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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Investigation of Reactive Power Control and Compensation for HVDC systems

Zhang, Yi 07 October 2011 (has links)
This thesis attempts to investigate the performance of various reactive power compensation devices, examine the mechanism of reactive power compensation for HVDC systems, and develop guidelines for the design of reactive power compensation schemes for HVDC systems. The capabilities of various reactive power compensators to enhance power system stability are compared in both steady and transient states. An understanding of the capabilities of these compensators provides a basis for further investigation of their performance in HVDC systems. The reactive power requirements of HVDC converters are studied. The voltage dependencies of the HVDC converters at different control modes are derived, which allow for predictions of how HVDC converters impact AC system voltage stability. The transient performance of reactive power compensation options for HVDC Systems is studied by comparing their behavior during DC fault recovery, Temporary Overvoltage (TOV), and commutation failure. How to quantify the system strength when reactive compensators are connected to the converter bus is investigated. A new series of indices are developed based on the Apparent Short Circuit Ratio Increase (ASCRI). The inertia of a synchronous condenser and its impact on the frequency stability of an AC/DC system are discussed. By modelling the inverter side AC system in greater detail, the frequency stability and rotor angle stability following fault transients is examined based on time domain simulation. Finally, a guideline for designing dynamic reactive power compensation for HVDC systems is proposed.
2

Investigation of Reactive Power Control and Compensation for HVDC systems

Zhang, Yi 07 October 2011 (has links)
This thesis attempts to investigate the performance of various reactive power compensation devices, examine the mechanism of reactive power compensation for HVDC systems, and develop guidelines for the design of reactive power compensation schemes for HVDC systems. The capabilities of various reactive power compensators to enhance power system stability are compared in both steady and transient states. An understanding of the capabilities of these compensators provides a basis for further investigation of their performance in HVDC systems. The reactive power requirements of HVDC converters are studied. The voltage dependencies of the HVDC converters at different control modes are derived, which allow for predictions of how HVDC converters impact AC system voltage stability. The transient performance of reactive power compensation options for HVDC Systems is studied by comparing their behavior during DC fault recovery, Temporary Overvoltage (TOV), and commutation failure. How to quantify the system strength when reactive compensators are connected to the converter bus is investigated. A new series of indices are developed based on the Apparent Short Circuit Ratio Increase (ASCRI). The inertia of a synchronous condenser and its impact on the frequency stability of an AC/DC system are discussed. By modelling the inverter side AC system in greater detail, the frequency stability and rotor angle stability following fault transients is examined based on time domain simulation. Finally, a guideline for designing dynamic reactive power compensation for HVDC systems is proposed.
3

Simulation and modeling of wind power plants : a pedagogical approach

Vyas, Mithunprakash G 25 October 2010 (has links)
This thesis report describes the modeling procedure for available the wind turbine generator (WTG) technologies. The models are generic in nature and manufacturer independent. These models are implemented on commercially available dynamic simulation software platforms like PSCAD/EMTDC and MATLAB/SIMULINK. A brief introduction to the available WTG types is provided to understand the technological differences and their key features. The related theoretical concepts to the working of a WTG are explained, which acts as an aid for model development and implementation. Using the theoretical concepts as basis, a WTG model is divided into four parts : 1. Aerodynamic model 2. Mechanical drive train model 3. Electrical machine model 4. Controller model Once the different parts of a WTG are introduced, a groundwork for model implementation on the software platforms is laid. A step-by-step process of implementing a PSCAD or MATLAB model of a WTG is introduced in this thesis. Starting with the most fundamental WTG technology such as fixed-speed also known as direct-connect wind turbine. The model implementation is adanvced to other superior technology like the dynamic rotor resistance control (DRR) and the doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG). To better understand the working of a DFIG, a current-source regulated model (without electrical machine) emulating the DFIG is built on both PSCAD and MATLAB. A full blown converter model of the DFIG with back-to-back converter is then built in PSCAD/EMTDC. An approach to determine the reactive power capability (Q limits) of a DFIG is described. Rotor current limitation and stator current limitation of the DFIG are considered in determining the minimum and maximum reactive power delievered by the DFIG. Variation in the Q limits of a DFIG for change in wind speed is analysed with two different wind speed scenarios. 1. Wind speed from cut-in to rated i.e. 6 m/s - 14 m/s. 2. Wind speed above rated to cut-out i.e. 14 m/s - 20 m/s. Such an analysis, is useful in determining the operating mode of the DFIG. At low wind speeds (below rated), the DFIG can be operated as a STATCOM for exporting and importing reactive power (similar to synchronous machines). While above rated wind speeds, the DFIG can be set to produce maximum active power. Using the DFIG current-source model implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK, laboratory experiments to plot the power profile of the DFIG is explained. Another experiment to perform independent P-Q control of the DFIG is also included in this report. / text
4

