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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
31

Highly Efficient Planar Antenna System Based on the Planar Waveguide Technology for Low Cost Millimeter-Wave Applications

Abdel Wahab, Wael 06 November 2014 (has links)
This thesis investigates the integration of planar antennas, such as Dielectric Resonator Antennas (DRAs) to the planar waveguide structure, specifically the Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) for high radiation efficiency millimeter-wave (mm-wave) applications. The SIW is a low cost and low loss technology, since it almost keeps the guided wave inside the structure. Therefore, it is an excellent candidate feeding scheme compared to traditional planar (multi-conductor) structures, such as the Microstrip Line (MSL) and Co-planar Waveguide (CPW) for many planar antennas. It enhances the antenna???s overall radiation efficiency by minimizing the conduction loss, which dominates at the mm-wave frequency band. For this thesis, two different SIW-integrated DRA configurations operating at mm-wave frequency band are presented. The rectangular DRA is excited in its fundamental mode TE??11 for radiation through a narrow slot cut on the SIW broad wall. However, the coupling slot itself is excited by the SIW TE10 fundamental mode. In addition, the design guidelines, and a parametric study is also conducted on the proposed antenna parameters to investigate their impact on the antenna???s overall performance including the reflection coefficient and radiation pattern (gain). The results are provided within this thesis. The antenna is made of low cost and low loss materials that are available commercially. It is fabricated by using a novel and simple technique, which is compatible with the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) technology. The board is treated as multi-layers composed of the SIW-layer, and DRA element(s) layer, respectively. The fabricated antenna prototypes are tested to demonstrate their validity for real microwave/mm-wave applications. Their reflection coefficients and radiation patterns are measured, and the antenna shows a boresight gain of 5.51 dB and a radiation efficiency of more than 90 % over the operating frequency band of 33-40 GHz. Antenna arrays based on the SIW integrated DRA are investigated for high gain/radiation efficiency applications. Different array configurations such as, linear (series-fed and corporate-fed) and two-dimensional (2D) arrays are presented. The series-fed DRA array is characterized by a single SIW line loaded by DRA-slot pairs, whereas the SIW-power splitter is used to form the corporate-fed DRA array, when loaded by DRA-slot pairs. While the SIW hybrid-feeding scheme (series-feed combined with corporate-feed) is used to form 2D DRA arrays. In this design, the SIW-power splitter is used to split the power equally and in-phase among the sets (rows) of SIW series fed-DRA elements (columns). A simple and generic Transmission Line (T.L.) circuit model is proposed to simplify and expedite the antenna array design process. It is used to calculate the antenna reflection coefficient and radiation pattern (gain). The T.L. model does not take the mutual coupling between the DRA elements into account, since our study shows that its less than -20 dB over the operating bandwidth. However, it is useful and faster than full-wave solvers, such as HFSS, which consumes time and memory due to the huge generated mesh. The developed T.L. circuit model is used to design the antenna array and study the impact of its main designed parameters on the antenna performance. The developed antenna array T.L. model leads to a general design methodology (guidelines). It also allows for optimum array designs for a given set of performance requirements and to have more physical insight into the SIW technology based antenna systems for mm-wave bands. The designed antenna array samples are fabricated and tested within the operating frequency band 33-40 GHz. The series-fed antenna array shows a measured boresight gain of 11.70 dB, and high radiation efficiency, which is more than 90 % over an operating frequency band of 4%. Furthermore, the measured results are compared to these calculated by the proposed T.L. circuit model and full-wave solver. A good agreement between the measured and the HFSS results are observed, especially near the frequency at which the reflection coefficient is minimum. However, some deviation is noticed between the proposed circuit model and the measured results. This deviation is attributed to the discrete nature of the SIW structure that affects the Short Circuit (SC) performance (magnitude and phase), the T.L. lengths, and the mutual coupling between any two adjacent antenna elements. All these issues are handled efficiently and are taken into account by the full-wave solver. Therefore, the measured reflection coefficient agrees with that of the HFSS, except for a very small deviation, caused by the fabrication tolerances and measurement errors. However, the proposed T.L. circuit model is still valid and can easily predict and estimate the resonance behavior and the impedance bandwidth of the proposed antenna arrays in a very short time compared with the full-wave solver.
32

Millimeter wave far-field imaging via optical upconversion techniques

Samluk, Jesse Paul. January 2008 (has links)
Thesis (M.S.E.C.E.)--University of Delaware, 2008. / Principal faculty advisor: . Includes bibliographical references.
33

A Ka-band switch-LNA MMIC for radiometry applications

Alvarado, Miguel A., January 2008 (has links)
Thesis (M.S.E.C.E.)--University of Massachusetts Amherst, 2008. / Includes bibliographical references (p. 117-119).
34

