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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Rôle du Polyomavirus de Merkel dans les carcinomes à cellules de Merkel / Merkel Cell Polyomavirus role in Merkel Cell Carcinoma

Laude, Hélène 28 November 2012 (has links)
En 2008, le génome d’un nouveau virus a été caractérisé au sein d’un cancer cutané rare survenant préférentiellement chez l’immunodéprimé, le carcinome de Merkel. Ce nouveau virus appartenait à la famille des Polyomaviridae qui comprend des virus dont le caractère cancérigène chez l’animal est avéré depuis plus de 50 ans. Dénommé Polyomavirus de Merkel puisqu’il semblait lié à la survenue du cancer du même nom, il constituait le premier Polyomavirus impliqué de manière consistante dans un cancer humain. Cette implication reposant sur une étude unique limitée à 10 cas, l’objectif de notre travail de thèse était de confirmer le rôle étiologique du Polyomavirus de Merkel dans le carcinome de Merkel.Nous avons montré que le génome du Polyomavirus de Merkel était présent dans les trois quarts des cas de carcinome de Merkel, mais également que le virus infecte la population générale de manière quasi-ubiquitaire et de nombreux tissus en dehors de la peau. Les faits que chez les sujets atteints de carcinome de Merkel, l’ADN viral soit présent à des taux décelables de manière chronique dans différents tissus et que les titres d’anticorps sériques spécifiques du virus soient élevés suggèrent que ces sujets développent une infection chronique active. Celle-ci pourrait faciliter la survenue de mutations et d’intégrations de l’ADN viral qui sont spécifiquement associées aux carcinomes de Merkel. Ces modifications secondaires du génome viral aboutissent à la production d’oncoprotéines virales par les cellules tumorales, mais à l’abolition des capacités réplicatives donc lytiques du virus et constitueraient ainsi le support de la transformation tumorale. / Nucleotidic sequences defining the genome of a new virus, the Merkel Cell Polyomavirus, has been discovered in 2008 in Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare form of cutaneous cancer developing mostly in immunosupressed individuals. Whereas this new virus belongs to the Polyomaviridae family, which includes known oncogenic viruses in animals, it was the first study consistently implicating a Polyomavirus in human cancer. Because scientific arguments were only based on a ten-case-single report, the primary goal of our work was to confirm the role of the Merkel Cell Polyomavirus in Merkel Cell Carcinoma.Our work demonstrated that Merkel Cell Polyomavirus DNA was indeed present in three quarters of Merkel Cell Carcinoma cases, but also that Merkel Cell Polyomavirus was a near ubiquitous virus infecting various tissues among healthy individuals. Nonetheless, viral DNA is chronically detected in various tissues from Merkel Cell Carcinoma cases, which harbour elevated seric titters of specific antibodies. Those facts suggest that Merkel Cell Polyomavirus develop an active and chronic infection that could favour genomic mutation and integration events specifically associated to Merkel Cell Carcinoma. Those modifications, inducing both expression of truncated viral oncoproteins and abolishment of cell lysis mediated by viral replication, may support cell transformation.
2

MCV-miR-M1 targets the host-cell immune response resulting in the attenuation of neutrophil chemotaxis

Akhbari, Pouria, Tobin, Desmond J., Poterlowicz, Krzysztof, Roberts, W., Boyne, James R. 17 May 2018 (has links)
Yes / Virus-encoded miRNAs are emerging as key regulators of persistent infection and host-cell immune evasion. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), the predominant aetiological agent of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), encodes a single miRNA, MCV-miR-M1, which targets the oncogenic MCPyV large T antigen (LT). MCV-miR-M1 has previously been shown to play an important role in establishment of long-term infection, however, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. A key unanswered question is whether, in addition to auto-regulating LT, MCV-miR-M1 also targets cellular transcripts to orchestrate an environment conducive for persistent infection. To address this, we adopted an RNA-Seq-based approach to identify cellular targets of MCV-miR-M1. Intriguingly, bioinformatics analysis of transcripts that are differentially expressed in cells expressing MCV-miR-M1 revealed several genes implicated in immune evasion. Subsequent target validation led to the identification of the innate immunity protein, SP100, as a direct target of MCV-miR-M1. Moreover, MCV-miR-M1-mediated modulation of SP100 was associated with a significant decrease in CXCL8 secretion, resulting in the attenuation of neutrophil chemotaxis towards Merkel cells harbouring synthetic MCPyV. Based on these observations we propose that MCV-miR-M1 targets key immune response regulators to help facilitate persistent infection, which is a pre-requisite for cellular transformation in MCC. / Funded in part by a University of Bradford studentship to PA and a Royal Society research award to JRB.
3

Analysis of Cellular Transcriptomic Changes Induced by Merkel Cell Polyomavirus miRNA

