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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
31

Chemical investigations of marine filamentous and zoosporic fungi and studies in marine microbial chemical ecology /

Jenkins, Kelly Matthew, January 1998 (has links)
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of California, San Diego, 1998. / Vita. Includes bibliographical references (p. 169-179).
32

Bioactive secondary metabolites from Australian invertebrates, Indonesian marine sponges, and an Indonesian terrestrial plant /

Swasono, Respati Tri. January 2006 (has links) (PDF)
Thesis (M.Phil.) - University of Queensland, 2006. / Includes bibliography.
33

The investigation of novel marine microorganisms for the production of biologically active metabolites

Sunkel, Vanessa Ann 15 July 2013 (has links)
New drugs, particularly antibiotics, are urgently required to combat the increasing problem of antibiotic resistant human pathogens. Due to the scarcity of products available today, the pharmaceutical industry is now under pressure to reassess compounds derived from plants, soil and marine organisms. Pharmaceutical companies are showing renewed interest in marine biotechnology as the oceans represent a rich source of both biological and chemical diversity of novel molecular structures with anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and antibiotic properties. Formerly unexplored locations, such as deep ocean sediments, show great potential as a source of genetically novel microorganisms producing structurally unique secondary metabolites. In this research, a metabolite producing marine Pseudoalteromonas strain, known as AP5, was initially used to develop methods for the detection, optimisation of production and extraction of bioactive metabolites from other potentially novel marine isolates. Two hundred and seventy six (276) marine isolates from water and sediment samples from the Antarctic Ocean and Marion Island were isolated. Ten visually different isolates were screened for bioactivity against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, fungi and yeast. Three out of the 10 isolates, WL61 , WL 114 and WL 136, appeared to be novel Streptomyces spp. showing activity against different test organisms. Many of these marine microorganisms are difficult to culture in the laboratory, particularly when they are cultivated continuously in shake flasks as they can stop producing bioactive compounds. The cultivation of marine isolates in bioreactors may be a more beneficial process for the optimisation of metabolite production compared to conventional liquid fermentation techniques whereby the solid-liquid-air interface of membrane bioreactors can imitate the natural environment of microbes. The membrane bioreactor system is a stable growth environment with low shear that supports steady-state biofilm growth consisting of a high cell density due to a high mass transfer of nutrients and oxygen to the cells. This approach was employed and isolates WL61, WL114 and WL136 were immobilised onto ceramic membranes using Quorus single fibre bioreactors (SFR). The SFRs were used to establish the most suitable growth medium for continuous secondary metabolite production. The best growth conditions were applied to the Quorus multifibre bioreactor (MFR) for scale up of biologically active metabolites, highlighting the potential of bioreactor technology for use in bioprospecting for isolating and screening novel and known organisms for new and interesting natural products. Furthermore, the Quorus MFR was shown to be suitable for the production of high yields of antimicrobial metabolites and is an efficient new fermentation production system. Purification by HPLC fractionation was used to characterise four major compounds from isolate WL 114 extracts. NMR structure elucidation identified one of the two primary compounds as Bisphenol A. The complete chemical structure for the second potent bioactive compound could not be determined due to the low concentration and volume of material. / KMBT_363 / Adobe Acrobat 9.54 Paper Capture Plug-in
34

A study of plocamium corallorhiza secondary metabolites and their biological activity

Mkwananzi, Henry Bayanda January 2005 (has links)
Seaweeds of the genus Plocamium are known to produce a variety of halogenated monoterpenes. In addition to their ecological role as feeding deterrents, biological activities reported for these compounds include antibacterial, antialgal, antifungal and anticancer activities. An investigation of the non-polar extracts of the seaweed Plocamium corallorhiza resulted in the isolation of six known halogenated monoterpene compounds, 4-bromo-5-bromomethyl-1-chlorovinyl-2, 5-dichloro-methylcyclohexane (2.68), 1,4,8-tribromo-3 ,7-dichloro-3, 7-dimethyl-1,5-octadiene (2.67), 8-bromo-1 ,3,4,7-tetrachloro-3, 7-dimethyl-1,5-octadiene (2.66), 4,6-dibromo-1,1-dichloro-3,7-dimethyl-2,7-octadiene (2.64), 4,8-dibromo-1,1,7-trichloro-3,7-dimethyl-2,5-octadiene (2.65) and 3,4 ,6,7-tetrachloro-3, 7-dimethyl-1-octene (2.63) as well as eight new compounds, including five halogenated monoterpene aldehydes. The new compounds were identified by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques as: 8-Bromo-6,7-dichloro-3,7-dimethyl-octa-2,4-dienal (2.72), 8-Bromo-1,1,2,7-tetrachloro-3,7-dimethyl-octa-3,5-diene (2.70), 4,8-Dichloro-3,7-dimethyl-octa-2,4,6-trienal (2.74), 4-Bromo-8-chloro-3, 7-di methyl-octa-2, 6-dienal (2 76), 8-Bromo-4-chloro-3, 7-dimethyl-octa-2,4 ,6-trienaI (2.75), 4-Bromo-1,3,6,7-tetrachloro-3 ,7-dimethyl-octa-1,4-diene (2.71), 8-Bromo-1,3,4,7-tetrachloro-3,7-dimethyl-octa-1,5-diene (2.69), 4,6-Dibromo-3,7 -dimethyl-octa-2,7-dienal (2.73). All compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity, brine shrimp lethality and cytotoxicity towards oesophageal cancer cells. Compound 2.68 was toxic to brine shrimp larvae at a concentration of 50 μ/mL. It also showed promising activity towards oesophageal cancer cells with an IC₅₀, of 2 μg/mL.
35

