl. 2. Specific activity of 61Cu The specific activity (GBq/µmol) of the purified 61Cu was determined by ICP-MS and compared with that determined using dota, nota and di-amsar complexing ligands. For each 61Cu production run aliquot of final solution (100 µL) was left to decay before dilut-ing to 10 mL with 10% HNO3. Decayed samples were sent to ChemCentre (Curtin University) for ICP-MS analysis. Each sample was analysed for Cu, Al, Ca, Co, Fe, Ga, Ni, Si, and Zn, which are known to compete with Cu2+ for ligand complexation. Effective specific activity of the 61Cu was deter-mined by titrating various known concentration of ligands with 61Cu solution. The method is detailed in the literature [3]. Briefly, varying concentrations of each ligand was prepared in 0.1M sodium acetate buffer pH 6.5 to a total volume 20 µL. Fixed concentration of diluted 61Cu (0.01M HCl) in 10 µL was added to each ligand solution. The mixtures were vortexed then left to incubate at the room temperature for 30 mins. Two uL aliquots were withdrawn (in triplicate) from each reaction mixture and spot-ted on ITLC –SA. [Mobile phase: 0.1M NaCl: 0.1M EDTA (9:1) for Cu2+ and diamsar mixtures: Rf <0.2 Cu-diamsar; Rf > 0.8 free Cu2+ and 0.1M sodium acetate pH 4.5: H2O: MeOH: ammonium hydroxide (20:18:2:1 v/v) for Cu2+ dota and nota mixtures: Rf >0.8 Cu-dota and Cu-nota Rf < 0.2 free Cu2+]. Complexation of the 61Cu with each ligand was complete within 30 mins at room temperature. Concentration of Cu2+ was deter-mined from the 50% labelling efficiency. Results and Conclusion 1. Production and Separation The radioisotopes production from natZn target must be minimized by the optimum proton energy to reduce a radiation dose in the final product. The excitation functions of 66,67,68Ga ,65Zn and 61Cu are shown in FIG. 2. Proton beam energy of 11.7 MeV was used for both Zn targets to minimise the production of Ga isotopes and prevent formation of 65Zn. For the enriched 64Zn target (99.30%) higher proton energy could be used for the production of 61Cu allowing for increased yields and reduce radio contaminants. Previously, we used anion and cation exchange resin as described in the literature to separate the 61Cu [1]. Unfortunately the literature method was too long (up to 3 hours) and requiring high concentration of HCl and long evaporation times compromising achievable yields [4]. Thieme S. et al., 2013 [2] reported the successful use of Cu-resin for the separation of Cu radioisotopes and it was of interest to the current work to test this material for the separation of 61Cu in our hands. A cation, anion exchange and Cu-resin were combined into closed system to separate the 61Cu within 30 mins (FIG. 1). The system is designed to contain the transfer of solutions be-tween each column using simple plunger to force solution through and between each column. This system afforded an easy, reliable and fast separation of 61Cu that could be completed within 30 min. 2. Specific activity The specific activity of 61Cu was determined using ICP-MS and by titration with three ligands is summarized in TABLE 1. The ICP-MS data show values ranging from 9.2 to 32.4 GBq/μmol for 8 production runs. Specific activity determine using nota and dota were in all cases lower than the ICP MS data indicating some interference from the other metal ion contaminates such as Fe(ii/Iii), Ni (II), Ca (II), Zn (II), Ga (III). The specific activity determine using diamsar, which is known to be highly selective for Cu(II) (and Zn(II) and Fe(III)) in the presence of alkali and alkaline earth ions gave values significantly higher effective specific activity than that obtained using ICP MS. Variations in values can be explained by presence of contaminating metal ions.

