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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Closing price manipulation and the integrity of stock exchanges

Putniņš, Tālis J. January 2010 (has links)
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) / Allegations of market manipulation abound in the popular press, particularly during the recent financial turmoil. However, many aspects of manipulation are poorly understood. The purpose of this thesis is to enhance our understanding of market manipulation by providing empirical evidence on the prevalence, effects and determinants of closing price manipulation. The first issue examined in this thesis is the prevalence of closing price manipulation. This thesis uses a hand collected sample of prosecuted closing price manipulation cases from US and Canadian stock exchanges, and methods that explicitly model the incomplete and non-random detection of manipulation. The results suggest that approximately 1.1% of closing prices are manipulated. For every prosecuted closing price manipulation there are approximately 300 instances of manipulation that remain undetected or not prosecuted. Closing price manipulation is more prevalent on larger exchanges than smaller ones, but is detected at a higher rate on small exchanges. Second, this thesis examines the effects of closing price manipulation. Using a sample of prosecution cases, this thesis finds that closing price manipulation is associated with large day-end returns, subsequent return reversals, increases in day-end spreads and increases in day-end trading activity. At the broader level of market quality, this thesis provides evidence from a laboratory experiment that closing price manipulation decreases both price accuracy and liquidity. Even the mere possibility of manipulation decreases liquidity and increases trading costs. The third issue analysed in this thesis is the determinants of closing price manipulation and its detection. Estimating an empirical model of manipulation and detection, this thesis finds that the likelihood of closing price manipulation is increased by smaller regulatory budgets, greater information asymmetry, mid to low levels of liquidity, month-end days and lower volatility. Manipulation is more likely to be detected when regulatory budgets are larger and when the manipulation causes abnormal trading characteristics. Further evidence from laboratory experiments suggests that regulation helps restore price accuracy by deterring some manipulation and making remaining manipulation less aggressive. These experiments also show that regulation has an insignificant effect on liquidity because participants in regulated markets still face relatively high uncertainty about the presence of manipulators. This thesis also examines how closing price manipulation is conducted and how other market participants respond. It develops an index of closing price manipulation that can be used to study manipulation in markets or time periods in which prosecution data are not available. It also provides a tool for the detection of manipulation, which can be used by regulators in automated surveillance systems. Finally, this thesis has implications for economic efficiency and policy. Closing price manipulation is significantly more prevalent than the number of prosecution cases suggests. Further, it harms both pricing accuracy and liquidity and therefore undermines economic efficiency. The prevalence of closing price manipulation can be reduced by increasing regulatory budgets, improving the accuracy of market surveillance systems by using the detection tools developed in this thesis, structuring markets such that participants are better able to identify manipulation, and implementing closing mechanisms that are difficult to manipulate. These actions would enhance market integrity and economic efficiency.
2

