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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
11

Lateral preference and sex differences in three aspects of literacy

Martin, Don R. January 1983 (has links)
No description available.
12

Lateral preference and sex differences in three aspects of literacy

Martin, Don R. January 1983 (has links)
No description available.
13

The acquisition of the passive by Sestwana-speaking preschoolers.

Bortz, Melissa Anne 06 August 2013 (has links)
This in-depth study investigates the acquisition of the passive construction by Setswana-speaking pre-schoolers. My original contribution to knowledge is that Setswana-speaking preschoolers acquire the passive early on some tasks but not others. This shows that acquisition is a multifacted task that needs to be fine-tuned. These are important facts that need to be considered by Speech-Language Therapists in order to accurately identify language-impaired children. Setswana is the fourth most commonly spoken language in South Africa. However, only four linguistic studies have been conducted on Setswana since 2000 and none of these investigated acquisition of Setswana processes in children. Setswana is a language that belongs to the South-eastern Bantu Zone of languages. Languages in this group are structurally closely related to one another and mutually intelligible. Studies of the acquisition of the passive in Sesotho and Zulu have shown that the passive develops much earlier (3 years) than in Indo-European languages (5 years). More tools are needed to explore language acquisition and language impairment in South Africa. It is essential that these tools focus on issues of poverty and diversity. The research methods used should be suitable for the communities being explored and should inform the delivery of appropriate services. Endeavors should be made to provide information that improves scientific research in terms of language acquisition and access to speech-language therapy services. The passive voice is considered to be one of the most well researched yet controversial linguistic structures. In Setswana the construction of the passive occurs when the subject of the active clause is expressed in the passive in the form of an agentive adverb with the prefixal formative ké- which forms an optional by-phrase. The verb is marked as passive using a passive extension by suffixing –w or –iw. How this is acquired is the focus of this study. A total of 114 children divided into 3 age groups 2.6 – 3.5 years, 3.6 – 4.5 years and 4.6 – 5.5 years were the participants in this study. Their performance was compared to that of a group of 11 adult verifiers. The aim of this study was to investigate Setswana-speaking children’s comprehension and production of the passive in terms of age, passive categories and length variables. Tasks used to examine these variables were Comprehension 2 and 3 Character tasks and Elicited Production and Imitation tasks. The participants were divided into two different participant groups. There were 52 participants on the Elicited Imitation tasks and 62 on the Comprehension and Elicited Production tasks. Participants were tested at 3 crèches in the peri-urban area of Pankop, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. On the Comprehension 2 character tasks significant differences between age groups (age group 1, 34% and 3, 49%) were noted. However, no significant developmental trends were found on Comprehension 3 character or Elicited Production tasks amongst the children. On Elicited Imitation tasks there was a significant difference between the youngest group (69%) compared to the middle (83%) and oldest age group (81%). . The results showed much variability among tasks. The results for Comprehension 2 and 3 Character tasks were at above chance level. The Elicited Production task was unsuccessful as children found great difficulty with this task with 2.6 to 3.6 year old children scoring 7% and the oldest group 14%. However, the Elicited Imitation task was extremely successful and confirmed the diagnostic value of such a measure. The type of passive did influence performance but this was task dependent. The participants’ knowledge of the passive categories, for Comprehension 2 character and Elicited Imitation tasks followed the same order, with best performance on inanimate categories followed by negatives, reversible and then non-actional passives. On Elicited Production tasks children also scored the best on inanimate tasks. A weakness of this study is that Elicited Imitation tasks were not administered at the same time as the other tasks and therefore a different group of participants was used even though subject selection criteria was the same. The impact of sentence length on performance also showed much variability. For the non-actional negative category on Set A Comprehension 2 Character tasks participants’ scored significantly better for short sentences than long sentences and vice versa for Comprehension 3 Character tasks. On Elicited Production tasks children scored better on long passive sentences. On Elicited Imitation tasks short sentences were easier than long passives. The results of this study confirms the important effect of task-type in assessing passive comprehension and production. Also, the results of this study suggest that the passive is not an early acquired structure in Setswana with the exception of the Elicited Imitation task. The results therefore support the A-chain Deficit Hypothesis, i.e., that the passive is a late acquired structure with difficulties with non-actional categories except when an Elicited Imitation task was used. Explanations may link to the complex sociolinguistic context of developing children in South Africa. This study confirms the important effect of task when testing child language, and the potential value of Elicited Imitation as a viable and relevant measure of assessing language in the South African context.
14

An investigation into variability of tasks and teacher-judges in second language oral performance assessment /

Kim, Youn-Hee, 1979- January 2005 (has links)
Abstract not available.
15

Language assessment : an exploration of whether critical language testing influences the testing of language in the FET phase of a selected high school.

