• Refine Query
  • Source
  • Publication year
  • to
  • Language
  • 23
  • 13
  • 4
  • 3
  • 2
  • 1
  • 1
  • 1
  • 1
  • 1
  • Tagged with
  • 61
  • 61
  • 15
  • 11
  • 10
  • 9
  • 9
  • 8
  • 8
  • 8
  • 7
  • 7
  • 6
  • 6
  • 5
  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
11

Solid phase graff copolymerization of maleic anhydride onto polyethylene and polystyrene /

Shah, Jignesh, January 2003 (has links)
Thesis (M.S.)--University of Missouri-Columbia, 2003. / Typescript. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 109-112). Also available on the Internet.
12

Solid phase graff copolymerization of maleic anhydride onto polyethylene and polystyrene

Shah, Jignesh, January 2003 (has links)
Thesis (M.S.)--University of Missouri-Columbia, 2003. / Typescript. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 109-112). Also available on the Internet.
13

Modelagem matemática do processo de modificação química de polietileno por enxerto de anidrido maleico. / Mathematical modeling of the chemical modification process of polyethylene by grafting of maleic anhydride.

Paula Maria Nogueira Ambrogi 26 June 2009 (has links)
Este trabalho tem como escopo o desenvolvimento de um modelo matemático representativo do processo de enxerto de anidrido maleico em polietileno, processo conhecido como grafting, com o objetivo de prever as modificações no grau de enxerto e teor de gel. Neste processo utiliza-se um iniciador, geralmente um peróxido, para gerar radicais livres, os quais abstraem hidrogênio das moléculas do polímero, gerando radicais poliméricos. O anidrido maleico pode reagir com estes radicais poliméricos, enxertando-se à cadeia polimérica, ou com os radicais fragmentos do iniciador. O mecanismo inclui também as reações de terminação entre os diferentes tipos de radicais presentes. O teor de gel é calculado a partir do grau de formação de ligações cruzadas utilizando-se a aproximação de Charlesby-Pinner. As constantes cinéticas do modelo foram estimadas via regressão não-linear, usando dados experimentais obtidos na literatura, e o modelo foi validado com outros conjuntos de dados, também obtidos da literatura. O modelo obtido mostrou-se capaz de representar adequadamente os dados experimentais em diferentes condições. / The scope of this work is the development of a mathematical model that can represent the process of grafting of maleic anhydride in polyethylene. The objective of this model is to preview the main modifications in polymer structure, as degree of grafting and degree of gel. In this process, an initiator, generally a peroxide) is used to generate free radicals that can abstract hydrogen from the polymer molecules, producing polymeric radicals. Maleic anhydride can react with these polymeric radicals, resulting in grafted polymer chains, or with the initiator radicals. This mechanism includes termination reactions between the different types of radicals present. Gel content was calculated from the crosslinking degree using the approximation of Charlesby-Pinner. Kinetic constants of the model were estimated through non-linear regression, by fitting the model to experimental data taken from literature. The model obtained was further tested using other data sets obtained from literature. The developed model was able to represent adequately the experimental data under different conditions.
14

Funkcionalizace polypropylenu maleimidy / Functionalization of Polypropylene by Maleimides

Korčušková, Martina January 2020 (has links)
Diploma thesis deals with preparation of polypropylene functionalized by maleimides, based on the reaction between maleic anhydride and amine. The overview of functionalization of polypropylene by maleic anhydride by reactive extrusion and routes for the synthesis and utilization of maleimides are contained in the theoretical part. Samples of maleimide-functionalized polypropylene were prepared by reactive extrusion using low molecular weight amines (aniline and 4-aminophenol) and hight molecular weight polyether monoamines. Functionalized polypropylene samples were prepared by several methods differing in the composition of the reaction mixture and performing a grafting reaction. Appropriate maleamic acids and maleimides were synthesized from low molecular weight amines and further used to functionalize the polypropylene. To characterize the samples, the degree of monomer conversion and melt flow index were determined and further analyses were performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. The synthesis of low molecular weight products was further monitored by thin layer chromatography and thermogravimetric analysis with evolved gas analysis.
15

Maleic Anhydride Compatibilized Peach Waste As Filler in Polypropylene and High Density Polyethylene Biocomposites