1.Direct Determination of Noble Metals in Road Dust Samples by ETV-ICP-MS with Slurry Sampling 2.Determination of Trace Element in Oil Samples by ETV-ICP-MS Using Palladium Nanoparticles as Chemical Modifier

Hsu, Wan-Hsuan 23 July 2012 (has links)

Metalômica comparativa de soja [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] transgênica e não-transgênica utilizando sistema multidimensional de separação / Metalômica comparativa de soja [Glycine max (L.) [Glycine max (L.) merrill] using a multidimensional separation system

Mataveli, Lidiane Raquel Verola, 1983- 23 August 2018 (has links)
Orientadores: Marco Aurélio Zezzi Arruda, Ljubica Tasic / Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Química / Made available in DSpace on 2018-08-23T02:17:28Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Mataveli_LidianeRaquelVerola_D.pdf: 1935019 bytes, checksum: 059066ee53b01850e2858460ba23617e (MD5) Previous issue date: 2013 / Resumo: Este trabalho consistiu em estudos de metalômica comparativa de sementes de soja transgênica (T) e não-transgênica (NT). Para tanto, as sementes de soja T e NT foram comparadas, em um primeiro, momento levando-se em conta: concentração total dos elementos, comportamento dos elementos durante extração utilizando-se fracionamento sequencial, e bioacessibilidade dos elementos após procedimento de digestão gastrointestinal simulada (in vitro). As análises preliminares foram feitas utilizando-se ICP-MS com analisador de massas quadrupolar, e as análises posteriores utilizando espectrometria de massas de alta resolução com plasma acoplado indutivamente (HR-ICP-MS). Foram determinados 25 elementos em concentrações variando de ng g até %. Foi observado que as sementes de soja T e NT exibem diferenças estatisticamente significantes nas concentrações de Cu, Fe e Sr, sendo os dois primeiros apresentando maiores concentrações na semente T, e, o último, com maior concentração nas sementes de soja NT. Estes resultados também se refletiram nos conteúdos desses elementos em extratos aquosos e resíduos obtidos por meio de fracionamento sequencial. Ainda, os experimentos de bioacessibilidade realizados mostraram que as frações bioacessíveis de Cu, Fe, e outros elementos (Mn, S, Zn) contribuíram em maior porcentagem para a concentração total dos elementos nas sementes de soja T do que para as sementes de soja NT. Posteriormente, foi dada continuidade aos estudos utilizando cromatografia líquida bidimensional off line para as amostras de sementes de soja, sendo a primeira dimensão constituída de cromatografia de exclusão por tamanho (SEC,) e a segunda dimensão constituída de cromatografia de troca aniônica (AEX). Na primeira dimensão cromatográfica foram identificadas três frações contendo metais por meio da hifenação SEC-ICP-MS: a primeira correspondendo a massas molares entre 38,1 e 181,1 kDa, a segunda correspondendo a massas molares entre 8,2 e 17,2 kDa, e a terceira fração correspondendo a massas molares entre 0,4 e 3,8 kDa. As três frações identificadas foram separadas, liofilizadas, e separadas novamente utilizando a cromatografia de troca aniônica. Foram detectados metais em todas as frações separadas por SEC: três sub-frações da primeira fração, uma sub-fração na segunda fração e três sub-frações na terceira fração. Os eluatos foram coletados, liofilizados, digeridos e levados ao espectrômetro de massas com fonte de ionização por electrospray (ESI-MS) para identificação de proteínas. Foram identificadas 33 e, entre elas, duas proteinas previamente relacionadas a metais foram encontradas: seed lipoxygenase 1 e b-conglycinin. Após a separação na segunda dimensão cromatográfica, as sub-frações resultantes foram liofilizadas e submetidas a uma terceira dimensao de separacao, utilizando a eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida unidimensional (SDS-PAGE). As bandas obtidas por SDS-PAGE foram