Alocação ótima de compensação de potência reativa

Stypulkowski, Yuri Solis January 2017 (has links)
Este trabalho propõe uma metodologia para enumerar soluções, que indiquem a barra e a compensação de potência reativa necessária para o sistema elétrico sob análise, que atendam aos requisitos avaliados pela função objetivo e as restrições. Nessa alocação de compensação ótima de potência reativa, obtemos as melhores barras e configurações de potências e tecnologias de dispositivos de compensação, minimizando as perdas totais de potência ativa da rede. Em redes fracas com conversores de frequência (por exemplo, para conexão de fontes renováveis, ou interligações utilizando conversores HVDC), esta metodologia proposta busca a melhor relação de curto-circuito trifásico (SCR) no ponto de conexão do conversor de frequência, melhorando a conexão da barra de interesse. O método busca soluções para alocar um único dispositivo de compensação, e soluções alocando simultaneamente dois dispositivos. A metodologia proposta baseia-se na enumeração exaustiva das soluções, e o estudo de caso nos sistemas de 14 e 30 barras do IEEE mostrou a aplicabilidade e funcionalidade da metodologia proposta. / This work proposes a methodology to enumerate solutions, which indicate the bar and the reactive power compensation required for the electrical system under analysis, that meet the requirements evaluated by the objective function and the constraints. In this allocation of optimal compensation of reactive power, we obtain the optimal bars and technologies of compensation devices, minimizing the total losses of active power of the network. In weak networks with frequency converters (e.g. for connection of renewable sources, or interconnections using HVDC converters), the proposed methodology seeks the best threephase short-circuit (SCR) relation at the connection point, improving the connection of the new generation. The method looks for solutions to allocate a single compensation device, and solutions to allocate two devices simultaneously. The proposed methodology is based on the exhaustive enumeration of the solutions. A case study carried out in the IEEE 14 and 30 bus systems shows the applicability and performance of the proposed methodology.
5

Investigation Of Multilevel Inverters For D-statcom Applications

Deniz, Mustafa 01 December 2009 (has links) (PDF)
The most important advantages of Multilevel Inverters are the absence of a coupling transformer for medium voltage applications and low harmonic current content. In this way, relocatable and economical STATCOM systems can be realized. Complex control algorithms and the isolation problems of measurement devices and power supplies are the main challenging parts of this type of application. In this study, the design, realization, and the performance of a Voltage Source Type Cascaded Multilevel Converter Based STATCOM will be investigated in terms of digital computation, control hardware and the semiconductors devices commercially available in the market. This research work is fully supported by the Public Research Grant Committee (KAMAG) of TUBiTAK within the scope of National Power Quality Project of Turkey with the project No: 105G129.
6

Coordinated Voltage and Reactive Power Control of Power Distribution Systems with Distributed Generation

Paaso, Esa A 01 January 2014 (has links)
Distribution system voltage and VAR control (VVC) is a technique that combines conservation voltage reduction and reactive power compensation to operate a distribution system at its optimal conditions. Coordinated VVC can provide major economic benefits for distribution utilities. Incorporating distributed generation (DG) to VVC can improve the system efficiency and reliability. The first part of this dissertation introduces a direct optimization formulation for VVC with DG. The control is formulated as a mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) problem. The formulation is based on a three-phase power flow with accurate component models. The VVC problem is solved with a state of the art open-source academic solver utilizing an outer approximation algorithm. Applying the approach to several test feeders, including IEEE 13-node and 37-node radial test feeders, with variable load demand and DG generation, validates the proposed control. Incorporating renewable energy can provide major benefits for efficient operation of the distribution systems. However, when the number of renewables increases the system control becomes more complex. Renewable resources, particularly wind and solar, are often highly intermittent. The varying power output can cause significant fluctuations in feeder voltages. Traditional feeder controls are often too slow to react to these fast fluctuations. DG units providing reactive power compensation they can be utilized in supplying voltage support when fluctuations in generation occur. The second part of this dissertation focuses on two new approaches for dual-layer VVC. In these approaches the VVC is divided into two control layers, slow and fast. The slow control obtains optimal voltage profile and set points for the distribution control. The fast control layer is utilized to maintain the optimal voltage profile when the generation or loading suddenly changes. The MINLP based VVC formulation is utilized as the slow control. Both local reactive power control of DG and coordinated quadratic programming (QP) based reactive power control is considered as the fast control approaches. The effectiveness of these approaches is studied with test feeders, utility load data, and fast-varying solar irradiance data. The simulation results indicate that both methods achieve good results for VVC with DG.
7