Mahomet, Robin Peter. January 2013 (has links)
Language teachers have multiple responsibilities in that they teach a subject which fits into the framework of the school curriculum as well as being the medium through which the majority of that school curriculum is taught. Literacy is also a requirement for the citizenry of the country to function effectively in our society. A further responsibility which is not always perceived is that language has power in that it is often the medium through which social, political and economic discourse occurs. Critical theory contends that competing ideologies seek to make their discourses dominant and in this way have control over relations of power in society. Consequently, language education is the means by which we can educate young people about these ‘discourses of domination’. The focus of this study is teachers and the language assessments which they produce. Are these language assessments simple testing devices intended to gauge learners recall and understanding of the content of the text or can they go deeper than that? Can teachers engage with their learners on a Critical level to understand where texts come from and who created them and what was their purpose in creating them? These questions are in line with Critical literacy, so as to understand power relations in society and to mitigate against the domination of a particular ideology. To merely analyse assessments would be insufficient thus this study goes further to try to understand how teachers’ personal paradigms impact on the assessments which they produce. The purpose here is to gain some understanding of whether or not teachers want to and are able to educate learners about more than just the content of the texts which are taught in the language classroom. This is achieved through the analysis of language assessments and then by semi-structured interviews with the producers of these assessments. The data achieved from this mixed method research is analysed through the lens of Critical Language Testing with the intention of trying to determine if the assessments produced, come from individuals who are concerned with social justice and equality; individuals who are aware of social, political and economic discourses in society among other. The study also sought to determine if these are reflexive individuals who are also ethical in their approach to language teaching and assessment. The thesis attempts to achieve these aims whilst always maintaining a self critical view point. This is done by engaging with the premises which underpin this research and trying to understand the motivations for this research. By attempting to deconstruct my own personal bias and ideological underpinnings the hope is to achieve a study which fairly represents how teachers assess language in the classroom. / Thesis (M.Ed.)-University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 2013.
16

Normative indicators for a black, Xhosa speaking population without tertiary education on four tests used to access malingering

Wong, Andrea Jane January 2009 (has links)
Malingering has become an increasing concern in neuropsychological assessment in recent years, and a wide range of tests have been designed and examined for the purpose of detecting malingering. Cut-off scores have been recommended for these tests in order to provide indications of malingering performances. However, the derived scores have been in respect of westernised populations of people with relatively high levels of education who speak English as their first language. Accordingly, the current study aimed to attain normative data and cut-off scores for four commonly employed neuropsychological tools, administered in English, on a population of black, South African, Xhosa-speaking people (N = 33), who attended a former DET-type school in the Eastern Cape, with a Grade 11-12 level of education, in the age range of 18 - 40 years. The targeted measures included the TOMM, the Rey-15 Item Memory Test, the Digit Span subtest of the WAIS-III, and the Trail Making Test. The obtained scores were poorer than the previously published cut-offs for at least one component of each of the tests investigated, except the TOMM. The fmdings of this study highlight the important role that the factors of culture, quality of education, and language play in neuropsychological test performance.
17

The development and validation of the oral/aural tests for the senior primary phase