recortadas e digeridas a fim de analisar os metais presentes nas mesmas, destacando os resultados obtidos para Fe, onde o mesmo foi quantificado nas bandas da sub-fração onde o pico deste elemento foi encontrado nas análises por AEX-ICP-MS. Ainda, as bandas foram digeridas tripticamente a fim de identificar as proteínas presentes, e, novamente, proteínas associadas a metais foram identificadas: chain A lipoxygenase-3 (Soybean) complex with 13(S)-hydroperoxy- 9(Z),11(E)-octadecadienoic acid; beta-amylase [Glycine max]; seed lipoxygenase-1, lipoxygenase [Glycine max], seed lipoxygenase-2 (PISUM SATIVUM) e beta-conglycinin / Abstract: This work consisted of comparative metallomics studies of transgenic (T) and nontransgenic (NT) soybean seeds. To that end, T and NT seeds were compared at first taking into account: the total concentration of the elements, the elements behavior during extraction using sequential fractionation, and bioacessibility of the elements after simulated gastrointestinal digestion procedure (in vitro). Preliminary analyzes were done using ICP-MS with quadrupole mass analyzer, and the subsequent analysis using high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, (HR-ICP-MS). 25 elements were determined at concentrations ranging from 1 ng g up to %. It was observed that T and NT soybean seeds exhibit statistically significant differences in the concentrations of Cu, Fe and Sr, the first two having higher concentrations in the T seeds, and the last with the highest concentration in soybeans NT. These results were also reflected in the contents of these elements in aqueous extracts and residues obtained through sequential fractionation. Also, the contributions of bioaccessible fractions of Cu, Fe and other elements (Mn, S, Zn) to the total content of the elements in T soybean seeds were higher than those found in NT soybean seeds. Subsequently, studies were continued using bidimensional liquid chromatography, the first dimension consisting of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and the second dimension of anion exchange chromatography (AEX). In the first chromatographic dimension three fractions containing metals were identified using hyphenation SEC-ICP-MS, the first corresponding to molar masses between 38.1 and 181.1 kDa, the second corresponding to molar masses between 8.2 and 17.2 kDa and the third fraction corresponding to molar masses between 0.4 and 3.8 kDa. The three identified fractions were separated and lyophilized, and again separated using anion exchange chromatography (AEX). Metals were found in all the separated fractions by SEC: three sub-fractions of the first fraction, a subfraction in the second fraction and three sub-fractions in the third fraction. These peaks were collected, lyophilized, digested and taken to the mass spectrometer for protein identification. 33 proteins were identified, and, among them, two proteins previously related to metals were found: seed lipoxygenase 1 and b-conglycinin. After chromatographic separation in the second dimension, the resultant subfractions were lyophilized and subjected to a third separation dimension using onedimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). After the separation, the bands were cut out and digested to examine the metals contained therein, highlighting the results obtained for Fe, which was quantified in the bands of the sub-fraction where the peak of the element is found in the analysis by ICP-AEX - MS. Also, the bands were digested triptically to identify the proteins, and once again proteins associated to metals were identified: 3-lipoxygenase A chain (Soybean) complex with 13 (S)-Hydroperoxy-9 (Z), 11 ( E)-octadecadienoic acid, beta-amylase [Glycine max]; seed lipoxygenase-1, lipoxygenase [Glycine max] seed lipoxygenase-2 (Pisum sativum) and beta-conglycinin / Doutorado / Quimica Analitica / Doutora em Ciências