Σύγκριση δυναμικής συμπεριφοράς του σύγχρονου αντισταθμιστή και του στατικού αντισταθμιστή αέργου ισχύος (SVC)

Καρατζάς, Χρήστος 24 October 2012 (has links)
Η παρούσα διπλωματική εργασία πραγματοποιήθηκε κατά το διάστημα 11/2011-9/2012 στα πλαίσια των ερευνητικών δραστηριοτήτων του εργαστηρίου Παραγωγής, Μεταφοράς, Διανομής και Χρησιμοποίησης Ηλεκτρικής Ενέργειας του τμήματος Ηλεκτρολόγων Μηχανικών και Τεχνολογίας Υπολογιστών του Πανεπιστημίου Πατρών, υπό την επίβλεψη του καθηγητή Γαβριήλ Β. Γιαννακόπουλου. Σκοπός της εργασίας είναι η σύγκριση της δυναμικής συμπεριφοράς ενός συμβατικού σύγχρονου αντισταθμιστή και ενός εγκάρσιου στατικού αντισταθμιστή αέργου ισχύος (SVC) σε ένα εγκατεστημένο ηλεκτρικό δίκτυο, προσομοιώνοντας διαφορετικές περιπτώσεις που επηρεάζουν την διαδικασία αντιστάθμισης αέργου ισχύος και υποστήριξης τάσης σε ζυγούς του δικτύου. Στην εργασία αυτή παρουσιάζονται το μαθηματικό μοντέλο του σύγχρονου αντισταθμιστή, οι επαγωγικές παράμετροι που το χαρακτηρίζουν, τα διαφορετικά μοντέλα συστημάτων διέγερσης που χρησιμοποιούνται και ο Μετασχηματισμός Park. Όσον αφορά τον εγκάρσιο στατικό αντισταθμιστή (SVC) παρουσιάζονται οι βασικές αρχές ελέγχου των TCR και TSC που διαθέτει, η χαρακτηριστική τάσης-ρεύματος και γίνεται μια αναλυτική περιγραφή των συνιστωσών του συστήματος ελέγχου του, όπως ο ρυθμιστής τάσης, το σύστημα συγχρονισμού και η γεννήτρια παραγωγής παλμών. Τέλος, για την μοντελοποίηση και την προσομοίωση των αντισταθμιστών και του ηλεκτρικού δικτύου χρησιμοποιείται το πρόγραμμα PSCAD/EMTDC λόγω της αξιοπιστίας και της ευχρηστίας του σε μεγάλος εύρος ενεργειακών μελετών. / The current thesis was held during the period 11/2011-9/2012 within the research activities of the Generation, Transmission, Distribution and Utilization of Electric Energy Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Patras, under the supervision of Professor Gabriel B. Giannakopoulos. The purpose of this study is to compare the dynamic performance of a conventional synchronous condenser and a static reactive power compensator (SVC) on an installed electrical grid, simulating different cases affecting the process of reactive power compensation and voltage support at the network’s load buses. This thesis includes representation of the mathematical model of the conventional synchronous condenser and the inductive parameters that characterize it, the different excitation system models used and the Park Transformation. Regarding the static VAR compensator (SVC), this thesis also refers to the fundamentals of TCR and TSC control, the explanation of the current-voltage characteristic and the analytic description of the control system’s components, such as the voltage regulator, the synchronization system and the gate-pulse generator. Lastly, for the modeling and simulation of both compensators and the installed electrical grid, the simulation program used is PSCAD / EMTDC because of its usability and reliability on a wide range of energy projects.
8

Alocação ótima de compensação de potência reativa

Stypulkowski, Yuri Solis January 2017 (has links)
Este trabalho propõe uma metodologia para enumerar soluções, que indiquem a barra e a compensação de potência reativa necessária para o sistema elétrico sob análise, que atendam aos requisitos avaliados pela função objetivo e as restrições. Nessa alocação de compensação ótima de potência reativa, obtemos as melhores barras e configurações de potências e tecnologias de dispositivos de compensação, minimizando as perdas totais de potência ativa da rede. Em redes fracas com conversores de frequência (por exemplo, para conexão de fontes renováveis, ou interligações utilizando conversores HVDC), esta metodologia proposta busca a melhor relação de curto-circuito trifásico (SCR) no ponto de conexão do conversor de frequência, melhorando a conexão da barra de interesse. O método busca soluções para alocar um único dispositivo de compensação, e soluções alocando simultaneamente dois dispositivos. A metodologia proposta baseia-se na enumeração exaustiva das soluções, e o estudo de caso nos sistemas de 14 e 30 barras do IEEE mostrou a aplicabilidade e funcionalidade da metodologia proposta. / This work proposes a methodology to enumerate solutions, which indicate the bar and the reactive power compensation required for the electrical system under analysis, that meet the requirements evaluated by the objective function and the constraints. In this allocation of optimal compensation of reactive power, we obtain the optimal bars and technologies of compensation devices, minimizing the total losses of active power of the network. In weak networks with frequency converters (e.g. for connection of renewable sources, or interconnections using HVDC converters), the proposed methodology seeks the best threephase short-circuit (SCR) relation at the connection point, improving the connection of the new generation. The method looks for solutions to allocate a single compensation device, and solutions to allocate two devices simultaneously. The proposed methodology is based on the exhaustive enumeration of the solutions. A case study carried out in the IEEE 14 and 30 bus systems shows the applicability and performance of the proposed methodology.
9