Akhbari, Pouria January 2017 (has links)
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a highly aggressive skin cancer with rising global incidence. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) was discovered in 2008 in 80% of MCC samples and since then a causal link between MCV and the majority of MCC cases has been established. microRNAs (miRNA, miR) are a family of small non-coding RNAs which play a key role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression and are considered significant players in disease and development in many species. Whilst the focus of MCV research has thus far been on the oncogenic MCV early proteins, large tumour (LT) and small tumour (sT) antigens, there is a knowledge gap regarding MCV miRNA and its functional significance in MCV pathogenesis. Given the emerging importance of viral miRNAs in virus-host interaction and pathogenesis, the aim of this doctoral research project was to investigate alterations in host cell transcripts induced by MCV miRNA and determine any functional significance these might have on virus-host cell interaction. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) in the presence and absence of MCV miRNA uncovered a multitude of downregulated cellular transcripts. Gene ontology analysis revealed that MCV miRNA targets transcripts associated with multiple cellular processes, however, regulation of immune response was overrepresented in our datasets. Validation of RNA-Seq data using MCV miRNA mimics and a synthetic, fully replicative MCV genome (MCVSyn) confirmed RNA-Seq data at mRNA and protein expression level for several targets, including the cytokine stimulating gene, SP100, and the neutrophil stimulator chemokine, CXCL8. Moreover, dual luciferase assays revealed that SP100 and MAPK10 (a member of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) family which is involved in regulation of CXCL8 expression) are directly and specifically targeted and downregulated by MCV miRNA. The MCV miRNA-dependent dysregulation of CXCL8 secretion is associated with impaired neutrophil migration, suggesting that the virus miRNA may be implicated in evasion of the host immune response.
4

Analysis of cellular transcriptomic changes induced by Merkel cell polyomavirus miRNA

Akhbari, Pouria January 2017 (has links)
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a highly aggressive skin cancer with rising global incidence. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) was discovered in 2008 in 80% of MCC samples and since then a causal link between MCV and the majority of MCC cases has been established. microRNAs (miRNA, miR) are a family of small non-coding RNAs which play a key role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression and are considered significant players in disease and development in many species. Whilst the focus of MCV research has thus far been on the oncogenic MCV early proteins, large tumour (LT) and small tumour (sT) antigens, there is a knowledge gap regarding MCV miRNA and its functional significance in MCV pathogenesis. Given the emerging importance of viral miRNAs in virus-host interaction and pathogenesis, the aim of this doctoral research project was to investigate alterations in host cell transcripts induced by MCV miRNA and determine any functional significance these might have on virus-host cell interaction. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) in the presence and absence of MCV miRNA uncovered a multitude of downregulated cellular transcripts. Gene ontology analysis revealed that MCV miRNA targets transcripts associated with multiple cellular processes, however, regulation of immune response was overrepresented in our datasets. Validation of RNA-Seq data using MCV miRNA mimics and a synthetic, fully replicative MCV genome (MCVSyn) confirmed RNA-Seq data at mRNA and protein expression level for several targets, including the cytokine stimulating gene, SP100, and the neutrophil stimulator chemokine, CXCL8. Moreover, dual luciferase assays revealed that SP100 and MAPK10 (a member of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) family which is involved in regulation of CXCL8 expression) are directly and specifically targeted and downregulated by MCV miRNA. The MCV miRNA-dependent dysregulation of CXCL8 secretion is associated with impaired neutrophil migration, suggesting that the virus miRNA may be implicated in evasion of the host immune response.
5

Příprava monoklonálních protilátek proti proteinu VP2 lidských polyomavirů / Preparation of Monoclonal Antibodies Against VP2 Protein of Human Polyomaviruses

Vochyánová, Klára January 2013 (has links)
Aim of this diploma thesis was to prepare two protein antigens and two monoclonal antibodies, all based on VP2 minor protein of human polyomaviruses BK virus and Merkel Cell Polyomavirus. One monoclonal antibody was being prepared against unique part of VP2 protein (N-terminal epitope, not present in VP3 protein). A cell line producing such monoclonal antibody has never been established before due to low immunogenicity of the epitope. Our approach was successful in terms of mouse immunization, however, serious problems with hybridoma line stability appeared later during the preparation process. Preparation of antibody targeted to the sequence of VP2 protein of Merkel Cell Polyomavirus was another aim of this thesis. Mouse immunization and hybridoma fusion were performed successfully. After four rounds of cloning in order to purify an established clone, nine clones were cultivated in larger scale. This cultivation probably led to diminished antibody specificity and loss of production ability in most of the hybridoma cells. One more cloning should give rise to an established clone with sufficient production. Two preparations of protein antigens were performed in two expression systems. DNA encoding C-terminally truncated protein VP2 of BK virus fused with His-tag was cloned into a vector suitable for...
6

Příprava expresních vektorů a virových mutant pro studium minoritních strukturních proteinů polyomavirů / Preparation of expression vectors and virus mutants for studies of the minor structural proteins of polyomaviruses.

