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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
41

Finite element simulation of mechanical characterization of composite insulators /

Bansal, Anurag, January 1996 (has links)
Thesis (Ph. D.), Oregon Graduate Institute of Science & Technology, 1996.
42

Technical consideration and impact of converting overhead power lines to underground power cables

Al-Khalidi, Hassan. January 2009 (has links)
Thesis (Ph.D.)--Victoria University (Melbourne, Vic.), 2009.
43

Prediction and measurement of power line carrier signal attenuation and fluctuation

De Villiers, Wernich 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MScEng)--University of Stellenbosch, 2001, / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A frequency domain Power Line Carrier (PLC) simulation program, with the ability to simulate signal attenuation including the coupling equipment, was developed. This simulation program was put to the test against the independent program of Professor L.M. Wedepohl and against practical field measurements. The predictions of the two programs were in precise agreement for a wide range of input parameters. Results from the field tests and predictions also showed close agreement. Further investigations, applying the simulation program, explained how ground conductors and soil resistivity influences PLC signal propagation. An experiment, which was developed to monitor PLC signal attenuation, was installed on the PLC system between Koeberg power station and Acacia substation, both near Cape Town. Data logged continuously over 28 days, indicated measurable and deterministic PLC signal attenuation variations with typical time constants of a few hours. Simulations of the PLC system indicated that the signal amplitude variations were influenced by changes in the height above the ground plane of the phase conductor. This significant finding creates the possibility to obtain real time knowledge of the sag of an Over Head Transmission Line (OHTL) by exploiting an operational PLC system. The knowledge about real time sag can be used in economical dynamic ampacity control systems. The practical and financial benefits to the electricity supply and distribution industry can be significant. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: 'n Frekwensie gebied "Power Line Carrier" (PLC) simulasie program wat die sein verswakking en die koppeling verliese kan naboots, is ontwikkel. Die program is getoets teen die onafhanklike program van Professor L.M. Wedepohl asook praktiese metings in die veld. Die vooruitskatings van beide programme is presies die selfde vir 'n wye reeks van parameters. Metings en nabootsings het ook noue ooreenstemming getoon. Verdere ondersoek, m. b. v. die program, is gedoen ten einde te verduidelik hoe grond-geleiers en grond weerstand die PLC sein se voortplanting beïnvloed. 'n Eksperiment om die PLC sein se verswakking mee te monitor is ontwerp. Die eksperiment was geïnstalleer in die PLC stelsel tussen Koeberg kernkragstasie en Acacia substasie, naby Kaapstad. Die eksperiment was vir 28 dae geaktiveer en die data wat die eksperiment opgelewer het toon meetbare PLC sein verswakking met tyd konstantes van 'n paar uur. Verdere nabootsings het gewys dat die veranderende verswakking in die PLC seinsterkte toegeskryf kan word aan die wisseling in hoogte van die fase geleiers bo die grondvlak. Hierdie bevinding is van besondere belang aangesien dit die moontlikheid oopmaak om die gemiddelde sak van kraglyne in reële tyd en onder bedryfs toestande te kan meet. Die informasie van die reële sak van kraglyne kan gebruik word in effektiewe stroomdrae-vermoë beheer stelsels. Die praktiese en finansiële voordele wat krag voorsieners en verspreiders hieruit kan put kan aansienlik wees.
44