Security market manipulations and the assurance of market integrity

Ji, Shan , Banking & Finance, Australian School of Business, UNSW January 2009 (has links)
This dissertation is motivated by two major factors. First, there have been no direct studies conducted for the relationship between market integrity and market efficiency and the driving forces behind the cross-sectional variations in market quality. Second, a better understanding the relationships among market integrity, market efficiency and other mechanism design factors for securities exchanges will facilitate securities exchanges achieve a satisfactory level of market quality. This dissertation consists of three chapters. In Chapter 1, a review of literature on market manipulation will be given. A series of common securities market manipulation strategies and corresponding market surveillance alerts will be explained and defined. In Chapter 2, we develop a testable hypothesis that market manipulation as proxied by the incidence of ramping alerts would raise transaction cost for completing larger trades. We find ramping alert incidence positively related to effective spreads in 8 of 10 turnover deciles from most liquid to thinnest-trading securities. The magnitude of the increase in effective spreads when ramping manipulation incidence doubles is economically significant, 30 to 40 basis points in many moderate liquidity deciles. This compares with an average effective spread of 72 basis points for index-listed securities in the most efficient electronic markets worldwide. In Chapter 3, In Chapter 3 of this thesis, we test the correlation between the levels of market integrity as proxied by the incidence of ramping alerts and a combination of proxies for factors from the following four potential drivers deciding the market quality across securities exchanges: ??? Securities Markets Trading Regulations ??? Securities Markets Technologies ??? Securities Market Infrastructure ??? Securities Market Participants The model we developed to test the correlation between the proxies for level of market integrity and seven proxies for the four potential drivers were estimated with Ordinary Least Square (OLS) and Two-stage Least Square (2SLS) error structures assumed, respectively to learn the most about the possible endogeneity of spreads and volatility. By performing Hausman-Wu specification tests, we concluded that simultaneity bias in the thickly-traded deciles is not material for the AI-Volatility and AI-Spread equation pairs. Subsequently, we used the PROBIT model to analyse the probability of adopting RTS across the 240 securities exchange deciles and the likelihood proves to be systematically related to four determinants in our sample. Finally we estimate the structural equations to investigate possible cross-equation correlation of the disturbances with either seemingly unrelated regression (SURL) estimation. Our findings are three-fold. Firstly, in the moderately-traded deciles, we find that the presence of a closing auction (CloseAucDum) reduces the incidence of ramping alerts. Trade-based manipulation proves more difficult when a manipulator???s counterparties can use closing auctions to unwind their intraday exposures. The RTS dummy variable is significantly positively related to alert incidence. In the absence of any panel data on the dynamic effects of adopting RTS, what we are observing in cross section is the perceived vulnerability of certain exchanges to manipulation and their consequent adoption of RTS plus the regulatory regimes required to have a salutary effect on market integrity. Second, in the moderately-traded deciles, we find that the closing auctions and more regulations in pursuit of market integrity lower quoted spreads. RTS and a regulation specifically prohibiting ramping indicate in cross-section the perceived likelihood of more ramping. Thirdly, in terms of the probability of the deployment of a real-time surveillance system, the estimations again differ by liquidity decile grouping. In the moderately-traded deciles, higher alert incidence, the presence of DMA, and higher FDI again increase the likelihood of adopting a real-time surveillance system. Our findings have a couple of policy implications for many securities exchanges in terms of market design and market surveillance. First, the exhibited relationship between alert incidence and effective spreads indicates trade-based manipulation has a significant impact on execution costs. Therefore, the prevention of securities market manipulation not only serves the indirect purpose of improving an exchange???s reputation for market integrity but also contributes directly to achieving a more efficient marketplace. Second, our results indicate that some market design changes can enhance the regulatory efforts to prevent securities market manipulations. For example, to prevent manipulators from marking the closing price, some exchanges could choose to adopt a closing auction or a random closing time, which would make manipulation more costly. Nevertheless, no securities exchange can be designed perfectly. Consequently, exchange and broker-level surveillance backed by effective regulatory enforcement is a necessary and pivotal complement to good design choices.
3

Closing price manipulation and the integrity of stock exchanges

Putniņš, Tālis J. January 2010 (has links)
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) / Allegations of market manipulation abound in the popular press, particularly during the recent financial turmoil. However, many aspects of manipulation are poorly understood. The purpose of this thesis is to enhance our understanding of market manipulation by providing empirical evidence on the prevalence, effects and determinants of closing price manipulation. The first issue examined in this thesis is the prevalence of closing price manipulation. This thesis uses a hand collected sample of prosecuted closing price manipulation cases from US and Canadian stock exchanges, and methods that explicitly model the incomplete and non-random detection of manipulation. The results suggest that approximately 1.1% of closing prices are manipulated. For every prosecuted closing price manipulation there are approximately 300 instances of manipulation that remain undetected or not prosecuted. Closing price manipulation is more prevalent on larger exchanges than smaller ones, but is detected at a higher rate on small exchanges. Second, this thesis examines the effects of closing price manipulation. Using a sample of prosecution cases, this thesis finds that closing price manipulation is associated with large day-end returns, subsequent return reversals, increases in day-end spreads and increases in day-end trading activity. At the broader level of market quality, this thesis provides evidence from a laboratory experiment that closing price manipulation decreases both price accuracy and liquidity. Even the mere possibility of manipulation decreases liquidity and increases trading costs. The third issue analysed in this thesis is the determinants of closing price manipulation and its detection. Estimating an empirical model of manipulation and detection, this thesis finds that the likelihood of closing price manipulation is increased by smaller regulatory budgets, greater information asymmetry, mid to low levels of liquidity, month-end days and lower volatility. Manipulation is more likely to be detected when regulatory budgets are larger and when the manipulation causes abnormal trading characteristics. Further evidence from laboratory experiments suggests that regulation helps restore price accuracy by deterring some manipulation and making remaining manipulation less aggressive. These experiments also show that regulation has an insignificant effect on liquidity because participants in regulated markets still face relatively high uncertainty about the presence of manipulators. This thesis also examines how closing price manipulation is conducted and how other market participants respond. It develops an index of closing price manipulation that can be used to study manipulation in markets or time periods in which prosecution data are not available. It also provides a tool for the detection of manipulation, which can be used by regulators in automated surveillance systems. Finally, this thesis has implications for economic efficiency and policy. Closing price manipulation is significantly more prevalent than the number of prosecution cases suggests. Further, it harms both pricing accuracy and liquidity and therefore undermines economic efficiency. The prevalence of closing price manipulation can be reduced by increasing regulatory budgets, improving the accuracy of market surveillance systems by using the detection tools developed in this thesis, structuring markets such that participants are better able to identify manipulation, and implementing closing mechanisms that are difficult to manipulate. These actions would enhance market integrity and economic efficiency.
4