Characterization of Mass Dependent Matrix Effects in Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Characterization of Engineered Nanoparticles using Surfactant Enhanced Capillary Electrophoresis-ICP-MS

Jiao , Shi January 2017 (has links)
No description available.


Chiou, Chwel-Shenq 12 July 2000 (has links)


Chen, Jing-huan 09 July 2007 (has links)

Germanium and related elements in sulphide minerals : crystal chemistry, incorporation and isotope fractionation / Germanium et éléments associés dans les sulfures : cristallochimie, modes d’incorporation et fractionnement isotopique

Belissont, Rémi 15 March 2016 (has links)
Le germanium est un métalloïde « stratégique » dans l’industrie high-tech, notamment pour la transition énergétique et le secteur des communications. Étant distinctement sidérophile, lithophile, chalcophile et organophile, le Ge possède un fort potentiel comme traceur géochimique. Ces travaux de thèse visent à améliorer la compréhension de la géochimie du cycle du Ge et des facteurs qui contrôlent son incorporation dans les minéraux et les gisements métalliques. Les cibles de cette étude concernent le gisement filonien à Zn de Saint-Salvy (Massif Central, France), le gisement filonien à Cu de Barrigão (Ceinture pyriteuse ibérique, Portugal), et le gisement à Zn–Cu de Kipushi (R.D. Congo). Les porteurs de Ge les plus importants sont respectivement la sphalérite (jusqu’à 2580 ppm), la chalcopyrite (jusqu’à 5750 ppm) et la réniérite (5,0–9,1 %). Les résultats montrent qu’il existe une relation de premier ordre entre la concentration en Ge dans la sphalérite et le type de gisement. La spectroscopie XANES par rayonnement synchrotron met en évidence la présence de Ge4+ en site tétraédrique dans les sulfures analysés. Les corrélations élémentaires observées dans la sphalérite et la chalcopyrite suggèrent une incorporation du Ge par co-substitutions, e.g., 3Zn2+ ↔ Ge4+ + 2(Cu,Ag)+ et 3Fe3+ ↔ 2Ge4+ + Cu+, ou via la création de lacunes cristallographiques, e.g., 2Zn2+ ↔ Ge4+ + ?. La corrélation positive δ74Ge–[Ge]ZnS des sphalérites de Saint-Salvy indiquerait que coefficient de partage (KdGe) augmenterai avec T. Les compositions isotopiques δ74Ge des sulfures étudiés varient de –5,72‰ à +3,67‰. Les compositions légères mesurées dans les gisements de Saint-Salvy et Barrigão semblent liées à des variations de température des fluides (basse à moyennes T) lors de l’incorporation de Ge en système ouvert, alors que la tendance marquée vers les compositions isotopiques lourdes à Kipushi indiquerait un fractionnement de Rayleigh. / Germanium is a critical metalloid in many high-tech industries, especially for the energy transition and the communication sector. Being distinctly siderophile, lithophile, chalcophile and organophile, Ge can be a particularly useful geochemical tracer. This thesis aims at understanding the Ge geochemistry and the factors controlling its concentration in Ge-bearing minerals and ore deposits. Three contrasted Ge-bearing deposits were studied, the Saint-Salvy Zn vein-type deposit, French Massif Central, the Barrigão Cu vein-type deposit, Iberian pyrite belt, Portugal, and the Kipushi Zn–Cu carbonate-hosted deposit, Central African copper-belt, D.R. Congo. The most important Ge-bearing minerals are sphalerite (up to 2580 ppm Ge), chalcopyrite (up to 5750 ppm Ge), and renierite (5.0–9.1 wt.% Ge). The results show a first order relation between the Ge content and the deposition temperature. Synchrotron-based XANES spectroscopy showed that Ge4+ occur in tetrahedral sites in the studied sulphides. Element correlations suggest that Ge is chiefly incorporated in sphalerite and chalcopyrite through coupled substitutions, e.g., 3Zn2+ ↔ Ge4+ + 2(Cu,Ag)+ and 3Fe3+ ↔ 2Ge4+ + Cu+, respectively, or via the creation of lattice vacancies, e.g., 2Zn2+ ↔ Ge4+ + ?. The positive δ74Ge–Ge content correlation observed in sphalerite from Saint-Salvy could indicate that Ge partition coefficient (KdGe) increases with temperature. Ge isotopes in sulphides yield δ74Ge values spanning from –5.72‰ to +3.67‰. The light δ74Ge compositions of Saint-Salvy and Barrigão ores appear to be related to variations in low to moderate fluid temperatures during Ge uptake in open system (e.g., fluid cooling), while the trend towards heavy δ74Ge compositions observed at Kipushi likely translates a Rayleigh fractionation effect during ore formation in closed system, associated with significant fluid modification.

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