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51 
Learning with Deictic RepresentationFinney, Sarah, Gardiol, Natalia H., Kaelbling, Leslie Pack, Oates, Tim 10 April 2002 (has links)
Most reinforcement learning methods operate on propositional representations of the world state. Such representations are often intractably large and generalize poorly. Using a deictic representation is believed to be a viable alternative: they promise generalization while allowing the use of existing reinforcementlearning methods. Yet, there are few experiments on learning with deictic representations reported in the literature. In this paper we explore the effectiveness of two forms of deictic representation and a naive propositional representation in a simple blocksworld domain. We find, empirically, that the deictic representations actually worsen performance. We conclude with a discussion of possible causes of these results and strategies for more effective learning in domains with objects.

52 
A ReinforcementLearning Approach to Power ManagementSteinbach, Carl 01 May 2002 (has links)
We describe an adaptive, midlevel approach to the wireless device power management problem. Our approach is based on reinforcement learning, a machine learning framework for autonomous agents. We describe how our framework can be applied to the power management problem in both infrastructure and ad~hoc wireless networks. From this thesis we conclude that midlevel power management policies can outperform lowlevel policies and are more convenient to implement than highlevel policies. We also conclude that power management policies need to adapt to the user and network, and that a midlevel power management framework based on reinforcement learning fulfills these requirements.

53 
On the Convergence of Stochastic Iterative Dynamic Programming AlgorithmsJaakkola, Tommi, Jordan, Michael I., Singh, Satinder P. 01 August 1993 (has links)
Recent developments in the area of reinforcement learning have yielded a number of new algorithms for the prediction and control of Markovian environments. These algorithms, including the TD(lambda) algorithm of Sutton (1988) and the Qlearning algorithm of Watkins (1989), can be motivated heuristically as approximations to dynamic programming (DP). In this paper we provide a rigorous proof of convergence of these DPbased learning algorithms by relating them to the powerful techniques of stochastic approximation theory via a new convergence theorem. The theorem establishes a general class of convergent algorithms to which both TD(lambda) and Qlearning belong.

54 
ClosedLoop Learning of Visual Control PoliciesJodogne, Sébastien 05 December 2006 (has links)
In this dissertation, I introduce a general, flexible framework for learning direct mappings from images to actions in an agent that interacts with its surrounding environment. This work is motivated by the paradigm of purposive vision. The original contributions consist in the design of reinforcement learning algorithms that are applicable to visual spaces. Inspired by the paradigm of localappearance vision, these algorithms exploit specialized visual features that can be detected in the visual signal.
Two different ways to use the visual features are described. Firstly, I introduce adaptiveresolution methods for discretizing the visual space into a manageable number of perceptual classes. To this end, a percept classifier that tests the presence or absence of few highly informative visual features is incrementally refined. New discriminant visual features are selected in a sequence of attempts to remove perceptual aliasing. Any standard reinforcement learning algorithm can then be used to extract an optimal visual control policy. The resulting algorithm is called "Reinforcement Learning of Visual Classes." Secondly, I propose to exploit the raw content of the visual features, without ever considering an equivalence relation on the visual feature space. Technically, feature regression models that associate visual features with a realvalued utility are introduced within the Approximate Policy Iteration architecture. This is done by means of a general, abstract version of Approximate Policy Iteration. This results in the "Visual Approximate Policy Iteration" algorithm.
Another major contribution of this dissertation is the design of adaptiveresolution techniques that can be applied to complex, highdimensional and/or continuous action spaces, simultaneously to visual spaces. The "Reinforcement Learning of Joint Classes" algorithm produces a nonuniform discretization of the joint space of percepts and actions. This is a brand new, general approach to adaptiveresolution methods in reinforcement learning that can deal with arbitrary, hybrid stateaction spaces.
Throughout this dissertation, emphasis is also put on the design of general algorithms that can be used in nonvisual (e.g. continuous) perceptual spaces. The applicability of the proposed algorithms is demonstrated by solving several visual navigation tasks.

