Biomimetic apporaches to the synthesis of polyketide derived marine natural products (-)-Maurenone and the spiculoic acids /Crossman, Julia Stephanie, January 2007 (has links)
Thesis (Ph.D.)--Flinders University, Dept. of Chemistry. / Typescript bound. Includes bibliographical references: (p. 360-369) Also available online.
The role of antioxidants in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases has been well documented. The use of synthetic antioxidants has decreased due to the ssociation of these compounds with certain cancers. Thus, the search for novel natural antioxidants has gained much focus in research. Most common methods of determining antioxidant capacity are the radical generated assays and biological assays such as lipid peroxidation and the nitroblue tetrazolium assay. Electrochemical methods have been proposed for the determination of bio-active compounds such as antioxidants. The electrochemical methods of cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry were evaluated for the determination of antioxidant capacity initially examining known antioxidants and then using plant extracts of Sutherlandia frutescens as a case study. The antioxidant properties determined by electrochemical methods were validated utilising the non-biological methods of the DPPH, TEAC, ferrozine and FC assay and biological pharmacological methods. The results indicated that Sutherlandia frutescens contains potent antioxidant compounds that are able to reduce lipid peroxidation. The electrochemical techniques of square wave voltammetry and cyclic voltammetry were applied for the screening of a large number of extracts of various algae for the detection of antioxidant compounds. The results indicated that electrochemistry can be used as a preliminary method for the rapid screening of a large number of crude samples for antioxidant compounds. Electrochemical methods were also evaluated as a method for guiding the isolation and purification of antioxidant metabolites in Sargassum elegans. Solvent partitioning and fractionation of the marine alga allowed for the purification of antioxidant compounds. At each step of purification electrochemical methods were utilized to determine which fractions contained the more potent antioxidant compounds and thus guide further purification. The purified antioxidant compounds were elucidated using NMR to determine the structure of the antioxidant compounds.
The isolation and characterisation of secondary metabolites from selected South African marine red algae (Rhodophyta)Fakee, Jameel January 2013 (has links)
Secondary metabolites from natural sources are fast growing as popular drug leads. The structural novelty and favourable biological activity that these compounds display contribute to their popularity as drugs of the future. Examples of such compounds include the potent anticancer drug paclitaxel isolated from the bark of a yew tree as well as the more commonly known analgesic aspirin which stems from the bark of the willow tree. The biological activities exhibited by these secondary metabolites are vast and range from antimicrobial to anticancer activity to mention but a few. As a result, the isolation of novel compounds from natural sources is on the rise. The South African seaboard is home to a wealth of various marine algal species which produce fascinating secondary metabolites. For example, Portierria hornemanii was shown to produce halomon, a halogenated monoterpene which has displayed promising cytotoxic activity. This study thus focused primarily on pursuing novel compounds from three endemic South African marine algal species which have never been analysed previously from a chemical perspective. These are Plocamium rigidum (Bory de Saint-Vincent), Laurencia natalensis (Kylin) and Delisea flaccida (Suhr) Papenfuss. Four known compounds and one new halogenated monoterpene, (2E,5E,7Z)-8-chloro- 7-(dichloromethyl)-4-hydroxy-3-methylocta-2,5,7-trienal, were isolated from Plocamium rigidum. The breast cancer (MCF-7 cell line) inhibitory activity for these compounds was assessed and it was observed that an increase in the lipophilic nature of the compounds produced more favourable IC50 values. A pre-cursor to bromofucin type compounds, cis-laurencenyne, was isolated from Laurencia natalensis, as well as a new acetoxy chamigrane type compound, 4-bromo- 3,10-dichloro-7-hydroxy-3,7,11,11-tetramethylspiro [6.6] undec-1-yl acetate. Delisea flaccida was seen to contain two known bromofuranone type compounds isolated as an isomeric mixture, 1-[(5Z)-4-bromo-5-(bromomethylidene)-2-oxo-2,5- dihydrofuran-3-yl] butyl acetate and 1-[(5E)-4-bromo-5-(bromomethylidene)-2- oxo-2,5-dihydrofuran-3-yl]butyl acetate. These compounds are famous for their ability to inhibit bacterial biofilm production and they have been isolated before from an Australian Delisea spp / Adobe Acrobat 9.53 Paper Capture Plug-in