Harmonic interaction between weak AC systems and VSC-based HVDC schemes

Krige, Ernst 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MScEng)--Stellenbosch University, 2012. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The implementation of the Caprivi Link Interconnector (CLI) High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) scheme in 2010 connecting the weak Namibian and Zambian Alternating Current (AC) transmission networks via overhead line is based on Voltage Source Converter (VSC) technology. This world-first combination of attributes presents a unique opportunity to study harmonic interaction between weak AC systems and VSC-based HVDC schemes. Relatively few publications exist that focus on AC and DC harmonic interaction and very few refer to VSC HVDC schemes. Because weak AC systems are much more prone to harmonic distortion than strong AC systems, there is a clear motivation for more detailed work in this field. In order to understand the context wherein AC and DC harmonic interaction exists, the fields of AC power system harmonic analysis and resonance, VSC switching theory, HVDC scheme configurations, Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) techniques and frequency domain analysis techniques are discussed. This thesis then presents the concept of Harmonic Amplitude Transfer Ratio (HATR) by a theoretical analysis of AC and DC harmonic interaction due to the fundamental component, as well as harmonic interaction due to scheme characteristic harmonics and is compared to the simulation results obtained from different software solutions. Simulation and modelling techniques for AC and DC harmonic interaction are discussed including AC and DC systems modelling. The theoretical results and simulation results are compared to the results obtained from a real life case study on the CLI HVDC scheme where a harmonic resonance condition occurred. The correlation of these three sets of results confirms the validity of the theories presented and possible mitigation of the case study resonance problems is explored. The results and conclusion highlight a variety of interesting points on harmonic sequence components analysis, VSC zero sequence elimination, AC and DC harmonic interaction due to the fundamental component and the HATR for different PWM methods, AC and DC harmonic interaction due to scheme characteristic harmonics, modelling techniques and mitigation for the resonance conditions experienced in the analysed real life case study. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die implementering van die Caprivi Skakel Tussenverbinder (CLI) hoogspannings- gelykstroom (HSGS) skema in 2010 wat die swak Namibiese and Zambiese Wisselstroom (WS) transmissienetwerke verbind via „n oorhoofse lyn is gebasseer op Spanningsgevoerde-omsetter tegnologie. Hierdie wêreld-eerste kombinasie van eienskappe verskaf „n unieke geleentheid om harmoniese interaksie tussen swak WS stelsels en Spanningsgevoerde-omsetter Hoogspannings GS stelsels te bestudeer. Relatief min publikasies wat fokus op WS en GS harmoniese interaksie bestaan, en baie min verwys na Spanningsgevoerde-omsetter Hoogspannings GS skemas. Omdat swak WS stelsels baie meer geneig is tot harmoniese verwringing as sterk WS stelsels, is daar „n duidelike motivering vir meer gedetaileerde werk in hierdie veld. Om die konteks te verstaan waarin WS en GS harmoniese interaksie bestaan, word die velde van WS kragstelsel harmoniese analise en resonansie, Spanningsgevoerde-omsetter skakelteorie, Hoogspannings GS skema opstellings, Pulswydte Modulasie (PWM) tegnieke, en frekwensiegebied analiese tegnieke bespreek. Hierdie tesis stel dan die konsep van Harmoniese Amplitude Oordragsverhouding voor deur „n teoretiese analise van WS en GS harmoniese interaksie na aanleiding van die fundamentele komponent, asook harmoniese interaksie a.g.v. harmonieke wat die stelsel kenmerk en word vergelyk met die simulasieresultate verkry uit verskilllende sagteware oplossings. Simulasie- en modelleringstegnieke vir WS en GS harmoniese interaksie word bespreek insluitend WS- en GS stelselmodellering. Die teoretiese resultate en simulasieresultate word vergelyk met die resultate wat verkry is uit „n werklike gevallestudie op die CLI HSGS skema waar „n harmoniese resonansie toestand voorgekom het. Die ooreenkomste tussen hierdie drie stelle resultate bevestig die geldigheid van die teorieë soos uiteengeset voor, en die moontlike verbetering van die gevallestudie resonansie probleme word verken. Die resultate en samevatting beklemtoon „n verskeidenheid punte aangaande harmoniese volgorde-komponent analiese, Spanningsgevoerde-omsetter zero-volgorde uitskakeling, WS en GS harmoniese interaksie na aanleiding van die fundamentele komponent en die Harmoniese Amplitude Oordragsverhouding vir verskillende PWM metodes, WS en GS harmoniese interaksie na aanleiding van skema-kenmerkende harmonieke, modelleringstegnieke, asook verbetering van die resonansie toestande soos ervaar in die analise van die werklike gevallestudie.
45

Seasonal Patterns of Melatonin, Cortisol, and Progesterone Secretion in Female Lambs Raised Beneath a 500-kV Transmission Line