Wong, Caralyn, Jung, Stephanie, Shin, Joongmin, Kathuria, Ajay 01 August 2020 (has links) (PDF)
It is estimated that roughly 103, 515 tons of peach waste is produced annually in the US. The majority of the waste is disposed of in landfills, which contributes to climate change as they release 93 million metric tons of CO2 equivalent. Peach waste principally consists of remaining stone and seed after flesh removal. The agro-waste includes both cellulose and lignin, which can be utilized as a filler in plastic packaging to reduce carbon footprints and material cost. The objectives of this research are (1) to develop peach flour (PF)-filled biocomposites with a polyolefin matrix using maleic anhydride-g-high density polyethylene (MAH-g-HDPE) coupling agent resin and (2) to investigate the composites’ physicomechanical, thermal, and water absorbance changes. First, preliminary experiments examined a range of PF concentrations (5-50%) and MAH concentrations (0-17%) were tested to narrow the variability of PF and MAH loading mixture in an HDPE matrix. Preliminary experiments suggested that a 2:1 ratio of PF:CR provides maximum tensile properties. Response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized to analyze and optimize the tensile strength of the PW composite. The RSM parameters were MAH loading (5-20%), PF loading (2.5-10%), and polyolefin matrix (HDPE or polypropylene). The properties of PF-HDPE biocomposites were analyzed using several instrumental analyses. Mechanical strength (including tensile strength, elongation, and Young’s modulus) and thermal properties (thermal degradation, melting point, and crystallinity), and water resistance with the addition of PF and MAH were investigated. Biocomposite mechanical properties generally resulted in a nonsignificant decrease compared to the controls. Water absorption significantly increased with PF loading (P<0.01, =0.05). PF-PP biocomposites demonstrated a shift in thermal stability with an average 9.6% increase in Td compared to its control, whereas PF-HDPE biocomposites displayed no change in Td compared to its control. PF-PP and PF-HDPE biocomposites experienced a 36.7% and 16.0% decrease, respectively, in crystallinity with PF addition. The results provided evidence that peach byproduct can be diverted from landfills and utilized a filler in a polyolefin matrix. Polyolefin biocomposites with 2.5% PF would possess comparable tensile strength to a commercially available control. PF-polyolefin biocomposites can be used for packaging, automotive, and non-weightbearing construction parts.
16

Rhenium catalyzed hydrogenation of maleic anhydride and crotonaldehyde

Dixon, William Russel 01 May 1972 (has links)
The preparation of a number of supported rhenium catalysts is reported. The determination of their activity and selectivity and of optimal reaction parameters for the reduction of maleic anhydride and crotonaldehyde is reported. Optimal time of hydrogenation was chosen as one hour and pressures were chosen as 2000 psig for crotonaldehyde and 3000 psig for maleic anhydride. Quantitative reduction of maleic anhydride to tetrahydrofuran occurred at 275° with charcoal supported rhenium catalysts. Lower temperatures (ca. 200°) produce quantitative amounts of butyrolactone. Unsupported catalysts at low temperatures (100°) selectively reduce crotonaldehyde to crotyl alcohol, but at very low conversion rates. Temperatures of 150° for unsupported and 180° for supported catalysts effect complete reduction of crotonaldehyde to mixtures of crotyl alcohol, butanal and butanols. Catalyst reuseability for both systems is discussed. Reaction pathways are also determined from the reduction data of intermediate products.
17

Alternating hetero-arm copolymer molecular brushes as scaffolds for inorganic nano-wires