Callis, Denise Margaret 01 April 2014 (has links)
M.A. (Applied Linguistics) / The South African English Academy requested that an investigation be undertaken on the feasibility of producing a battery of English proficiency tests in the four modes (listening, speaking, reading and writing) which are free of ethnic labels. For the purpose of this study the aural and oral modes will be developed first as these are the two modes from which language arises. These tests are intended to be universal language tests which will be appropriate for both English first and second language learners. They will be undertaken with mother tongue standards as the first point of departure. It is proposed that mother tongue speakers represent the "universal" standard to which second language speakers aspire, although we are fully aware that native speakers show considerable variation in ability. First language norms will be taken as the norm of performance for this study because it assumed that this is what most second language learners would aspire to. This study will attempt to provide a valid and reliable measuring instrument to facilitate the correct placement of pupils in schools where English is the medium of instruction. Of particular importance is the fact that these are not tests of absolute competence, but are tests of progressive competence. No pupil is a failure, the pupils performance is measured on a continuum of six levels in the senior primary phase. This will enable the teacher to assist each pupil to progress at his own pace according to his own ability. There is a very definite need for performance tests in English since tests of communicative competence in English that are "universal in nature" are not available in South Africa. A standardised test battery aimed at measuring the language proficiency (of the heterogeneous population at the senior primary level) across all four language modes, does not exist in South Africa. The problem is to .develop tests with tasks at the appropriate level for a heterogeneous population and produce evidence regarding their validity. Although subjective and objective assessment methods are commonly used, the merits of the one method as opposed to the other are still debated. The importance of investigating the relationship between the multiple-choice aural test (by means of objective and indirect assessment) and the productive oral test (by means of subjective and direct assessment) cannot be underestimated.
18

Teacher Evaluation of Item Formats for an English Language Proficiency Assessment

Perea-Hernandez, Jose Luis 01 January 2010 (has links)
An abstract of the thesis of José Luis Perea-Hernández for the Master of Arts in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages presented February 11, 2010. Title: Teacher Evaluation of Item Formats for an English Language Proficiency Assessment. Language testing plays a significant role in the collection of systematic information about English Language Learners' ability and progress in K-12 public schools in Oregon. Therefore, the following thesis reports on a process of the development of this assessment as I was at some point one of the members in the test development team and then drew upon teachers' opinions and judgments to compensate for a gap in this process. For instance, despite the fact that Oregon item-writers produced test items in summer 2004, they identified some deficiencies as they followed the process. Therefore, the need of more examples of item formats in order to develop better items, a proper identification of materials for reading and listening and mainly the lack of detailed item test specifications was imminent. Unfortunately, item writers did not posses a guiding document that would allow them to generate items. The item writing process was not `spec-driven'. Hence, these drawbacks in this test (larger project), provide the basis and rationale for this thesis. Thus, the aim of the present study was to identify what item formats worked best based on professional teacher judgment. Then, once identified these were used to detect what items could potentially be reverse-engineered into specifications for future studies or developmental stages of this assessment. Therefore, the purpose of this thesis was to analyze through professional teacher-judgment the suitability of item formats, test items and the construct in a way that would be helpful for future item-writing sessions, but most importantly to the better understanding of teachers devising items for this test. Teachers determined what items and item formats were more suitable in a testing situation for the diverse English language learners according to their relationship to the construct of the test, practicality, cognitive level, appropriateness, and similar tasks as used in classroom instruction. Finally, the outcomes based on teacher feedback allowed the required data to establish a process to reverse-engineer test items and item formats into item test specifications. Thus, based on this feedback a more systematic process was illustrated to demonstrate how item formats can be the basis to reverse-engineer item test specifications.
19

Construct validation of a language inventory

Drennan, Margaret Louise Cheney 01 January 1969 (has links)
Language is the all-encompassing term used in many places and having various denotations. For this reason language has uses, too. Oral language is used as a principal factor to determine cultural disadvantage and is the primary medium of instruction in the school setting. Language operates as the intangible aspect in measurements of intelligence. The term 'language development' is used whenever one refers to the merits of federally funded preschool projects and is accepted without definition while the counter term 'linguistics' brings confusion in the mind of many classroom teachers and administrators. Commercial materials carry the label "linguistic method" or a "language development program" for a specific population. For educators 'language' is a loose, all powerful term which needs to be limited in meaning to a specific set of principles.
20

An investigation into variability of tasks and teacher-judges in second language oral performance assessment /

Kim, Youn-Hee, 1979- January 2005 (has links)
No description available.

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