Lee, Jack Monroe, Jr. 01 January 1992 (has links)
There is ongoing controversy about the possibility of adverse biological effects from environmental exposures to electric and magnetic fields. These fields are produced by all electrical equipment and appliances including electrical transmission lines. The objective of this environmental science study was to investigate the possible effects of a high voltage transmission line on domestic sheep (Ovis aries L,), a species that can often be found near such lines. The study was primarily designed to determine whether a specific effect of electric and magnetic fields found in laboratory animals also occurs in livestock under natural environmental conditions. The effect is the ability of fields, at levels found in the environment, to significantly depress the normally high nocturnal concentrations of the pineal hormone melatonin. Melatonin mediates the reproductive response to changes in photoperiod in seasonal breeders such as sheep. Factors which modify the production of nocturnal melatonin in sheep can have important effects on the timing of seasonal reproduction including the onset of puberty in this species. Ten female Suffolk lambs were penned for 10 months directly beneath a 500-kV transmission line near Estacada, Oregon. Ten other lambs of the same type were penned in a control area away from the transmission line where electric and magnetic fields were at ambient levels. Serum melatonin was analyzed by radioimmunoassay (RIA) from 6618 blood samples collected at 0.5 to 3-hour intervals over eight 48-hour periods. Serum progesterone was analyzed by RIA from blood samples collected twice weekly beginning when the lambs were 23 weeks old. This hormone was used to measure the onset of puberty. Serum cortisol was also assayed by RIA from the blood samples collected during the 48-hour samples. This was done to assess whether exposure to the transmission line produced stress in the growing lambs. Other supplemental biological data collected included body weight gain, wool growth, and behavior. An extensive study was conducted by engineers from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to measure electric and magnetic fields and noise to which the lambs were exposed. This was accomplished by installing permanent monitors near both the control and line pens. Results showed that lambs in both the control and line groups had the typical pattern of melatonin secretion consisting of low daytime and high nighttime serum concentrations. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in melatonin levels, or in the phase or duration of the nighttime melatonin elevation. Age at puberty and number of reproductive cycles also did not differ between groups. Serum cortisol showed a circadian rhythm with highest concentrations during the day. Cortisol concentrations also seemed to reflect effects of known stressors on livestock, e.g., weaning, introduction to new housing, and vehicle transport. There were, however, no differences in cortisol concentrations between groups. Statistical analyses on other biological parameters revealed no differences between groups for body weight gain, wool growth, or behavior. The electrical monitoring program verified that the line group lambs were exposed to electric and magnetic fields at levels typical of those found beneath commercial 500-kV transmission lines. In summary, the large effect of electric and magnetic fields on melatonin concentrations reported in laboratory animals was not observed in this study of sheep.
46

Animal activity, weather and vegetation control along a Quebec powerline right of way.

Bramwell, Richard N. January 1980 (has links)
No description available.
47

Extra high voltage transmission corridor siting: technical, public, institutional and regulatory considerations

Crnojacki, Zorica 03 October 2007 (has links)
Extra High Voltage (EHV) transmission corridor siting studies are complex and costly procedures, which are often prolonged by technical, public, institutional, and state regulatory factors. The primary goal of this research is to contribute to a more predictable and expedient siting study. The following objectives are accomplished: - Exploration and description of technical and methodological aspects of siting in terms of the general approach to the siting study, impact assessment techniques, data collection and mapping considerations. - Exploration and description of the following public and institutional considerations in the siting study: public participation, active opposition, media coverage, attitudes of affected agencies, and communication among involved organizations. Determination of the effects of these considerations on the siting process. - Review and evaluation of the state siting regulations in terms of: clarity of requirements, technical siting requirements, coordination of actions in the study, coordination with other relevant regulations, and public and agency participation in the study. Identification of the effects of the state regulations on the siting study process. - Development of guidelines for improved EHV transmission corridor siting studies. The principal methodology of the research is the single case study of Wyoming-Cloverdale 765 kV siting project, which represents a model of a contemporary, interstate, EHV siting study. The results of the case study are complemented by the review of state siting regulations and the literature. The major outcome of the research are the guidelines for improved corridor siting studies. The guidelines are developed for corridor siting study consultants, electric utility companies, and state regulatory commissions. Findings of the research indicate that technical, public, institutional, and state regulatory factors interactively affect the process of the corridor siting study. Furthermore, the siting study has dominant political overtones, and as such cannot be treated as a merely technical project. Public opposition to new EHV transmission lines can significantly increase the effects of technical, public, institutional, and regulatory deficiencies, reducing the probability of line approval. The testing of the guidelines in siting study practice, and a multiple case study research dealing with the same considerations and their interactions, are suggested for future research. / Ph. D.
48

Bird streamer initiated breakdowns under HVDC conditions.