An investigation of the antimicrobial and antifouling properties of marine algal metabolites

Mann, Maryssa Gudrun Ailsa 11 July 2013 (has links)
Prevention of the accumulation of undesirable biological material i.e. biofouling upon a solid surface requires the use of antifouling systems. The solid surface may be a contact lens, an off shore oil rig or a living organism. When chemicals are employed as a mechanism of defense against biofouling, the agents involved are known as antifouling agents. Marine algae must protect themselves from fouling organisms and it is thought that one of the mechanisms used by these organisms is the production of secondary metabolites with an array of biological activities. In vitro studies have shown numerous compounds isolated from marine algae to possess antibacterial, antifungal and antimacrofouling activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the secondary metabolite extracts of selected Southern African marine macro-algae as a potential source of compounds that inhibit biofilm formation and that could be used as antifouling agents. In this project, marine macro-algae were collected from various sites along the South African coastline. Their extracts were screened for antimicrobial activity against four ubiquitous microorganisms, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycobacterium aurm and Candida albicans. Results of screening assays guided the fractionation of two Rhodophyta, Plocamium corallorhiza and Laurencia flexuosa. The algae were fractionated using silica gel column chromatography and compounds were isolated by semi-preparative normal phase HPLC. Compound characterization was performed using UV, IR and advanced one- and two-dimensional NMR (¹H, ¹³C NMR, COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Ten halogenated monoterpenes including four members of the small class of halogenated monoterpene aldehydes were isolated from extracts of P. corallorhiza. The compounds isolated included the known compounds 3,4,6,7-tetrachloro-3,7-dimethyl-1-octene; 4,6-dibromo-1, 1-dichloro-3,7 -dimethyl-2E,7 octadiene; 4,8-d ibromo-1,1,7 -trichloro-3, 7-dimethyl-2,5Eoctadiene;1 ,4,8-tribromo-3, 7 -dichloro-3,7-dimethyl-1 E,5E-octadiene; 8-bremo-6, 7-dichloro-3,7-dimethyl-octa-2E,4E-dienal; 4-Bromo-8-chloro-3,7-dimethyl-octa-2E,6E-dienal; 4,6- Dibromo-3,7-dimethyl-octa-2E,7-dienal; 2,4-dichloro-1-(2-chlorovinyl)-1-methyl-5-methylidene-cyclohexane and two new metabolites 4,8-chloro-3,7-dimethyl-2Z,4,6Z-octatrien-1-al and Compound 3.47. Methodology was developed for the chemical derivatization and mass spectrometric analysis of the aldehydic compounds, The aldehyde trapping reagent 0-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine hydrochloride was used to derivatize the molecules, stabilizing them and allowing for their complete characterization. From Laurencia flexuosa a new cuparene sesquiterpene 4-bremo-2-(5-hydroxy-1,2,2- trimethylcyclopent-3-enyl)-5-methylphenol was isolated along with two geometric isomers of the vinyl acetylene bromofucin , An halogenated monoterpene 3S*,4R*-1-bromo-3,4,8-trichloro-9-dichloromethyl-1-E,5-E,7-Z-octatriene was also isolated but was suspected to be a contaminant and an investigation into its biological source revealed that it originated from Plocamium suhrii. A third alga, Martensia elegans was extracted based on published reports of antimicrobial compounds in related species. A new a-alkyl malate derivative was isolated and characterized. Selected compounds isolated during the course of the study were employed in preliminary assays that tested their ability to inhibit biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The halogenated monoterpenes isolated from the Plocamium species were the only active compounds. 3S*,4R*-1-bromo-3,4,S-trichloro-g-dichloromethyl-1-E,5-E,7-octatriene from P. suhrii inhibited biofilm formation through antibacterial activity on planktonic cells but could not prevent biofilm formation when employed as a film on the surface of microtitre plate wells. 1,4,8-tribromo-3,7-dichloro-3,7-dimethyl-1E,5E-octadiene and 4,6-dibromo-1,1-dichloro-3,7-dimethyl-2E,7-octadiene inhibited biofilm formation when applied as a film to the microtitre plate wells but had no significant antibacterial activity. No potential antifouling agents were identified in this project but the antimicrobial activity exhibited by the crude algal extracts was highly encouraging and a number of new research areas have been identified. / KMBT_363 / Adobe Acrobat 9.54 Paper Capture Plug-in
36

