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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

The Effect of Partial Substitution of Ni by Co and Cu on the Magnetic and Magnetocaloric Properties of the Intermetallic System Mn0.5Fe0.5Ni1-x(CuCo)xSi0.94Al0.06

Bhattacharjee, Sharmistha 26 July 2023 (has links)
No description available.
2

Investigation of calculated adiabatic temperature change of MnFeP1-xAsx alloys

Campbell, David Oliver 30 April 2015 (has links)
Magnetic refrigeration is an alternative cooling technology to vapour compression. Due to the large operating space of magnetic refrigeration devices, modelling is critical to predict results, optimize device parameters and regenerator design, and understand the physics of the system. Modeling requires accurate material data including specific heat, magnetization and adiabatic temperature change, . For a reversible material can be attained directly from measurement or indirectly through calculation from specific heat and magnetization data. Data sets of nine MnFeP1-xAsx alloys are used to compare calculated against measured . MnFeP1-xAsx is a promising first order material because of a tunable transition temperature, low material cost and large magnetocaloric properties. Because MnFeP1-xAsx alloys exhibit thermal hysteresis there are four possible calculation protocols for adiabatic temperature change; , , and . deviates the most from measured data and therefore it is assumed that this case is not representative of the material behavior. Results show and align with measured data as well as . The three protocols that align best with measured data have two consistent errors including a colder peak and a larger . With more data sets and analysis a preferred calculation protocol may be found. / Graduate
3

Development and validation of an active magnetic regenerator refrigeration cycle simulation

Dikeos, John 10 August 2006 (has links)
An alternative cycle proposed for refrigeration and gas liquefaction is active magnetic regenerator (AMR) refrigeration. This technology relies on solid materials exhibiting the magnetocaloric effect, a nearly reversible temperature change induced by a magnetic field change. AMR refrigeration devices have the potential to be more efficient than those using conventional refrigeration techniques but, for this to be realized, optimum materials, regenerator design, and cycle parameters must be determined. This work focuses on the development and validation of a transient one-dimensional finite element model of an AMR test apparatus. The results of the model are validated by comparison to room temperature experiments for varying hot heat sink temperature, system pressure, and applied heat load. To demonstrate its applicability, the model is then used to predict the performance of AMRs in situations that are either time-consuming to test experimentally or not physically possible with the current test apparatus.
4

Design and Analysis of a Nested Halbach Permanent Magnet Magnetic Refrigerator

Tura, Armando 19 August 2013 (has links)
A technology with the potential to create efficient and compact refrigeration devices is an active magnetic regenerative refrigerator (AMRR). AMRRs exploit the magnetocaloric effect displayed by magnetic materials whereby a reversible temperature change is induced when the material is exposed to a change in applied magnetic field. By using the magnetic materials in a regenerator as the heat storage medium and as the means of work input, one creates an active magnetic regenerator (AMR). Although several laboratory devices have been developed, no design has yet demonstrated the performance, reliability, and cost needed to compete with traditional vapor compression refrigerators. There are many reasons for this and questions remain as to the actual potential of the technology. The objective of the work described in this thesis is to quantify the actual and potential performance of a permanent magnet AMR system. A specific device configuration known as a dual-nested-Halbach system is studied in detail. A laboratory scale device is created and characterized over a wide range of operating parameters. A numerical model of the device is created and validated against experimental data. The resulting model is used to create a cost-minimization tool to analyze the conditions needed to achieve specified cost and efficiency targets. Experimental results include cooling power, temperature span, pumping power and work input. Although the magnetocaloric effect of gadolinium is small, temperature spans up to 30 K are obtained. Analysis of power input shows that the inherent magnetic work is a small fraction of the total work input confirming the assumption that potential cycle efficiencies can be large. Optimization of the device generates a number of areas for improvement and specific results depend upon targeted temperature spans and cooling powers. A competitive cost of cooling from a dual-nested-Halbach configuration is challenging and will depend on the ability to create regenerator matrices with near-ideal adiabatic temperature change scaling as a function of temperature. / Graduate / 0548 / 0791 / 0607 / atura@uvic.ca
5