Hadasha, Waled Ajili 03 1900 (has links)
Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2013. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study describes the synthesis and self-assembly of hetero-arm molecular brushes (hetero-arm MBs). These MBs consist of two polymeric side chains (SCs) of different natures, alternatingly distributed along the main chain (backbone). Two different types of hetero-arm MBs were prepared: first, alternating amphiphlic hetero-arm MBs (AMBs), and second, alternating hetero-arm MBs (AHMBs). Hetero-arm AMBs were synthesized via two strategies: (I) via a combination of “grafting through” and “grafting onto”, and (II) via “grafting through”. In approach (I), poly[vinyl benzyl (polyethylene glycol)-alt-N-alkyl-maleimide)] (poly[VB-(PEG12)-alt-N-(CnH2n+1)-MI]) was prepared via radical copolymerization of vinyl benzyl-terminated polyethylene glycol (VB-PEG12) with maleic anhydride (MAnh) (grafting through), which produces graft copolymers with PEG SCs and reactive succinic anhydride repeat units alternatingly distributed along the backbone. These graft copolymers were then modified by nucleophilic substitution (imidization) with alkyl amines (CnH2n+1-NH2) on the succinic anhydride residues (grafting onto). Three different primary amines possessing different alkyl chain lengths (n = 4, 12 and 16) were used in the modification process. In this way, hetero-arm AMBs with different hydrophilic to hydrophobic ratios were obtained. In approach (II), similar hetero-arm AMBs were prepared in a one-step grafting through approach. In this case, poly[VB-(PEG17)-alt-N-(CnH2n+1)-MI] (n = 10, 16 and 20) was prepared via radical copolymerization of VB-PEG17 with N-dodecylmaleimide, N-hexadecylmaleimide and N-icosylmaleimide. Following the synthesis step, self-assembly of these hetero-arm AMBs in arm-selective solvents was investigated in relation to the alkyl chain length. The morphology of the obtained assemblies was characterized by Field Emission gun-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Fluorescence Microscopy (a fluorescent dye was encapsulated). Cylindrical-like aggregates, length 10 μm and diameter ~ 250 nm, were obtained upon hetero-arm AMBs self-assembly. The second type of hetero-arm MBs was hetero-arm AHMBs, in which the SCs consist of PEG and poly(N,N-dimethylamino-ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA). These hetero-arm AHMBs were prepared via a combination of grafting through and grafting from approaches. In this case, poly[vinyl benzyl-(polyethylene glycol)-alt-N-(poly(N,N-dimethylamino-ethyl methacrylate) maleimide] (poly[VB-(PEG17)-alt-N-(PDMAEMA)-MI) was prepared in the following steps: (1) alternating poly[vinyl benzyl-(polyethylene glycol)-alt-N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) maleimide] (poly[VB-(PEG17)-alt-N-(HPh)-MI]) was synthesized via radical copolymerization of VB-PEG17 with N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) maleimide (N-HPhMI). (grafting through), (2) the hydroxyl sites were esterified with 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide to afford poly [vinyl benzyl-(polyethylene glycol)-alt-N-(4-(2-bromobutyryloxy)phenyl) maleimide] (poly[VB-(PEG17)-alt-N-(BrPh)-MI]) (macroinitiator) and (3) an atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) reaction of 2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) was initiated from the obtained macroinitiator. This approach afforded poly[VB-(PEG17)-alt-N-(PDMAEMA)-MI] hetero-arm AHMBs with two water soluble SCs; however, one is water soluble at all pHs and temperatures (i.e. PEG), while the other is a pH- and temperature-sensitive polymer (i.e. PDMAEMA). Initial attempts were made to fabricate cylindrical organo/silica hybrid materials based on these AMHBs as the organic template and tetra-ethylorthosilicate as the silica precursor. Preliminary results indicate the formation of silica nano-wires, ~ 8 μm in length and ~45 nm in diameter. The self-assembly behavior of these AHMBs in water at a temperature above the lower critical solution temperature of PDMAEMA (> 55 °C) was also investigated. Fibril morphology (~ 30 nm in diameter) was observed. This study addresses initial attempts to fabricate organic/inorganic hybrid materials with controlled size and morphologies via densely grafted hetero-arm molecular brushes. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie studie beskryf die sintese en selfsamestelling van prototipe molekulêre borsels (prototipe MBs). Hierdie MBs bestaan uit twee polimeriese sykettings (SKs) van verskillende aard wat afwisselend langs die hoofketting (ruggraat) voorkom. Twee verskillende tipes van die prototipe MBs is gesintetiseer: eerstens, afwisselende amfifiliese prototipe MBs (AMBs), en tweedens, afwisselende hetero-arm prototipe MBs (AHMBs). Prototipe AMBs is gesintetiseer d.m.v. twee strategieë: (I) deur 'n kombinasie van „enting deur‟ en „enting aan‟ benaderings, en (II) deur middel van „n „enting deur‟ benadering. In benadering (I) is poli[vinielbensiel(poliëtileenglikol)-alt-N-alkiel-maleïenamied)] (poli[VB-(PEG12)-alt-N-(CnH2n+1)-MI]) gesintetiseer deur radikaalkopolimerisasie van vinielbensiel-beëindigde-poliëtileenglikol (VB-PEG12) met maleïenanhidried („enting deur‟) wat entkopolimere produseer met PEG SKs en reaktiewe suksienanhidried herhaaleenhede wat afwisselend langs die ruggraat versprei is. Daarna is die entkopolimere gewysig d.m.v. nukleofiliese substitusie (imiedisering) met alkielamiene (CnH2n+1-NH2) op die oorblywende suksienanhidried („enting op‟). Drie verskillende primêre amiene met verskillende alkielkettinglengtes (n = 4, 12 en 16) is gebruik vir die wysigingsproses. So is prototipe AMBs met verskillende hidrofiliese tot hidrofobiese verhoudings verkry. In benadering (II) is soortgelyke prototipe AMBs gesintetiseer in 'n een-stap „enting deur‟ benadering. In hierdie geval is poli[VB-(PEG17)-alt-N-(CnH2n+1)-MI] (n = 10, 16 en 20) gesintetiseer d.m.v. radikaalkopolimerisasie van VB-PEG17 met N-dodesiel maleïenamied, N-heksadesiel maleïenamied en N-ikosiel maleïenamied. Na afloop van die sintese stap is die selfsamestelling van hierdie prototipe AMBs in spesifieke oplosmiddels in verhouding tot die alkielkettinglengtes ondersoek. Die morfologie van die versamelings is gekarakteriseer deur veld-emissie-geweer-(Eng: field emission gun-)-skandeerelektronmikroskopie (FE-SEM), transmissie-elektronmikroskopie (TEM) en fluoresserende mikroskopie („n fluoresserende kleurstof is ingesluit). Silinderagtige versamelings (lengtes ~10 μm en deursnee ~250 nm) is deur die selfsamestelling van prototipe AMBs verkry. Die tweede soort prototipe MBs is prototipe AHMB, waarin die SKs uit PEG en poli(N,N-dimetielaminoetiel metakrilaat) (PDMAEMA) bestaan. Hierdie prototipe AHMBs is d.m.v. 'n kombinasie van „enting deur‟ en „enting van‟ benaderings gesintetiseer. In hierdie geval is poli[vinielbensiel-(poliëtileenglikol)-alt-N-(poli(N,N-dimetielaminoetiel metakrilaat) maleïenamied] (poli[VB-(PEG17)-alt-N-(PDMAEMA)-MI) gesintetiseer deur van die volgende stappe gebruik te maak: (1) sintese van afwisselende poli[vinielbensiel-(poliëtileenglikol)-alt-N-(4-hidroksifeniel) maleïenamied] (poli[VB-(PEG17)-alt-N-(HPh) -MI) deur midel van radikaalkopolimerisasie van VB-PEG17 met N-(4-hidroksifeniel) maleïenamied (N-HPhMI) („enting deur‟), (2) esterifikasie van die hidroksielgroepe met 2-bromoisobutiriel bromied om poli[vinielbensiel-(poliëtileenglikol)-alt-N-(4-(2-bromobutirieloksi) feniel) maleïenamied] (poli[VB-(PEG17)-alt-N-(BrPh)-MI]) (makro-afsetter) te berei, en (3) die atoomoordrag-radikaalpolimerisasie reaksie van 2-(N,N-dimetielamino)etiel metakrilaat (DMAEMA) wat begin is vanaf die gevormde makro-afsetter. Hierdie benadering gee poli[VB-(PEG17)-alt-N-(PDMAEMA)-MI] prototipe AHMBs met twee wateroplosbare SKs, waarvan een wateroplosbaar is by alle pHs en temperature (d.w.s. PEG), terwyl die ander tipe SK „n pH- en temperatuur-sensitiewe polimeer is (d.w.s. PDMAEMA). Aanvanklike pogings is aangewend om silindriese organo/silika hibriedmateriale te sintetiseer, gebaseer op hierdie AHMBs as die organiese segment en tetraëtielortosilikaat as die silika voorloper. Die voorlopige resultate dui op die vorming van silikananodrade, lengte ~8 μm en deursnit ~45 nm. Die selfsamestellingsgedrag van hierdie AHMBs is ook in water ondersoek by 'n temperatuur hoër as die laer kritieke oplossingstemperatuur van PDMAEMA (> 55 °C). „n Draadagtige morfologie (deursnit ~30 nm) is waargeneem. Hierdie studie beskryf aanvanklike pogings om organiese–anorganiese hibriedmateriale met beheerde groottes en morfologieë via dig-geënte hetero-arm molekulêre borsels te vervaardig.
18