Biologically active natural products from South African marine invertebrates

Hooper, Gregory John January 1997 (has links)
This thesis describes the chemical and biological investigation of the extracts of six different marine invertebrate organisms collected along the South African coastline. The work on these extracts has resulted in the isolation and structural elucidation of twenty-one previously undescribed secondary metabolites; The history of marine natural product chemistry in South Africa has not previously been reviewed and so a comprehensive review covering the literature from the 1940's up until the end of 1995 is presented here. The marine ascidian Pseudodistoma species collected in the Tsitsikamma Marine Reserve was shown to contain four new unsaturated amino alcohols [47], [48], [49] and [50] which were isolated as their acetyl derivatives. These compounds exhibited strong antimicrobial activity. Four new pyrroloiminoquinone alkaloids, the tsitsikammamines A [90] to D [93],were isolated from a new genus of Latrunculid sponge collected in the Tsitsikamma Marine Reserve. These highly pigmented compounds also possessed strong antimicrobial activity. An investigation of two phenotypic colour variants of the soft coral Capnella thyrsoidea resulted in the isolation of the known steroid 5α-pregna-1, 20-dien-3-one [97] and an additional six new metabolites, 16β-hydroxy-5α-pregna-1 ,20-dien-3-one 16-acetate [98], 3α,16β-dihydroxy-5α-pregna-1, 20-diene 3,16-diacetate [99] and four xenicane diterpenes, the tsitsixenicins A [100] to D [103]. This is the first reported isolation of xenicane diterpenes from the soft coral family Nephtheiidae. Tsitsixenicin A and B showed good anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting superoxide production in both rabbit and human cell neutrophils. A further four new metabolites were isolated from two soft corals which could only be identified to the genus level and were designated Alcyonium species A and species B. Alcyonium species A was collected in the Tsitsikamma Marine Reserve and yielded two new polyhydroxysterols, cholest-5-ene-3β, 7β, 19-triol 19-acetate [121] and cholest-5,24-diene-3β, 7β, 19-triol 19-acetate [122]. The soft coral Alcyonium species B was collected off Aliwal Shoal and was found to contain two known xenicane diterpenes, 9-deacetoxy-14, 15-deepoxyxeniculin [110] and zahavin A [16], and two new xenicane diterpenes, 7 -epoxyzahavin A [123] and xeniolide C [124]. Compounds [110], [16] and [123] exhibited strong anti-inflammatory activity and compounds [110] and [16] showed good antithrombotic activity. The endemic soft coral A/cyanium fauri collected at Riet Point near Port Alfred yielded the new sesquiterpene hydroquinone rietone [141] in high yierd, fogether with the minor compounds 8'-acetoxyrietone [142] and 8'-desoxyrietone [143]. Rietone exhibited moderate activity in the NCl's in-vitro anti-HIV bioassays.
37