55 
Constructing NeuroFuzzy Control Systems Based on Reinforcement Learning SchemePei, Shancheng 10 September 2007 (has links)
Traditionally, the fuzzy rules for a fuzzy controller are provided by experts. They cannot be trained from a set of inputoutput training examples because the correct response of the plant being controlled is delayed and cannot be obtained immediately. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to construct fuzzy rules for a fuzzy controller based on reinforcement learning. Our task is to learn from the delayed reward to choose sequences of actions that result in the best control. A neural network with delays is used to model the evaluation function Q. Fuzzy rules are constructed and added as the learning proceeds. Both the weights of the Qlearning network and the parameters of the fuzzy rules are tuned by gradient descent. Experimental results have shown that the fuzzy rules
obtained perform effectively for control.

56 
Sparse Value Function Approximation for Reinforcement LearningPainterWakefield, Christopher Robert January 2013 (has links)
<p>A key component of many reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms is the approximation of the value function. The design and selection of features for approximation in RL is crucial, and an ongoing area of research. One approach to the problem of feature selection is to apply sparsityinducing techniques in learning the value function approximation; such sparse methods tend to select relevant features and ignore irrelevant features, thus automating the feature selection process. This dissertation describes three contributions in the area of sparse value function approximation for reinforcement learning.</p><p>One method for obtaining sparse linear approximations is the inclusion in the objective function of a penalty on the sum of the absolute values of the approximation weights. This <italic>L<sub>1</sub></italic> regularization approach was first applied to temporal difference learning in the LARSinspired, batch learning algorithm LARSTD. In our first contribution, we define an iterative update equation which has as its fixed point the <italic>L<sub>1</sub></italic> regularized linear fixed point of LARSTD. The iterative update gives rise naturally to an online stochastic approximation algorithm. We prove convergence of the online algorithm and show that the <italic>L<sub>1</sub></italic> regularized linear fixed point is an equilibrium fixed point of the algorithm. We demonstrate the ability of the algorithm to converge to the fixed point, yielding a sparse solution with modestly better performance than unregularized linear temporal difference learning.</p><p>Our second contribution extends LARSTD to integrate policy optimization with sparse value learning. We extend the <italic>L<sub>1</sub></italic> regularized linear fixed point to include a maximum over policies, defining a new, "greedy" fixed point. The greedy fixed point adds a new invariant to the set which LARSTD maintains as it traverses its homotopy path, giving rise to a new algorithm integrating sparse value learning and optimization. The new algorithm is demonstrated to be similar in performance with policy iteration using LARSTD.</p><p>Finally, we consider another approach to sparse learning, that of using a simple algorithm that greedily adds new features. Such algorithms have many of the good properties of the <italic>L<sub>1</sub></italic> regularization methods, while also being extremely efficient and, in some cases, allowing theoretical guarantees on recovery of the true form of a sparse target function from sampled data. We consider variants of orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) applied to RL. The resulting algorithms are analyzed and compared experimentally with existing <italic>L<sub>1</sub></italic> regularized approaches. We demonstrate that perhaps the most natural scenario in which one might hope to achieve sparse recovery fails; however, one variant provides promising theoretical guarantees under certain assumptions on the feature dictionary while another variant empirically outperforms prior methods both in approximation accuracy and efficiency on several benchmark problems.</p> / Dissertation