Institutional Investor Sentiment and the Mean-Variance Relationship: Global Evidence

Wang, Wenzhao, Duxbury, D. 07 October 2021 (has links)
Yes / Although a cornerstone of traditional finance theory, empirical evidence in support of a positive mean-variance relation is far from conclusive, with the behavior of retail investors commonly thought to be one of the root causes of departures from this expected relationship. The behavior of institutional investors, conventionally thought to be sophisticated and rational, has recently come under closer scrutiny, including in relation to investor sentiment. Drawing together these two strands of literature, this paper examines the impact of institutional investor sentiment on the mean-variance relation in six regions, including Asia (excl. Japan), Eastern Europe, Eurozone, Japan, Latin America, and the US, and across thirtyeight markets. Empirical evidence supports the differential impact of institutional investor sentiment on the mean-variance relation (i.e., positive or negative), both across regions and across markets. In particular, for markets with cultural proneness to overreaction and a low level of market integrity institutional investor sentiment tends to distort the risk-return tradeoff. / The full-text of this article will be released for public view at the end of the publisher embargo on 6 Apr 2023.
5

The application of anti-manipulation law to EU wholesale energy markets and its interplay with EU competition law

Corlu, Huseyin Cagri January 2017 (has links)
Of the findings, the European Commission established in its report on Energy Sector Inquiry, market manipulation constituted a major concern for the functioning and integrity of EU energy sectors. The Commission argued that the responsibility for high prices in wholesale energy markets could be attributed to manipulative practices of energy incumbents and the trust in the operation of operation of sector was largely compromised, due to these practices. Remedies, EU competition law provided, were considered as insufficient to resolve these shortcomings and thus should be supplemented with regulatory-based tools. The findings of the Energy Sector Inquiry and subsequent consultation documents by multiple EU institutions paved the way for the adoption of the Regulation on wholesale energy market integrity and transparency, REMIT, which incorporated into an anti-manipulation rule, specifically designed to prohibit and prosecute manipulative practices in EU wholesale energy markets. Nevertheless, as EU case law on market manipulation has yet to develop and there are uncertainties with respect to the concept of market manipulation. Furthermore REMIT does not preclude the jurisdiction of EU competition law, questions arise as to the scope and the extent of the application of this prohibition. Throughout its chapters, this book explores the scope of and the case law on market manipulation to determine what types of market practices are regarded as manipulative and thus prohibited under anti-manipulation rules. It also focuses on the interplay between REMIT and EU competition law and evaluates factors and circumstances that determine when and what market misconduct can be subject to enforcement proceedings under both anti-manipulation and antitrust rules. As the development of a single, coherent, rulebook that can be relied upon by market participant is fundamental for the functioning of EU wholesale energy markets, the book, finally, provides proposals and measures that can mitigate and resolve the legal uncertainties regarding the regulatory framework REMIT established.
6

Les limites contemporaines à la liberté de distribuer les crédits bancaires / The contemporary limits to the freedom of bank credits distribution