Design Principles and Performance Metrics for Magnetic Refrigerators Operating Near Room Temperature

Arnold, Daniel Sean Robert 19 February 2014 (has links)
In the past decade, active magnetic regenerative (AMR) refrigeration technology has progressed towards commercial application. The number of prototype systems and test apparatuses has steadily increased thanks to the worldwide research efforts. Due to the extensive variety of possible implementations of AMR, design methods are not well established. This thesis proposes a framework for approaching AMR device design. The University of Victoria now has three functional AMR Refrigerators. The newest system constructed in 2012 operates near-room-temperature and is intended primarily as a modular test apparatus with a broad range of control parameters and operating conditions. The design objectives, considerations and analysis are presented. Extensive data has been collected using the machines at the University of Victoria. Performance metrics are used to compare the devices. A semi-analytical relationship is developed that can be used as an effective modelling tool during the design process. / Graduate / 0548
6

Development and validation of an active magnetic regenerator refrigeration cycle simulation

Dikeos, John 10 August 2006 (has links)
An alternative cycle proposed for refrigeration and gas liquefaction is active magnetic regenerator (AMR) refrigeration. This technology relies on solid materials exhibiting the magnetocaloric effect, a nearly reversible temperature change induced by a magnetic field change. AMR refrigeration devices have the potential to be more efficient than those using conventional refrigeration techniques but, for this to be realized, optimum materials, regenerator design, and cycle parameters must be determined. This work focuses on the development and validation of a transient one-dimensional finite element model of an AMR test apparatus. The results of the model are validated by comparison to room temperature experiments for varying hot heat sink temperature, system pressure, and applied heat load. To demonstrate its applicability, the model is then used to predict the performance of AMRs in situations that are either time-consuming to test experimentally or not physically possible with the current test apparatus.
7

Active magnetic regenerator cycles: impacts of hysteresis in MnFeP1-x(As/Si)x

Govindappa, Premakumara 30 August 2018 (has links)
Magnetocaloric materials with first-order magnetic (FOM) phase transitions are of interest as low-cost working materials in magnetic cycles. Hysteresis is a property associated with first order transitions, and is undesirable as it can reduce performance. Devices using FOMs in active magnetic refrigeration have shown performance comparable to more expensive second-order materials, so some degree of hysteresis appears to be acceptable; however, the amount of hysteresis that may be tolerated is still an unanswered question. Among the FOM, the family of MnP-based is one of the promising materials for magnetic heat pump applications near room temperature. The present study describes the experimental investigation of a single-layer MnFeP1-xSix active magnetic regenerator (AMR), under different test conditions and following a protocol of heating and cooling processes. The results for the FOM are compared with a Gd AMR that is experimentally tested following the same protocol, with the objective to study the irreversibilities associated with FOM. The experimental tests are performed in a PM I test apparatus at a fixed displaced volume of 5.09 cm3 and a fixed operating frequency of 1 Hz. The results indicated a significant impact of the hysteresis on the heating and cooling temperature span for FOM regenerator. For certain operating conditions, multiple points of equilibrium (MPE) exist for a fixed hot rejection temperature. It is shown that the existence of MPEs can affect the performance of an AMR significantly for certain operating conditions. The present work advances our understanding since the combined hysteresis and MPE are two significant features which can impact layered AMR performance using MnFeP1-xAsx FOM by systematic experimental testing. With this objective, three multilayer MnFeP1-xAsx FOM regenerator beds are experimentally characterized under a range of applied loads and rejection temperatures. Thermal performance and the impacts of MPE are evaluated via heating and cooling experiments where the rejection (hot side) temperature is varied in a range from 283 K to 300 K. With fixed operating conditions, we find multiple points of equilibrium for steady-state spans as a function of warm rejection temperature. The results indicate a significant impact of MPE on the heating and cooling temperature span for multilayer MnFeP1-xAsx FOM regenerator. Unlike single material FOM tests where MPEs tend to disappear as load is increased (or span reduced), with the layered AMRs, MPEs can be significantly even with small temperature span conditions. A third experimental study examines the performance of MnFeP1-xAsx multilayer active magnetic regenerators. Five different matrices are tested: (i) one with three layers; (ii) one with six layers; and (iii) three, eight layer regenerators where the layer thickness is varied. The tests are performed using a dual regenerator bespoke test apparatus based on nested Halbach permanent magnets (PM II test apparatus). Operating variables include displaced volume (3.8 - 12.65 cm3), operating frequency (0.5 - 0.8 Hz) and hot-side rejection temperature (293-313 K).The results are mainly reported in terms of zero net load temperature span as a function of rejection temperature; a few tests with non-zero applied load are also presented. A maximum temperature span of 32 K is found for an 8-layer regenerator, which is similar to a previous work performed with gadolinium in the same experimental apparatus. A 1D active magnetic regenerator model accounting for thermal and magnetic hysteresis is developed and compared to experimental data for both a Gd-based and MnFeP1-xSix based AMR. Magnetic and thermal hysteresis are quantified using measured data for magnetization and specific heat under isothermal and isofield warming and cooling processes. Hysteresis effects are then incorporated in the model as irreversible work and reduced adiabatic temperature change. Model results are compared to measured temperature spans for regenerators operating with different thermal loads. Simulated results for temperature span as a function of cooling power and rejection temperature show good agreement with experimental data. The irreversible work due to hysteresis is found to have a small impact on predicted spans, indicating that useful cooling power is well predicted using cyclic measurements of adiabatic temperature change. / Graduate
8