Naidoo, Kribashen. January 2007 (has links)
This dissertation describes the role played by bird streamers in transmission line faults under HVDC conditions. The research was initiated due to the lack of knowledge of these faults under HVDC conditions. An explanation as to what bird streamers faults are, the role they play in the breakdown of air-gaps and a means of preventing bird streamer caused faults from occurring is made Experimental work has been carried out in order to gain an understanding of these faults under HVDC conditions. The overall aim of the experiments was to find a horizontal distance (protected zone) on an HVDC tower top, in order to prevent birds from perching around the centre of the tower. This will lead to a reduction of bird streamer caused faults. A brass rod was used as the artificial streamer in the experiments, under both negative and positive polarity (voltages in the range 0 to 220 kV DC were applied). Later in the experimental phase, a string soaked in a saline solution was used as a more realistic simulation of a bird streamer. QuickField™, an FEM package, was used to simulate the electric field in the region of the live conductor fitting and the tip of the bird streamer, to assess the degree of distortion of the electric field caused by the introduction of the bird streamer. These simulations served as means of verifying the laboratory experiments. This dissertation has proposed a relationship between the breakdown voltage and the protected zone length, based on the air-gap breakdown voltages for both I-String and V-String insulator configurations in the air-gap range 0 to 350 mm. These curves can be used in the design of transmission lines, as a means of reducing bird streamer faults. / Thesis (M.Sc.Eng.)-University of KwaZulu-Natal, 2007.
49

The voluntary appliction of the integrated environmental management guidelines by Eskom in KwaZulu-Natal, 1989 to 1997.

Burger, Bruce Jonathan. January 2003 (has links)
The end of the last century saw a meteoric rise in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and its implementation worldwide subsequent to it being legislated by the United States in 1970. The South African Government's Council for the Environment attempted to emulate international developments in EIA and compiled the Integrated Environmental Management (IEM) guidelines of 1989 which delineated the procedure for undertaking EIAs for development projects in South Africa. It was envisaged that these guidelines would ultimately be made law. The period between 1989 and 1997 was a window period when the IEM guidelines were implemented voluntarily. This period therefore constitutes an important era in the history of EIA in South Africa to which constant reference is made and upon which further development in EIA in South Africa has been reliant. The period 1989 to 1997 also coincided with a major increase in the bulk electricity supply to KwaZulu-Natal by Eskom, the national electricity utility. Eskom had actively tracked the evolution of Environmental Management globally and was considered to be at the forefront of Industrial Environmental Management in South Africa and there was therefore an expectation that Eskom would implement the IEM guidelines. In this study twelve EIAs for Eskom powerlines and substations constructed in KZN for the period were analysed and trends in the implementation of the IEM guidelines extrapolated. This study highlights the extent to which the IEM guidelines were implemented. It discusses the problems attendant to its implementation, which were found to be common to the implementation of EIA globally. From this research it became clear that factors external to the IEM guidelines needed to be resolved before the IEM guidelines could be implemented. The administrative requirement was one of the most important and necessary requirements for successful implementation, but this had not been thoroughly anticipated by Eskom nor the guidelines themselves. This required that there was major reform to policy and company procedure, which had to be clearly understood and accepted, before IEM could be effectively implemented. As a consequence, the implementation of the various steps of the IEM guidelines seldom revealed consistent and satisfactory implementation. Even where the IEM guidelines were more closely followed and implemented, previously entrenched technocentrist procedures and ideals persisted and therefore IEM was subverted and implemented with the wrong goal in mind. There was also an expectation that there would be an improvement in EIA practice with time. It was found that there was a greater association between the quality of the EIA conducted and the Eskom Environmental Officer responsible for it, rather than a consistent improvement with time. Thus integration into the project process of environmental procedure is a complex process and it requires firstly that a company is reformed. Reform has subsequently begun to transpire in Eskom. This reform includes education of company employees, which in turn is linked to political will which is necessary to effect the changes required to apply a procedure such as the IEM guidelines. This study reviews the implementation of the IEM guidelines in Eskom during this important development phase. It therefore reflects on a key portion of the history of EIA implementation in this country. The study provides insight into organisational reform and the voluntary commitments required for successful implementation of EIA. Benefit can be drawn from this study for future implementation of EIA even though EIA legislation now exists, as some form of voluntariness, political will and organisational reform is always imperative for ETA's successful and effective implementation. / Thesis (M.Sc.)-University of Natal, Durban, 2003.
50