Beamforming techniques for millimeter wave relay networks

Abbas, Hatem January 2017 (has links)
The energy and data rate requirements for the next generation cellular networks urge the need for innovative solutions. Inspired by its massive bandwidth, millimeter wave (mmWave) band is thought-out to be one of the key elements to meet the aspirations. However, mmWave links are known to have short coverage distance due to the propagation losses introduced at high frequencies. The proposed solutions to overcome the transmission challenges include using large arrays with improved directivity, adopting smaller cells, and relying on cooperative networks to extend the mmWave link and avoid shadowing areas. This work aims to improve the connectivity of the mmWave link in the outdoor environments. One of the cost effective methods is to increase the array gain by using Analogue Beamforming (ABF). The performance of the ABF system in the presence of phase quantization error has been analytically investigated. The study also includes comparing three different channel sounding techniques, namely: exhaustive search, side-to-side search, and n-tier search. The time overhead related to each method and their energy consumption are calculated. The numerical results assist in determining the optimum search period to obtain a reasonable spectral efficiency using minimal power consumption. The results also help identify the minimum number of quantization bits required to produce about ninety percent of the optimistic results. In order to extend the coverage further, relay networks are considered an essential component in mmWave communications. The performance of a single hybrid beamforming full-duplex relay system and multi-relay networks were investigated. The design algorithms for the processors in the network are proposed based on the greedy pursuit approach. The performance of the proposed algorithms is analysed under various scenarios. The analysis highlights the influence of the array size, the number of RF chains, and the length of the channel sounding period. The performance of the proposed systems is compared from both the spectral efficiency and power consumption prospects. The results also establish that the number of antennas at the source and the relay receiver arrays have a superior impact on the system performance than the sizes of the array at the destination and the relay transmitter.
35

Beam Alignment for Millimeter Wave Wireless Communications : A Multiscale Approach

Muddassar Hussain (10701321) 27 April 2021 (has links)
<p>Millimeter-wave communications use narrow beams to overcome the enormous signal attenuation. Such narrow-beam communication demands precise beam-alignment between transmitter and receiver and may entail huge overhead, especially in high mobility scenarios. Moreover, detection of the optimal beam is challenging in the presence of beam imperfections and system noise. This thesis addresses the challenges in the design of beam-training and data-communication by proposing various schemes that exploit different timescales. On a short timescale, we leverage the feedback from the receiver to efficiently perform beam-training and data-communication. To this end, we have worked in three different areas. In the first research direction, we design an optimal interactive beam-training and data-communication protocol, with the goal of minimizing power consumption under a minimum rate constraint. The optimality of a fixed-length beam-training phase followed by a data-communication phase is proved under the assumption of perfect binary feedback. In the second research direction, we propose a coded energy-efficient beam-training scheme, robust against the feedback/detection errors. In the third research direction, we investigate the design of the beam-training in the presence of uncertainty due to noise and beam imperfections. Based on the bounding of value-function, the second-best preference policy is proposed, which achieves a promising exploration-exploitation tradeoff. On the other hand, on longer timescales, we exploit the mobility and blockage dynamics and beam-training feedback to design throughput-efficient beam-training and data-communication. We propose a point-based value iteration (PBVI) algorithm to determine an approximately optimal policy. However, the design relies on the a-priori knowledge of the state dynamics, which may not be available in practice. To address this, we propose a dual timescale approach, where on the long timescale, a recurrent deep variational autoencoder (R-VAE) uses noisy beam-training observations to learna probabilistic model of system dynamics; on the short timescale, an adaptive beam-training procedure is optimized using PBVI based on beam-training feedback and a probabilistic knowledge of the UE's position provided by the R-VAE. In turn, the observations collected during the beam-training procedure are used to refine the R-VAE via stochastic gradient descent in a continuous process of learning and adaptation.<br></p>
36

Estimation of rain attenuation on earth-space millimeter wave communications links

Dishman, William Keith 11 June 2009 (has links)
An easy to use model for calculating rain attenuation along earth-space millimeter wave communications links is proposed. The model computes attenuation as a function of point rainfall intensity for a given frequency, path elevation angle, and earth station latitude and altitude. Estimates of the attenuation distribution can be made by coupling the model with a cumulative rainfall intensity distribution. In addition to the presentation of a new model, a review of the basic concepts of attenuation modeling is presented. This review includes the relationship between attenuation and rainfall intensity (specific attenuation), and the statistics of point rainfall intensity. A summary of many other attenuation models is also given. The model is compared to measured data from many satellite beacon experiments. Comparisons are also presented between the proposed model and several other attenuation models. / Master of Science
37

Convergence of millimeter-wave and photonic interconnect systems for very-high-throughput digital communication applications