Modélisation et conception de systèmes de réfrigération magnétique autour de la température ambiante / Magnetic refrigeration around room temperature

Roudaut, Julien 16 September 2011 (has links)
La réfrigération magnétique est une technologie de rupture pour produire du froid qui n’utilise pas de gaz à effet de serre et est plus efficace que la réfrigération à compression de gaz. Elle est basée sur l’effet magnétocalorique, une propriété de certains matériaux à changer de température lorsqu’ils sont soumis à une variation de champ magnétique. Ces travaux de thèse ont porté sur l’étude des systèmes de réfrigération magnétique. Nous avons effectué une analyse critique des prototypes existants et proposé de nouveaux critères de performances pour les comparer de manière effective. Nous avons développé un modèle numérique des transferts thermiques au sein des réfrigérateurs magnétiques, pour étudier leur comportement en régime transitoire et permanent. Une analyse fine de la source de champ et de son interaction avec le matériau a permis de proposer des règles de conception et de dimensionnement d’un système performant. / Magnetic refrigeration is a good alternative to gas compression refrigeration systems because it does not involve the use of greenhouse gases and it is more efficient. This technology is based on the magnetocaloric effect, which manifests itself as a temperature change of a magnetocaloric material upon changing the magnetic field. This thesis is dedicated to the study of magnetic refrigerators. We reviewed the former prototypes and defined a set of performance criteria to make an accurate comparison. A numerical model of heat transfer in magnetic refrigerators was developed, and the transient and steady state response were studied. A thorough analysis of magnetic field sources was performed and we proposed guidelines to design a new magnetic refrigerator.
9