An investigation into the bacterial diversity associated with South African latrunculid sponges that produce bioactive secondary metabolitesWalmsley, Tara Aisling January 2014 (has links)
Algoa Bay Latrunculid sponges are well known for their production of cytotoxic pyrroloiminoquinones with speculation that these secondary metabolites may have a microbial origin. This study describes a thorough investigation into the bacterial community associated with Tsitsikamma favus, Tsitsikamma scurra a newly described Latrunculia sp. and a yellow encrusting sponge associated with T. scurra. Molecular and chemical characterisation were used in conjunction with traditional taxonomy in identification of the sponge specimens. The 28S rRNA and COX1 analysis confirmed the traditional taxonomy with T. favus and T. scurra being very closely related. Chemical analysis revealed that T. favus and T. scurra shared the discorhabdins 2,4-debromo-3-dihydrodiscorhabdin C, 7,8-dehydro-3-dihydrodiscorhabdin C and 14-bromo-1-hydroxy-discorhabdin V in common with each other and Tsitsikamma pedunculata indicating that these pyrroloiminoquinones are common to Tsitsikamma sponges in general. The bacterial community associated with T. favus was explored using 16S rRNA molecular techniques including DGGE, clonal libraries of full length 16S rRNA genes, as well as 454 pyrosequencing. DGGE analysis revealed that the bacterial community associated with T. favus appeared to be highly conserved, which was confirmed by both the clone library and 454 pyrosequencing, with the Betaproteobacteria as the most dominant class. Further exploration into T. favus, as well as T. scurra, Latrunculia sp. and the yellow encrusting sponge indicated that the bacterial populations associated with each of these sponge species were conserved and species specific. OTU analysis to the species level revealed that T. favus and T. scurra shared an abundant Spirochaete species in common while the most abundant species in the Latrunculia sp. and the yellow encrusting sponge belonged to the class Betaproteobacteria. The exclusivity of the tsitsikammamines to T. favus precipitated attempts to culture the T. favus associated bacteria, with a focus on the dominant betaproteobacterium as indicated by the 16S rRNA clone library. Actinobacteria associated with the Algoa Bay sponge specimens were also cultured and the actinobacterial isolates were sent for screening against Mycobacterium aurum with two Kocuria kristinae isolates and a Streptomyces albdioflavus isolate showing good antimycobacterial activity.
Marine biotechnology : evaluation and development of methods for the discovery of natural products from fungiPather, Simisha 18 June 2013 (has links)
One of the major impediments in the development of marine natural products is the provision of biologically active natural products in sufficient quantity for complete pharmacological evaluation, clinical trials and eventual commercial production. Marine microorganisms show great promise in providing a renewable source of biologically active natural products. The main aim of this study was to develop and evaluate methods for the isolation, identification and cultivation of marine fungi from the South African marine environment for the production of biologically active secondary metabolites. Twenty-four species of fungi were isolated from marine algae collected from the intertidal zone near Port Alfred, South Africa. The fungi were cultivated in small-scale under static and agitated conditions and their crude intra- and extracellular organic extracts were screened by ¹H NMR and a series of bioassays. Using this as a basis, one isolate was selected for further study. By analyses of the lTS1 region of the ribosomal DNA, the fungal isolate was identified as a marine-derived isolate of Eurotium rubrum (Aspergillus ruber). Although E. rubrum has been isolated from the marine environment, no investigations have been undertaken to determine the adaptation of these isolates to the marine environment. In order to optimise productivity, creativity and incubation time, the fungus was cultivated in small-scale using a variety of carbon (glucose, fructose, lactose, sucrose, marmitol and maltose) and nitrogen sources (ammonium tartrate, urea, peptone and yeast extract). An HPLC-DAD method was developed to assess the metabolic creativity and productivity under different fermentation conditions. Distinctive variations in the range and yield of metabolites produced as well as morphology and growth time were observed. The crude extracts from all fermentations were combined and six known compounds were isolated by reversed-phase chromatography and their structures elucidated by spectroscopic techniques. The known compounds were fIavoglaucin, aspergin, isodihydroauroglaucin, isotetrahydroauroglaucin, neoechinuline A and physcion. Neoechinuline A, isodihydroauroglaucin and isotetrahydroauroglaucin showed activity against oesophageal and cervical cancer cell lines.