Benseghir, Chama 21 December 2017 (has links)
La dernière crise financière et les crises des dettes souveraines successives ont mis en lumière l'enjeu majeur de l’encadrement du marché de la distribution du crédit bancaire. Le principal questionnement aura porté sur la nécessité, sinon l’opportunité, de sacrifier « un peu de liberté » pour un « peu de sécurité » dans le processus de distribution du crédit. À ce titre, deux voies ont fondamentalement cohabité dans la mise en place de limites à la une liberté totale. D’une part, les législateurs et organes réglementaires ont entrepris, du niveau interne au niveau international, en passant par l’incontournable niveau communautaire, d’encadrer les caractéristiques intrinsèques des acteurs du marché du crédit et leur environnement juridique. Cet encadrement a été impulsé par des instances internationales, plus promptes à réagir en cas de crise, mais a été progressivement adapté et intégré dans le droit positif. Cette intégration a justement eu pour effet premier de lui conférer un caractère normatif. Ainsi les dispositions normatives, légales ou réglementaires sont devenues un instrument majeur afin de cantonner les risques individuels et de prévenir le risque systémique. À ce titre, la norme, au sens extensif, est intervenue chaque fois qu’un risque était avéré, ou qu’il était soupçonné. L’écueil presque naturel a été une inflation quasi-exponentielle des normes et une juxtaposition des niveaux de normativité. La prise de conscience de cette situation a mené à faire cohabiter le « droit dur », contraignant et rigide, avec un droit plus souple et plus pragmatique. Dès lors, le droit positif a vu apparaître des obligations dites « professionnelles » qui viennent régir non pas la personne des dispensateurs de crédit, mais bien leur comportement lorsqu’ils établissement une relation contractuelle de crédit. Les obligations professionnelles ne visent pas à répondre à la même finalité que la norme au sens propre, elles ont une vocation d’indication, d’information afin d’établir des standards modulables, pragmatiques et flexible pour les contrats de crédit. Le contrat de crédit se complexifie, ce qui impose l’intervention d’un droit flexible, facilement adaptable, et dont la motivation première n’est pas la contrainte ou la sanction, mais l’accompagnement dans la vie du contrat. L’obligation professionnelle est à envisager comme une « norme de comportement ». Ainsi cette étude tente-t-elle de démontrer comment la dualité d’intervention entre norme prudentielle et obligation professionnelle permet sans aucun doute de préserver l’intégrité du marché de la distribution de crédit mais qu’elle risque également dans certaines situations de remettre en cause ses principes de fonctionnement. / The latest financial crisis and successive sovereign debt crises have highlighted the major challenge of framing the market for the distribution of bank credit. The main question was whether or not it would be appropriate to give up on a bit of freedom for more security in the credit distribution process. In this respect, two paths have basically cohabited in the establishment of limits to total freedom. On the one hand, legislators and regulatory bodies have undertaken, from the internal level to the international level, and also the Community level, to frame the intrinsic characteristics of the players in the credit market and their legal environment. This framework has been driven by international bodies, which are quicker to react in the event of a crisis, but has gradually been adapted and integrated into positive law. This integration has had the primary effect of giving it a normative character. Thus, normative, legal or regulatory provisions have become a major instrument to limit individual risks and prevent systemic risk. As such, the standard, in the broad sense of the term, has been applied whenever a risk has been proven or suspected. The almost natural pitfall has been a near-exponential inflation of standards and a juxtaposition of levels of normativity. Awareness of this situation has led to the coexistence of "hard law", which is both binding and rigid, with a more flexible and pragmatic law. As a result, positive law has seen the emergence of so-called "professional" obligations which govern not the person of the credit grantors, but their behaviour when they establish a contractual credit relationship. The almost natural pitfall has been a near-exponential inflation of norms and a juxtaposition of levels of normativity. The awareness of this situation has led to the coexistence of hard law, binding and rigid, with a more flexible and pragmatic law. Therefore, the positive law has seen the appearance of so-called "professional" obligations, which govern not the person of the credit providers, but their behavior when establishing a contractual credit relationship. Professional obligations are not intended to fulfill the same purpose as the norm in the literal sense, they are intended to provide guidance and information in order to establish flexible, pragmatic and flexible standards for credit agreements. The credit agreement is becoming more complex, requiring the intervention of a flexible and easily adaptable right, the primary motivation of which is not coercion or punishment, but support in the life of the contract. The professional obligation is to be seen as a "standard of behaviour".Thus, this study attempts to demonstrate how the duality of intervention between prudential standard and professional obligation undoubtedly preserves the integrity of the credit distribution market, but that this duality also risks, in certain situations, to call into question its operating principles.

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