Material screening and performance analysis of active magnetic heat pumps

Niknia, Iman 26 April 2017 (has links)
With the discovery of the magnetocaloric effect, utilizing magnetocaloric materials in cycles to generate cooling power began. The magnetocaloric effect is a physical phenomenon observed in some magnetic materials where the temperature of the material increases and decreases with application and removal of magnetic field. Usually the adiabatic temperature change observed in magnetocaloric materials is too small for room temperature refrigeration. A solution to this problem is to use magnetocaloric materials in an active magnetic regenerator (AMR) cycle. In this study a detailed numerical model is developed, validated, and used to improve our understanding of AMR systems. A one dimensional, time dependent model is used to study the performance of an active magnetic regenerator. Parameters related to device configuration such as external heat leaks and demagnetization effects are included. Performance is quantified in terms of cooling power and second law efficiency for a range of displaced fluid volumes and operating frequencies. Simulation results show that a step change model for applied field can be effectively used instead of full field wave form if the flow weighted average low and high field values are used. This is an important finding as it can greatly reduce the time required to solve the numerical problem. In addition, the effects of external losses on measured AMR performance are quantified. The performance of eight cases of known magnetocaloric material (including first order MnFeP1-xAsx and second order materials Gd, GdDy, Tb) and 15 cases of hypothetical materials are considered. Using a fixed regenerator matrix geometry, magnetic field, and flow waveforms, the maximum exergetic cooling power of each material is identified. Several material screening metrics such as RCP and RC are tested and a linear correlation is found between RCPMax and the maximum exergetic cooling power. The sensitivity of performance to variations in the hot side and cold side temperatures from the conditions giving maximum exergetic power are determined. The impact of 2 K variation in operating temperature is found to reduce cooling power up to 20 % for a second order material, but can reduce cooling power up to 70% with a first order material. A detailed numerical analysis along with experimental measurements are used to study the behavior of typical first order material (MnFeP1-xSix samples) in an AMR. For certain operating conditions, it is observed that multiple points of equilibrium (PE) exist for a fixed heat rejection temperature. Stable and unstable PEs are identified and behavior of these points are analysed. The impacts of heat loads, operating conditions and configuration losses on the number of PEs are discussed and it is shown that the existence of multiple PEs can affect the performance of an AMR significantly. Thermal hysteresis along with multiple PEs are considered as the main factors that contribute to the temperature history dependent performance behavior of FOMs when used in an AMR. / Graduate / 0548 / iniknia@uvic.ca
10

Elaboration et étude des propriétés physiques de nouveaux manganites à effet magnétocalorique : la1-xCexMnO3; La0,7(CaSr)0,3Mn1-xFexO3 ; La0,6Ca0,4Mn1-xFexO3. / Elaboration and study of physics properties of manganese oxyde with interesting magnetocaloric properties