Tensile and fracture behaviour of isotropic and die-drawn polypropylene-clay nanocomposites : compounding, processing, characterization and mechanical properties of isotropic and die-drawn polypropylene/clay/polypropylene maleic anhydride composites

Al-Shehri, Abdulhadi S. January 2010 (has links)
As a preliminary starting point for the present study, physical and mechanical properties of polypropylene nanocomposites (PPNCs) for samples received from Queen's University Belfast have been evaluated. Subsequently, polymer/clay nanocomposite material has been produced at Bradford. Mixing and processing routes have been explored, and mechanical properties for the different compounded samples have been studied. Clay intercalation structure has received particular attention to support the ultimate objective of optimising tensile and fracture behaviour of isotropic and die-drawn PPNCs. Solid-state molecular orientation has been introduced to PPNCs by the die-drawing process. Tensile stress-strain measurements with video-extensometry and tensile fracture of double edge-notched tensile specimens have been used to evaluate the Young's modulus at three different strain rates and the total work of fracture toughness at three different notch lengths. The polymer composite was analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, polarizing optical microscopy, wide angle x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. 3% and 5% clay systems at various compatibilizer (PPMA) loadings were prepared by three different mixing routes for the isotropic sheets, produced by compression moulding, and tensile bars, produced by injection moulding process. Die-drawn oriented tensile bars were drawn to draw ratio of 2, 3 and 4. The results from the Queen's University Belfast samples showed a decrement in tensile strength at yield. This might be explained by poor bonding, which refers to poor dispersion. Voids that can be supported by intercalated PP/clay phases might be responsible for improvement of elongation at break. The use of PPMA and an intensive mixing regime with a two-step master batch process overcame the compatibility issue and achieved around 40% and 50% increase in modulus for 3% and 5% clay systems respectively. This improvement of the two systems was reduced after drawing to around 15% and 25% compared with drawn PP. The work of fracture is increased either by adding nanoclay or by drawing to low draw ratio, or both. At moderate and high draw ratios, PPNCs may undergo either an increase in the size of microvoids at low clay loading or coalescence of microvoids at high clay loading, eventually leading to an earlier failure than with neat PP. The adoption of PPMA loading using an appropriate mixing route and clay loading can create a balance between the PPMA stiffness effect and the degree of bonding between clay particles and isotropic or oriented polymer molecules. Spherulites size, d-spacing of silicate layers, and nanoparticles distribution of intercalated microtactoids with possible semi-exfoliated particles have been suggested to optimize the final PPNCs property.
19

Avaliação de agente de acoplamento polimérico no comportamento térmico de compostos PP/FV