Cibulka, Jakub January 2013 (has links)
Polyomaviruses are small non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and mammals, including human. Their capsid consists of the major capsid protein, VP1, and two minor capsid proteins, VP2 and VP3. The VP2 and VP3 proteins are supposed to have an important function in the transport of viral genome into the cell nucleus, which is a key step to facilitate viral replication. VP2 and VP3 proteins of mouse polyomavirus and SV40 have an ability to bind and disrupt cellular membranes. This feature is believed to be involved in the transport of viral genome into the nucleus. Plasmids carrying genes of the minor capsid proteins of Merkel cell polyomavirus were prepared in order to produce and visualize these proteins in mammalian cells. These proteins are known to have very unusual sequences compared to other human polyomaviruses or related mouse polyomavirus. When produced alone, the minor capsid proteins of Merkel cell polyomavirus did not significantly interact with cellular membranes, unlike the minor proteins of the mouse polyomavirus. The second goal of this work was to prepare mouse polyomavirus mutants with deletion in hydrophobic domains of VP2 and VP3 proteins. These domains are likely responsible for the mentioned membrane interactions. Prepared mutants were non-infectious. The loss of infectivity was not...
7

Cellular sheddases are induced by Merkel cell polyomavirus small tumour antigen to mediate cell dissociation and invasiveness

Nwogu, N., Boyne, James R., Dobson, S.J., Poterlowicz, Krzysztof, Blair, G.E., Macdonald, A., Mankouri, J., Whitehouse, A. 10 August 2018 (has links)
yes / Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive skin cancer with a high propensity for recurrence and metastasis. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is recognised as the causative factor in the majority of MCC cases. The MCPyV small tumour antigen (ST) is considered to be the main viral transforming factor, however potential mechanisms linking ST expression to the highly metastatic nature of MCC are yet to be fully elucidated. Metastasis is a complex process, with several discrete steps required for the formation of secondary tumour sites. One essential trait that underpins the ability of cancer cells to metastasise is how they interact with adjoining tumour cells and the surrounding extracellular matrix. Here we demonstrate that MCPyV ST expression disrupts the integrity of cell-cell junctions, thereby enhancing cell dissociation and implicate the cellular sheddases, A disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) 10 and 17 proteins in this process. Inhibition of ADAM 10 and 17 activity reduced MCPyV ST-induced cell dissociation and motility, attributing their function as critical to the MCPyV-induced metastatic processes. Consistent with these data, we confirm that ADAM 10 and 17 are upregulated in MCPyV-positive primary MCC tumours. These novel findings implicate cellular sheddases as key host cell factors contributing to virus-mediated cellular transformation and metastasis. Notably, ADAM protein expression may be a novel biomarker of MCC prognosis and given the current interest in cellular sheddase inhibitors for cancer therapeutics, it highlights ADAM 10 and 17 activity as a novel opportunity for targeted interventions for disseminated MCC. / In parts by the Medical Research Council (95505126) to AW, Royal Society (UF100419) to JM and Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BB/R000352/1) to GEB and AW.
8

Marqueurs pronostiques dans une cohorte historico-prospective de carcinomes de Merkel / Prognostic markers in a historical prospective cohort of patients with Merkel cell carcinoma

Samimi, Mahtab 27 January 2016 (has links)
Le carcinome de Merkel est un cancer cutané de différenciation neuroendocrine rare, mais agressif, dont le facteur étiologique principal est le polyomavirus de Merkel (MCPyV). L’objectif de ce travail a été d’identifier des marqueurs virologiques et cellulaires pronostiques ou théranostiques à l’aide d’une cohorte historicoprospective de patients ayant un carcinome de Merkel. Les patients ayant des titres élevés d’anticorps dirigés contre la protéine de capside VP1 du MCPyV ont un pronostic favorable, tandis les anticorps dirigés contre les oncoprotéines virales reflètent l’évolution tumorale. Par ailleurs, il existe une hétérogénéité d’expression des récepteurs à la somatostatine dans les carcinomes de Merkel. Ce marqueur cellulaire peut constituer un outil théranostique lors de thérapies ciblées utilisant les analogues de la somatostatine. Enfin, nos travaux actuels portent sur l’évaluation de l’immunité cellulaire chez ces patients, avec une étude ayant montré la valeur pronostique du ratio neutrophiles/lymphocytes sanguin. / Merkel Cell Carcinoma is a rare and aggressive neuroendocrine skin cancer. The Merkel cell polymavirus has been identified as the main etiological agent of such cancer. We aimed to identify viral and cellular markers relevant as prognostic and theranostic tools in patients with Merkel Cell Carcinoma. Using serological immunoassays, we observed that patients with high levels of serum antibodies against the MCPyV major capsid protein at baseline had better outcomes, whereas antibodies directed against the MCPyV oncoproteins reflected the tumor burden and course of disease. We also demonstrated that Merkel Cell Carcinoma tumors displayed a heterogeneous expression of receptors to somatostatin, which could constitute a theranostic tool for the use of targeted therapies using somatostatin analogs. Finally, current studies focus on the assessment of cellular immunity in Merkel Cell Carcinoma patients. Our results indicate that the blood neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is an independent marker of mortality in Merkel Cell Carcinoma patients.

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