Structural and synthetic investigations of South African marine natural products

Beukes, Denzil Ronwynne January 2000 (has links)
A chemical investigation of six different marine invertebrates, collected along the South African coastline, resulted in the isolation and structural elucidation of fifteen previously undescribed secondary metabolites along with seven known compounds. The structures of the new metabolites were determined by a combination of spectroscopic and chemical methods. The endemic false limpet Siphonaria capensis was shown to contain two unusual polypropionate metabolites capensinone (162) and capensifuranone (163) as well as 2,4,6,8-tetramethyl-2-undecenoic acid (164) and the known polypropionates (E)- and (Z)siphonarienfuranone (149 and 161). Capensinone is the first example of a marine polypropionate containing a cyc1opentenone moiety. An investigation of the endemic South African soft coral Pieterfaurea unilobata yielded six new, highly oxygenated, pregnadiene sterols (180-185) and the known metabolite (169). Compounds 180-185 are the first pregnadienes obtained from the marine environment containing a C-7 substituent. An alternative procedure for the quick assignment of the absolute configuration at C-3 in this series of compounds was proposed. A companson of the pyrroloiminoquinone alkaloids of three undescribed l'}trunculid sponges resulted in the isolation of 3-dih¥drodiscorhabdin C (243), 3-dihydrodiscorhabdin B (244), discorhabdin H (197) and the previously reported alkaloids discorhabdin A (189) and discorhabdin D (192). While all three sponges were found to be morphologically different they all contained discorhabdin A as the major metabolite and discorhabdin H as one of their minor metabolites. It was found that a feature common to most of the South African latrunculid sponges is the reduction of the C-3 carbonyl gr,o up in some of the minor metabolites. The indole alkaloids, dilemmaones A-C (261-263), containing an unusual cyc1opentanone-indole skeleton, were isolated in trace amounts by bioassay guided fractionation of an extract obtained from a mixed collection of sponges collected near Cape Town. In an attempt to acquire more of these novel compounds for further investigation of their biological activity, several synthetic strategies towards their total synthesis were explored. A key feature of these approaches was the exploitation of the regioselective Gassman's artha-alkylation procedure for the introduction of an aromatic methyl substituent.
38

Studies in South African marine molluscan chemistry

Bromley, Candice Leigh January 2011 (has links)
This thesis investigates the variability occurring in the secondary metabolites produced by three South African marine molluscs. Chapter Two discusses the isolation and spectroscopic structure elucidation of the metabolites isolated from two Siphonaria species. The re-investigation of Siphonaria capensis yielded siphonarienfuranone (2.2) as the only common polypropionate isolated from both the 1998 and 2009 collections of S. capensis from the same areas suggesting possible seasonal or genetic variation in polypropionate production. The sterol cholest-7-en-3,5,7- triol (2.33) was also isolated form the 2009 collection of S. capensis and this is the first time this compound has been isolated from a Siphonaria species. The second species, Siphonaria oculus is closely related to S. capensis and the investigation into the former’s secondary metaboliteproduction revealed 2.2 as a major metabolite suggesting an inter-species overlap in polypropionate production. Three new polypropionate metabolites, 2.35, 2.36 and 2.37 were also isolated from S. oculus. An unsuccessful attempt was made to establish the absolute configuration of 2.37 using the modified Mosher’s method and the limited amount of 2.37 available prevented any further attempts at resolving the absolute configuration of this compound. The 1H NMR analysis of the defensive mucus collected directly from S. oculus revealed the presence of the acyclic polypropionate 2.37 as a minor metabolite. The absence of characteristic signals for the furanone containing compounds 2.2, 2.35 and 2.36, might suggest that these compounds cyclise from a hypothetical acyclic precursor (2.38) during standard work up of bulk acetone extracts of Siphonaria species. Chapter Three discusses the re-isolation and spectroscopic structure elucidation of the metabolites isolated from the nudibranch, Leminda millecra. Three known natural products, millecrone A (3.1), 8-hydroxycalamenene (3.6) and cubebenone (3.8) were re-isolated from our 2010 collection of L. millecra, as well as the new minor metabolite 8-acetoxycalamenene (3.16). The cytotoxic prenylated toluquinones and toluhydroquinones (3.9-3.15) initially isolated from the 1998 collection of L. millecra were not found in the 2010 collection supporting the hypothesis that these compounds may be of fungal origin. L. millecra clearly shows variability in the compounds sequestered by this species with millecrone A (3.1) being the only common metabolite in the three investigations of L. millecra to date. An unsuccessful attempt was made to establish the absolute configuration of 3.1, 3.6 and 3.8 through initial LAH reduction of the ketone moiety contained in 3.1 and 3.8 and esterification of the resultant diastereomeric alcohol mixtures and the phenol functionality in 3.6 with (1S)-camphanic chloride. Crystallisation of the (S)- camphanate esters of 3.6 and 3.8 for X-ray analysis were unsuccessful, while the unexpected conjugate addition of a hydride in 3.1 resulted in complex diastereomeric mixtures which could not be separated by HPLC.
39

Molecular- and culturebased approaches to unraveling the chemical cross-talk between Delisea pulchra and Ruegeria strain R11