Alocação ótima de compensação de potência reativa

Stypulkowski, Yuri Solis January 2017 (has links)
Este trabalho propõe uma metodologia para enumerar soluções, que indiquem a barra e a compensação de potência reativa necessária para o sistema elétrico sob análise, que atendam aos requisitos avaliados pela função objetivo e as restrições. Nessa alocação de compensação ótima de potência reativa, obtemos as melhores barras e configurações de potências e tecnologias de dispositivos de compensação, minimizando as perdas totais de potência ativa da rede. Em redes fracas com conversores de frequência (por exemplo, para conexão de fontes renováveis, ou interligações utilizando conversores HVDC), esta metodologia proposta busca a melhor relação de curto-circuito trifásico (SCR) no ponto de conexão do conversor de frequência, melhorando a conexão da barra de interesse. O método busca soluções para alocar um único dispositivo de compensação, e soluções alocando simultaneamente dois dispositivos. A metodologia proposta baseia-se na enumeração exaustiva das soluções, e o estudo de caso nos sistemas de 14 e 30 barras do IEEE mostrou a aplicabilidade e funcionalidade da metodologia proposta. / This work proposes a methodology to enumerate solutions, which indicate the bar and the reactive power compensation required for the electrical system under analysis, that meet the requirements evaluated by the objective function and the constraints. In this allocation of optimal compensation of reactive power, we obtain the optimal bars and technologies of compensation devices, minimizing the total losses of active power of the network. In weak networks with frequency converters (e.g. for connection of renewable sources, or interconnections using HVDC converters), the proposed methodology seeks the best threephase short-circuit (SCR) relation at the connection point, improving the connection of the new generation. The method looks for solutions to allocate a single compensation device, and solutions to allocate two devices simultaneously. The proposed methodology is based on the exhaustive enumeration of the solutions. A case study carried out in the IEEE 14 and 30 bus systems shows the applicability and performance of the proposed methodology.
10

Mitigating adverse impacts of increased electric vehicle charging on distribution transformers

Jain, Akansha 12 May 2023 (has links) (PDF)
There is a growing interest in electric transportation, and the number of electric vehicles (EVs) is increasing. The resulting increase in EV charging power demand has an adverse impact on the existing power grids, especially the distribution transformers. The repeated and continued overloading caused by EV charging can significantly reduce their operational life. This dissertation aims to comprehensively study the adverse impacts of EV charging on distribution transformers and provide robust and practical solutions to mitigate it. A typical North American secondary distribution system with different EV penetration levels and four realistic residential EV charging scenarios are used for the analyses. The IEEE Standard C57.91-2011 is used to quantify transformer life under different scenarios and to validate the efficacy of the proposed overloading mitigation strategies. It is observed that EV charging can have a significant impact on the life of distribution transformers. To mitigate the impact of EV charging on the distribution transformer, first, a practical solution based on reactive power compensation is proposed. The method is based on reducing the over- all transformer losses by providing a component of the residential reactive power demand through non-unity power factor operation of the EV charger. A centralized recursive control structure is proposed to compute and communicate the required reactive power values to the individual EVs. It is shown that the proposed technique increases the distribution transformer’s life by an average of nearly 47% in all four scenarios considered. Moreover, the proposed controller’s structure makes it effective even on low-bandwidth, high-latency communication networks. To verify this, the proposed controller’s stability under communication delays and its robustness against potential communication failures is also validated. This research also studies potential concerns about the charger’s reliability by non-unity power factor operation. Accordingly, an alternative overloading mitigation strategy is also proposed based on fixed charging current magnitude. This second method is shown to be more effective in reducing transformer overloading at the cost of a marginal decrease in the charging rate. Lastly, a high-level overview of the existing vehicle-to-grid communication standards is presented to provide a better context for practical implementation and identify potential challenges.

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