Transformerless series dip/sag compensation with a multilevel cascaded inverter

Visser, Abraham Johannes 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MScEng)--University of Stellenbosch, 2001. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This thesis covers the development of a multilevel cascaded inverter for the purpose of costeffective transformerless series dip compensation. Of all known power quality problems, voltage dips are the greatest reason for concern. Dips/sags occur more frequently than outages and therefore tend to be more costly for industry as modem technical equipment becomes all the more sensitive to the quality and reliability of supply. A number of devices already exist to compensate for this problem, but the cost of most of these systems does not always justify the financial losses they compensate for. All of these systems are using transformers and/or large filter components that contribute to the size, price and losses to quite a large extent. Series injection dip compensators offer the advantage of only having to compensate for the decrease in supply voltage during a dip. This results in a significant reduction in the converter ratings and energy storage requirements compared to conventional uninterruptible power supplies or shunt injection power quality devices. Existing inverter topologies, including multilevel inverters, were therefore studied and compared as possible solutions for cost-effective transformerless series dip compensation. On the basis of these considerations the multilevel cascaded inverter seems to be the most cost-effective option. The relatively low harmonic content of its unfiltered output also eliminates the need for a large output filter. A single-phase dip compensator, with this topology, was designed and built according to specifications stated by Eskom, the main utility in South Africa. Batteries as energy storage and automotive MOSFETs as switching components, proved to be most cost-effective options for the specified power ratings. Control algorithms for dip compensation with the multilevel inverter were also developed. Some of these algorithms are based on existing techniques, but two new algorithms were also developed to implement force commutation of the thyristors and to share the power dissipation in the dip compensator. Simulations indicated that these algorithms could be suitable and sufficient for their application. This dip compensator with its control algorithms was tested with a dip generator, developed at the University of Stellenbosch, for different types of loads. The experimental results confirmed the simulations and showed a very good performance for the specified conditions. An optimised design of this dip compensator will make it a cost-effective solution for dip compensation. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie tesis dek die ontwikkeling van 'n multivlakwisselrigter, in kaskade, met koste-effektiewe transformatorlose duik kompensasie as mikpunt. Van al die bekende toevoerkwaliteit probleme wek duike in die spanning die meeste kommer. Duike kom meer gereeld voor as kragonderbrekings en neig daarom om 'n groter onkoste te wees vir die industrie soos wat moderne tegnologiese toerusting al hoe meer sensitief raak vir die kwaliteit en betroubaarheid van die toevoer. 'n Aantal toestelle wat vir hierdie probleem kompenseer bestaan reeds, maar die koste van hierdie stelsels regverdig nie altyd die finansiële verliese wat hulle moet elimineer nie. Al hierdie stelsels gebruik transformators en/of groot filter komponente wat grootliks bydra tot die grootte, prys en verliese van hierdie stelsels. Serie-injeksie kompenseerders het die voordeel dat hulle net kompenseer vir die verlies in die toevoerspanning tydens die duik. Dit het 'n beduidende vermindering in die omsetterkenwaardes en energiestoorvereistes tot gevolg in vergelyking met ononderbroke kragbronne (UPS) of newe-injeksie toevoerkwaliteit toestelle. Daarom IS bestaande wisselrigtertopologië, insluitende multivlakwisselrigters, bestudeer en vergelyk as moontlike oplossings vir koste-effektiewe serie duik-kompensasie. Van al hierdie moontlikhede lyk die multivlakwisselrigter, in kaskade, na die mees koste-effektiewe opsie. Die relatiewe lae harmoniese inhoud van sy ongefilterde uittree elimineer die behoefte aan 'n groot uittreefilter. 'n Enkelfase duik kompenseerder, met hierdie topologie, is ontwerp en gebou volgens die spesifikasies wat vasgestel is deur Eskom, die hoof elektriese kragvoorsiener in Suid-Afrika. Dit het geblyk dat batterye, en MOSFETte uit die motorbedryf, die mees koste-effektiewe opsies bied vir onderskeidelik die energiestoor en skakelkomponente. Beheeralgoritmes VIr duik kompensasie met die multivlakwisselrigter is ook ontwikkel. Sommige van hierdie algoritmes is gebaseer op bestaande tegnieke, maar twee nuwe algoritmes is ook ontwikkel vir die kommutering van die tiristors en die deling van die drywingsverkwisting in die duik kompenseerder. Simulasies dui aan dat hierdie algoritmes geskik en voldoende kan wees vir hulle toepassing. Hierdie duik kompenseerder met sy beheeralgoritmes is getoets vir verskillende tipes laste met 'n duikgenerator wat ontwikkel is by die Universiteit van Stellenbosch. Die eksperimentele resultate bevestig dit wat verkry is uit die simulasies en wys 'n goeie werkverrigting vir die gespesifiseerde kondisies. 'n Geoptimeerde ontwerp van hierdie duik kompenseerder sal dit 'n koste-effektiewe oplossing maak vir duik kompensasie.

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