Bromley, Candice Leigh
This thesis investigates the chemistry of 25 ascidian species collected from Algoa Bay, South Africa with a concerted focus on metal accumulation by these ascidians and the possible interaction of these metals with ascidian metabolites. Chapter 2 details the screening techniques employed to establish the presence of nitrogenous metabolites (1H- 15N HMBC), hyper-accumulated metal ions (ICP-MS) and potential metal ion/ ascidian metabolite complexes (LC-ICP-MS/ESI-MS). Unfortunately, exhaustive attempts to detect intact metal ion/ascidian metabolite complexes through the use of liquid chromatography with parallel inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry/electrospray mass spectrometry (LC-ICPMS/ ESI-MS) were unsuccessful. However, the LC-ICP-MS/ESI-MS data obtained for the crude organic extracts of six of the Algoa Bay ascidian species, Distaplia skoogi, Aplidium monile, Aplidium sp., Didemnum sp., Leptoclindines sp. and Polycitor sp. enabled identification of a number of ten halogenated metabolites, namely the indoles 2.28-2.30, and the tyramine and tyrosine derivatives (2.31-2.33, 2.41, 2.43, 2.44 and 2.46), within the ascidian extracts. This study confirmed that LC-ICP-MS/ESI-MS is a powerful tool for the dereplication of halogenated metabolites in complex mixtures especially where these compounds are present in very small amounts. This study is also the first report of these compounds (eight of which are known) in African ascidians. Compounds 2.32 and 2.46 have not been reported before from a marine source. Compounds 2.28-2.30 and 2.33 were present in sufficient amounts in the respective ascidian extracts to allow their isolation and structure elucidation using standard spectroscopic techniques Chapter 3 explores the ability of ascidians to accumulate a wide range of metal ions at concentrations which are often orders of magnitude higher than those of the surrounding sea water. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine the total ion concentrations of 24 metals in 25 Algoa Bay ascidian species. To the best of our knowledge this is the largest and most extensive investigation of metal concentrations in a group of different ascidians occurring in the same area. Hypotheisizing that the metal ion concentrations for each ascidian specimen screened may represent a unique fingerprint for each specimen principal component analysis (PCA) was used in an attempt to establish whether there were spatial, temporal or phylogenetic relationships associated with the metal concentration fingerprints of the ascidians that formed part of this study. The PCA results showed that there were no statistically significant relationships between ascidian metal ion concentrations and either the collection year or the collection site of the ascidians. However, species from the family Didemnidae provided the clearest statistical evidence supporting a phylogenetic relationship between these ascidians and their hyperaccumulated metal ion profiles. Furthermore, these results suggested that ascidian species are indeed actively concentrating metal ions from the surrounding sea water and are not simply sinks for passively accumulated metal ions. Interestingly, the concentration of vanadium in the set of ascidians studied did not appear to correlate with any of the other metals accumulated by these ascidians suggesting that there is possibly a unique method employed for the accumulation of vanadium by ascidians. Chapter 4 investigated this possibility further after the nucleosides 4.10, 4.11, 4.13, 4.15, 4.17 and 4.40 were isolated from the vanadium accumulating ascidian Aplidium monile. Studies into the interactions between nucleosides and vanadyl are unfortunately rare and usually qualitative in nature with limited information provided about the stability or structures of the complexes formed. The vanadyl accumulating aplousobranch ascidians e.g. Aplidium monile dominated our study of Algoa Bay ascidians therefore providing us with the rationale to investigate the relatively little studied binding ability and stability of vandyl-nucleoside complexes. Potentiometric studies were conducted to determine the stability constants of complexes formed between the oxovanadium ion vanadyl (VO2+) and the commercially available nucleosides 4.10-4.14. The data afforded by this analysis clearly confirmed the complexity of the vanadyl/nucleoside complexation and suggested that guanosine (4.12) formed the most stable complex with oxovanadium ions. We were also able to establish a third protonation constant for the hydroxyl moiety in 4.12 with a logK 8.87 which has not been previously reported. Finally, Chapter 5 revisited the cytoxicity two Algoa Bay ascidians, Clavelina sp. and Atriolum marinense the extracts from which produced promising bioactivity results in previous studies against oesophageal cancer cells. The HP-20 fractionated extracts of Clavelina sp. and Atriolum marinense proved to be similalrly cytotoxic to breast cancer cells. With the exception for the 100% acetone(aq)fractions the NMR data for both species suggested that most active non polar fractions were dominated by what appeared to be structurally unremarkable fatty acid glycerides and as such were not pursued further. Purification of the 100% acetone(aq)fraction of A. marinense resulted in the isolation of a styrene trimer, 5.1, common to both ascidian extracts. The NMR simulation software WIN-DAISY was employed to confirm the structure of 5.1. Attempts to establish if 5.1 was an isolation artefact or a product of marine pollution were inconclusive
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