Bernardes, Giordano Pierozan January 2016 (has links)
Polipropileno (PP) é um termoplástico com ótimo balanço de propriedades, baixo custo e largo espectro de aplicações. Seu uso como material de engenharia é limitado pelos seus valores relativamente baixos de propriedades mecânicas. A adição de reforço ao PP melhora suas propriedades termomecânicas, tornando-o adequado para fabricação de peças de engenharia como composto termoplástico. Fibra de vidro (FV) é o reforço mais empregado em compostos de PP devido a maior resistência mecânica específica gerada no PP e por atuar como agente nucleante. Devido à diferença entre as naturezas das ligações secundárias, há pouca afinidade química entre PP-FV, sendo necessária a modificação interfacial através de agentes de acoplamento poliméricos (AA) para melhorar o desempenho termomecânico deste composto. Averiguou-se neste trabalho a influência de dois AA, um à base de PP e outro à base de EPDM, ambos graftizados com anidrido maleico (PAM e EAM, respectivamente), no comportamento térmico do composto PP∕FV. Os compostos PP30FV-AA foram preparados em extrusora dupla rosca ZSK 26, e posteriormente injetados em uma injetora Airburg para obtenção de corpos de prova utilizando teor fixo de 30% FV e teores de 0,5∕1,0∕2,0% AA. O PP e seus compostos foram caracterizados via microscopia óptica acoplada à placa Hot Stage, cristalização isotérmica e não isotérmica por calorimetria (DSC), resistência à deflexão térmica (HDT), morfologia da fratura (MEV) e comportamento viscoelástico (DMA) para analisar a influência do AA e da FV. Os resultados obtidos foram avaliados estatisticamente via metodologia ANOVA (Analysis of Variance). O efeito sinérgico FV-AA na cristalização isotérmica do PP foi dependente da combinação temperatura-natureza-teor de AA, sendo a temperatura o fator preponderante. A interação interfacial entre a matriz- reforço foi substancialmente favorecida pelo PAM. O uso de EAM retardou a cristalização do PP, enquanto que o PAM favoreceu este processo. Constatou-se que o AA teve pouca influência no tempo de meia-vida de cristalização nas menores isotermas e, para isotermas mais próximas à fusão do PP, o PAM apresentou menores valores deste parâmetro. Os valores de deflexão térmica foram semelhantes para todas as formulações contendo PAM, enquanto que a adição de EAM decresceu esta propriedade. Em temperaturas inferiores à transição vítrea (Tg) do PP, todos os compostos com AA apresentaram menor módulo elástico em relação ao composto puro; em temperaturas superiores à Tg, o PAM favoreceu aumentou esta propriedade na faixa de temperatura em que o composto usualmente é utilizado. / Polypropylene (PP) features by its properties balance, price and large array of applications. However, its use as engineering component is limited by relative low mechanical properties. PP reinforcement improves its thermomechanical properties, turning it into suitable to produce engineering components as a reinforced thermoplastic composite. Glass fiber (GF) is the most usual reinforce utilized in PP due to its great specific mechanical strength elastic modulus and nucleation capability. In reason of different secondary bonds between PP and GF, it is mandatory to modify the interface between these domains through polymeric coupling agents (CA) to improve thermomechanical performance. It was evaluated the influence of two CA based on PP and EPDM grafted with maleic anhydride (PAM and EAM) on thermal behavior of PP∕GF composite. PP30GF-CA composites were prepared in a twin screw extrusor ZSK 26 and injected in an injector Airburg with fixed GF content (30%) and different CA contents (0.5∕1.0∕2.0%). PP and PP composites were analyzed by optical microscopy with Hot Stage, isothermal and non-isothermal crystallization (DSC), as well as viscoelastic behavior. The results were statistically evaluated by ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) methodology. The synergic role between GF∕CA in PP crystallization was dependent on temperature-nature-CA content, mainly influenced by temperature. Interfacial adhesion was mainly favored by PAM. The results pointed a possible PP isotherm crystallization retardant by EAM, whereas PAM significantly favored this same process. CA presence in PP30GF composite did not influence crystallization half-life time values in lower isotherms, while in isotherms near PP melting temperature, PAM considerably decreased this parameter. Deflection thermal values were not affected by PAM, while EAM decreased this property in whole formulations. CA did not improved PP∕GF elastic modulus below PP glass transition (Tg), while in temperatures above Tg, PAM improved PP-GF this same parameter.
20

An investigation into the synthesis of poly(co-maleic anhydride/iso-butyl vinyl ether)with RAFT polymerisation.

Lea, Santa Cinzia, Chemical Sciences & Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, UNSW January 2006 (has links)
Poly (co iso-butyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic anhydride), an alternating copolymer, was synthesised. For this class of copolymers the formation of an electron-donor complex is invoked to explain their microstructure in which the two comonomers strictly alternate. Due to its polarity, this copolymer constitutes a potential additive for imparting hydrophilic properties to a hydrophobic matrix. In order to obtain narrow molecular weight polymers and study the relation between the molecular weight of this additive and its ability to migrate to the host polymer surface, chain transfer agents were introduced in the system and also the Reversible Addition-Fragmentation chain Transfer (RAFT) process was employed. Free radical polymerisation was first carried out to allow for a comparison with the RAFT process and kinetics of copolymerisation was studied by NIR-FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopy in order to analyse the rate of reaction of each comonomer. Dibenzyl trithiobenzoate, 3-benzyl sulfanyl thiocarbonyl sulfanyl-propionic acid and dibenzyl trithiobenzoate were used as RAFT agents. Results demonstrate that only benzyl dithiobenzoate is able to control the molecular weight of this copolymer and decrease its polydispersity index; possible reasons laying behind this result are discussed. It was also found that, in particular in the presence of benzyl dithiobenzoate, poly(iso-butyl vinyl ether) forms. This is an unusual phenomenon considering that the free radical polymerisation affords alternating copolymers and that iso-butyl vinyl ether is a monomer that polymerises through the cationic process. Experiments were carried out in various solvents in an attempt to counteract this side reaction, but no appreciable correlation between the properties of the solvents and the formation of homopolymer were found. Various hypothesis are considered, however it is likely that, in the conditions adopted, the presence of the RAFT agents alters the equilibrium constant of complex formation favouring the synthesis of the homopolymer. In addition to this side???reaction also inhibition of the copolymerisation reaction was at times encountered and an investigation into this phenomenon was also conducted.

Page generated in 0.0363 seconds