Case, Rebecca, Biotechnology & Biomolecular Sciences, Faculty of Science, UNSW January 2006 (has links)
Delisea pulchra is a red macroalga that produces furanones, a class of secondary metabolites that inhibit the growth and colonization of a range of micro- and macroorganisms. In bacteria, furanones specifically inhibit acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)- driven quorum sensing, which is known to regulate a variety of colonization and virulence traits. This thesis aims to unveil multiple aspects of the chemically mediated interactions between an alga and its bacterial flora. It was demonstrated that the quorum sensing genetic machinery of bacteria is laterally transferred, making traditional 16S rRNA gene based-diversity techniques poorly suited to identify quorum sensing species. Previous studies had shown that AHL-producing bacteria belonging to the roseobacter clade can be readily isolated from D. pulchra. Because of this, it was decided to use a roseobacter epiphytic isolate from this alga, Ruegeria strain R11, to conduct a series of colonization experiments on furanone free and furanone producing D. pulchra. Furanones were shown to inhibit Ruegeria strain R11's colonization and infection of D. pulchra. In addition, it was demonstrated that Ruegeria strain R11 has temperature-regulated virulence, similar to what is seen for the coral pathogen Vibrio shiloi. Rising ocean temperatures may explain bleached D. pulchra specimens recently observed at Bare Island, Australia. To assess whether quorum sensing is common within the roseobacter clade, cultured isolates from the Roseobacter, Ruegeria and Roseovarius genera were screened for AHL production. Half of the bacteria screened produced the quorum sensing signal molecules, AHLs. These AHLs were identified using an overlay of an AHL reporter strain in conjunction with thin layer chromatography (TLC). The prevalence of quorum sensing within the roseobacter clade, suggests that these species may occupy marine niches where cellular density is high (such as surface associated communities on substratum and marine eukaryotes). Diversity studies in marine microbial communities require appropriate molecular markers. The 16S rRNA gene is the most commonly used marker for molecular microbial ecology studies. However, it has several limitations and shortcomings, to which attention has been drawn here. The rpoB gene is an alternate ???housekeeping??? gene used in molecular microbial ecology. Therefore, the phylogenetic properties of these two genes were compared. At most taxonomic levels the 16S rRNA and rpoB genes offer similar phylogenetic resolution. However, the 16S rRNA gene is unable to resolve relationships between strains at the subspecies level. This lack of resolving power is shown here to be a consequence of intragenomic heterogeneity.
40

Molecular- and culturebased approaches to unraveling the chemical cross-talk between Delisea pulchra and Ruegeria strain R11

Case, Rebecca, Biotechnology & Biomolecular Sciences, Faculty of Science, UNSW January 2006 (has links)
Delisea pulchra is a red macroalga that produces furanones, a class of secondary metabolites that inhibit the growth and colonization of a range of micro- and macroorganisms. In bacteria, furanones specifically inhibit acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)- driven quorum sensing, which is known to regulate a variety of colonization and virulence traits. This thesis aims to unveil multiple aspects of the chemically mediated interactions between an alga and its bacterial flora. It was demonstrated that the quorum sensing genetic machinery of bacteria is laterally transferred, making traditional 16S rRNA gene based-diversity techniques poorly suited to identify quorum sensing species. Previous studies had shown that AHL-producing bacteria belonging to the roseobacter clade can be readily isolated from D. pulchra. Because of this, it was decided to use a roseobacter epiphytic isolate from this alga, Ruegeria strain R11, to conduct a series of colonization experiments on furanone free and furanone producing D. pulchra. Furanones were shown to inhibit Ruegeria strain R11's colonization and infection of D. pulchra. In addition, it was demonstrated that Ruegeria strain R11 has temperature-regulated virulence, similar to what is seen for the coral pathogen Vibrio shiloi. Rising ocean temperatures may explain bleached D. pulchra specimens recently observed at Bare Island, Australia. To assess whether quorum sensing is common within the roseobacter clade, cultured isolates from the Roseobacter, Ruegeria and Roseovarius genera were screened for AHL production. Half of the bacteria screened produced the quorum sensing signal molecules, AHLs. These AHLs were identified using an overlay of an AHL reporter strain in conjunction with thin layer chromatography (TLC). The prevalence of quorum sensing within the roseobacter clade, suggests that these species may occupy marine niches where cellular density is high (such as surface associated communities on substratum and marine eukaryotes). Diversity studies in marine microbial communities require appropriate molecular markers. The 16S rRNA gene is the most commonly used marker for molecular microbial ecology studies. However, it has several limitations and shortcomings, to which attention has been drawn here. The rpoB gene is an alternate ???housekeeping??? gene used in molecular microbial ecology. Therefore, the phylogenetic properties of these two genes were compared. At most taxonomic levels the 16S rRNA and rpoB genes offer similar phylogenetic resolution. However, the 16S rRNA gene is unable to resolve relationships between strains at the subspecies level. This lack of resolving power is shown here to be a consequence of intragenomic heterogeneity.

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