Othmani, Safa 06 May 2011 (has links)
Fin des années 1980, la découverte de l'effet magnétorésistif géant, qui se caractérise par une variation importante de la résistance électrique d'un matériau lorsqu'on le soumet à un champ magnétique, a eu un impact très important tant au niveau des études fondamentales qu'en vue d'applications industrielles telles que la réduction de la taille des disques durs des ordinateurs (Prix Nobel d'A. Fert en 2007). L'engouement ainsi suscité a permis de mettre en évidence cet effet, au début des années 1990, dans les couches minces d'oxyde de type pérovskite ABO3 et plus particulièrement dans les manganites de terres rares (Ln1-xAx)MnO3. Le but de ce travail s'inscrit dans ce cadre et concerne l'élaboration et l'étude des propriétés physiques (structurales, magnétiques, de transport et magnétocaloriques) de nouveaux manganites qui pourraient avoir des applications dans un domaine connexe qui est la réfrigération magnétique. En effet, cette dernière décennie, a vu les découvertes de nouveaux composés présentant des effets magnétocaloriques géants qui ont conduit aux premiers essais de laboratoire de la réfrigération magnétique. Celle-ci semble être l'une des alternatives très sérieuses pour le remplacement des systèmes de réfrigération classique basés sur la compression-détente des gaz. Cette nouvelle technique, comparée aux techniques traditionnelles, présente plusieurs avantages, elle est plus efficace sur le plan énergétique, plus compacte et surtout moins nuisible à l'environnement. La première partie de ce travail porte sur l'élaboration et la caractérisation des composés de formule La1-xCexMnO3. Nous avons étudié l'effet du recuit sur les propriétés morphologique, structurale, magnétique et magnétocalorique de ces composés. L'application du modèle de Landau, en bon accord avec les résultats expérimentaux de la mesure l'entropie magnétique SM, a montré que la nature de transition de phase dépend aussi de la température de recuit. La composition x=0.4 de ce composé présente la valeur la plus élevée du facteur de mérite RCP, ce qui en fait un bon candidat pour les applications à la réfrigération magnétique. Dans une deuxième partie une étude des propriétés morphologique, structurale, magnétique et magnétocalorique des manganites de formule La0,7Ca0,15Sr0,15Mn1-xFexO3 a été réalisée. Le fer n'influe pas sur les propriétés structurales mais entraîne une diminution de la température de Curie TC. Afin d'approfondir ces études, nous avons proposé un matériau composite basé sur deux composés La0,7Ca0,15Sr0,15Mn1-xFexO3 (x = 0,025 et 0,75). La variation d'entropie du composite reste approximativement constante entre 260 et 300 K. En conséquence, ce matériau composite peut être un très bon candidat pour la réfrigération magnétique au voisinage de l'ambiante. Dans une dernière partie, nous avons étudié l'effet du double échange, de la méthode de préparation, le rayons du site A et la nature magnétique du dopant au site B sur les propriétés magnétocaloriques en caractérisant la famille des composés La0,6A0,4Mn1-xFexO3 (A= Ca, Sr et 0≤x≤0,2) par diffraction des rayons X et par mesures magnétiques. D'une part, l'entropie magnétique maximale augmente avec le rayon du site A et est peu affecté par le rayon du site B et d'autre part, la méthode de préparation solide-solide est à privilégier puisqu'elle permet d'obtenir les plus grandes valeurs d'entropie magnétique maximale. / Since the discovery of the giant magnetoresistance effect (end of 1980s), which is characterized by a large change in the electrical resistance of a material under the effect of a magnetic field, a major impact has been motivated both on fundamental and practical aspects (Nobel Prize of A. Fert in 2007). The intensive research activities in this field have leaded in the end of 1990 to point out the giant magnetoresitance in thin films of perovskite family, in particular the manganites (Ln1-xAx)MnO3. The aim of this work concern the study of the structural, magnetic, electrical and magnetocaloric properties of new manganites based materials in view of their application in the magnetic cooling. It is worth noting that in recent years, a giant magnetocaloric effect has been reported in several materials leading to the implementation of new efficient magnetic cooling systems. This technology is considered actually as the most alternative to replace the classical systems based on the compression-relaxation process. Compared with conventional refrigeration, magnetic cooling presents relevant advantages such as a decrease of energy consumption (high efficiency) and reduction of the acoustic and environmental pollution (elimination of the standard coolants: CFC, HCFC). The first part of this work concerns the elaboration as well as the characterization of the compound with La1-xCexMnO3 formula. We have studied the role of the annealing on the morphological, structural, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of these materials. Using the Landau theory, we have calculated the magnetic entropy change ΔSM, which is found in good agreement with the measurements, and we have shown that the nature of the magnetic transition depends also on the annealing temperature. The compound with the composition x = 0.4, presents a large value of the figure of merit RCP, which make this material a good candidate for magnetic cooling application. In the second part, a detailed study of the morphological, structural, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of the compounds with La0,7Ca0,15Sr0,15Mn1-xFexO3 formula has been performed. The iron Fe don't affect the structural properties, but induces a decrease of the Curie temperature. Based on the La0,7Ca0,15Sr0,15Mn1-xFexO3 (x = 0, 025 et 0,075) compositions, a composite material was proposed. The entropy change of the composite remains approximately constant in the temperature range between 260 and 300 K. Consequently, the proposed composite can be a good refrigerant for room temperature applications, in particular the magnetic cooling systems that use AMR or Ericsson thermodynamic cycles. In the last part, we have investigated the effect of the double exchange, preparation method and, ionic radius in A site and the magnetic nature on the doping in B site on the physical properties of La0,6A0,4Mn1-xFexO3 (A= Ca, Sr et 0≤x≤0,2) by using X-rays diffraction and magnetic measurements. The results demonstrate that the maximum entropy change increases with the ray of A site while it is slightly affected by the B site ray. On the other hand, it seems that the solid-solid preparation technique allows to obtain compounds with high magnetocaloric performances.

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