Fan, Shu-Hao 14 November 2011 (has links)
In the past, radio-frequency signals were commonly used for low-speed wireless electronic systems, and optical signals were used for multi-gigabit wired communication systems. However, as the emergence of new millimeter-wave technology introduces multi-gigabit transmission over a wireless radio-frequency channel, the borderline between radio-frequency and optical systems becomes blurred. As a result, there come ample opportunities to design and develop next-generation broadband systems to combine the advantages of these two technologies to overcome inherent limitations of various broadband end-to-end interconnect systems in signal generation, recovery, synchronization, and so on. For the transmission distances of a few centimeters to thousands of kilometers, the convergence of radio-frequency electronics and optics to build radio-over-fiber systems ushers in a new era of research for the upcoming very-high-throughput broadband services. Radio-over-fiber systems are believed to be the most promising solution to the backhaul transmission of the millimeter-wave wireless access networks, especially for the license-free, very-high-throughput 60-GHz band. Adopting radio-over-fiber systems in access or in-building networks can greatly extend the 60-GHz signal reach by using ultra-low loss optical fibers. However, such high frequency is difficult to generate in a straightforward way. In this dissertation, the novel techniques of homodyne and heterodyne optical-carrier suppressions for radio-over-fiber systems are investigated and various system architectures are designed to overcome these limitations of 60-GHz wireless access networks, bringing the popularization of multi-gigabit wireless networks to become closer to the reality. In addition to the advantages for the access networks, extremely high spectral efficiency, which is the most important parameter for long-haul networks, can be achieved by radio-over-fiber signal generation. As a result, the transmission performance of spectrally efficient radio-over-fiber signaling, including orthogonal frequency division multiplexing and orthogonal wavelength division multiplexing, is broadly and deeply investigated. On the other hand, radio-over-fiber is also used for the frequency synchronization that can resolve the performance limitation of wireless interconnect systems. A novel wireless interconnects assisted by radio-over-fiber subsystems is proposed in this dissertation. In conclusion, multiple advantageous facets of radio-over-fiber systems can be found in various levels of end-to-end interconnect systems. The rapid development of radio-over-fiber systems will quickly change the conventional appearance of modern communications.
38

Millimeter-wave and sub-terahertz on-chip antennas, arrays, propagation, and radiation pattern measurements

Gutierrez, Felix, active 2013 10 February 2014 (has links)
This dissertation focuses on the development of next generation wireless communications at millimeter-wave and sub-terahertz frequencies. As wireless providers experience a bandwidth shortage and cellular subscribers demand faster data rates and more reliable service, a push towards unused carriers fre- quencies such as 28 GHz, 60 GHz, and 180 GHz will alleviate network conges- tion while simultaneously providing massive bandwidths to consumers. This dissertation summarizes research in understanding millimeter-wave wireless propagation, the design and fabrication of millimeter-wave and sub-terahertz on-chip antenna arrays on an integrated circuit semiconductor process, and the accurate measurement of on-chip antenna radiation patterns in a wafer probe station environment. / text
39

Development of micromachined millimeter-wave modules for next-generation wireless transceiver front-ends

Pan, Bo 05 May 2008 (has links)
This thesis discusses the design, fabrication, integration and characterization of millimeter wave passive components using polymer-core-conductor surface micromachining technologies. Several antennas, including a W-band broadband micromachined monopole antenna on a lossy glass substrate, and a Ka-band elevated patch antenna, and a V-band micromachined horn antenna, are presented. All antennas have advantages such as a broad operation band and high efficiency. A low-loss broadband coupler and a high-Q cavity for millimeter-wave applications, using surface micromachining technologies is reported using the same technology. Several low-loss all-pole band-pass filters and transmission-zero filters are developed, respectively. Superior simulation and measurement results show that polymer-core-conductor surface micromachining is a powerful technology for the integration of high-performance cavity, coupler and filters. Integration of high performance millimeter-wave transceiver front-end is also presented for the first time. By elevating a cavity-filter-based duplexer and a horn antenna on top of the substrate and using air as the filler, the dielectric loss can be eliminated. A full-duplex transceiver front-end integrated with amplifiers are designed, fabricated, and comprehensively characterized to demonstrate advantages brought by this surface micromachining technology. It is a low loss and substrate-independent solution for millimeter-wave transceiver integration.
40

Estimation and optimization of layout parasitics for silicon-based millimeter-wave integrated circuits

Sen, Padmanava 06 November 2007 (has links)
Millimeter-wave has been a medium for automotive, sensor, and defense applications for a long time. But, a fully integrated silicon-based transceiver at 60 GHz or higher frequencies has become the driving force for recent research activities in integrated millimeter-wave (MMW) circuit designs. However, no integrated compact high-performance millimeter-wave system can be designed without accurate estimation and optimization of layout parasitics. In this dissertation, the estimation, modeling and optimization of parasitic effects as well as the verification of extraction methodologies for RF/MMW applications are investigated. Different circuit design- and layout-examples are considered with stress on the inclusion and optimization of wire/interconnect parasitics. A novel methodology is proposed to reduce the number of design-passes and to include layout parasitics in the design optimization procedure. An automated verification procedure for existing parasitic extraction tools is developed. Neural-network-based models are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of artificial intelligence techniques for characterizing parasitic components. The parasitic sensitivities for selected millimeter-wave circuits are demonstrated, and a parasitic benchmarking procedure is developed using MMW oscillators. Measurement results of several circuits that are implemented in state-of-the-art CMOS and SiGe-BiCMOS processes are used to demonstrate the role of parasitics and the systematic design methodology including parasitics.

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