57 
A Framework for Aggregation of Multiple Reinforcement Learning AlgorithmsJiang, Ju January 2007 (has links)
Aggregation of multiple Reinforcement Learning (RL) algorithms is a new and effective technique to improve the quality of Sequential Decision Making (SDM). The quality of a SDM depends on longterm rewards rather than the instant rewards. RL methods are often adopted to deal with SDM problems.
Although many RL algorithms have been developed, none is consistently better than the others. In addition, the parameters of RL algorithms significantly influence learning performances. There is no universal rule to guide the choice of algorithms and the setting of parameters. To handle this difficulty, a new multiple RL system  Aggregated Multiple Reinforcement Learning System (AMRLS) is developed. In AMRLS, each RL algorithm (learner) learns individually in a learning module and provides its output to an intelligent aggregation module. The aggregation module dynamically aggregates these outputs and provides a final decision. Then, all learners take the action and update their policies individually. The two processes are performed alternatively. AMRLS can deal with dynamic learning problems without the need to search for the optimal learning algorithm or the optimal values of learning parameters. It is claimed that several complementary learning algorithms can be integrated in AMRLS to improve the learning performance in terms of success rate, robustness, confidence, redundance, and complementariness.
There are two strategies for learning an optimal policy with RL methods. One is based on Value Function Learning (VFL), which learns an optimal policy expressed as a value function. The Temporal Difference RL (TDRL) methods are examples of this strategy. The other is based on Direct Policy Search (DPS), which directly searches for the optimal policy in the potential policy space. The Genetic Algorithms (GAs)based RL (GARL) are instances of this strategy. A hybrid learning architecture of GARL and TDRL, HGATDRL, is proposed to combine them together to improve the learning ability.
AMRLS and HGATDRL are tested on several SDM problems, including the maze world problem, pursuit domain problem, cartpole balancing system, mountain car problem, and flight control system. Experimental results show that the proposed framework and method can enhance the learning ability and improve learning performance of a multiple RL system.

58 
Reinforcement Learning in Keepaway Framework for RoboCup Simulation LeagueLi, Wei January 2011 (has links)
This thesis aims to apply the reinforcement learning into soccer robot and show the great power of reinforcement learning for the RoboCup. In the first part, the background of reinforcement learning is briefly introduced before showing the previous work on it. Therefore the difficulty in implementing reinforcement learning is proposed. The second section demonstrates basic concepts in reinforcement learning, including three fundamental elements, state, action and reward respectively, and three classical approaches, dynamic programming, monte carlo methods and temporaldifference learning respectively. When it comes to keepaway framework, more explanations are given to further combine keepaway with reinforcement learning. After the suggestion about sarsa algorithm with two function approximation, artificial neural network and tile coding, it is implemented successfully during the simulations. The results show it significantly improves the performance of soccer robot.

59 
A Framework for Aggregation of Multiple Reinforcement Learning AlgorithmsJiang, Ju January 2007 (has links)
Aggregation of multiple Reinforcement Learning (RL) algorithms is a new and effective technique to improve the quality of Sequential Decision Making (SDM). The quality of a SDM depends on longterm rewards rather than the instant rewards. RL methods are often adopted to deal with SDM problems.
Although many RL algorithms have been developed, none is consistently better than the others. In addition, the parameters of RL algorithms significantly influence learning performances. There is no universal rule to guide the choice of algorithms and the setting of parameters. To handle this difficulty, a new multiple RL system  Aggregated Multiple Reinforcement Learning System (AMRLS) is developed. In AMRLS, each RL algorithm (learner) learns individually in a learning module and provides its output to an intelligent aggregation module. The aggregation module dynamically aggregates these outputs and provides a final decision. Then, all learners take the action and update their policies individually. The two processes are performed alternatively. AMRLS can deal with dynamic learning problems without the need to search for the optimal learning algorithm or the optimal values of learning parameters. It is claimed that several complementary learning algorithms can be integrated in AMRLS to improve the learning performance in terms of success rate, robustness, confidence, redundance, and complementariness.
There are two strategies for learning an optimal policy with RL methods. One is based on Value Function Learning (VFL), which learns an optimal policy expressed as a value function. The Temporal Difference RL (TDRL) methods are examples of this strategy. The other is based on Direct Policy Search (DPS), which directly searches for the optimal policy in the potential policy space. The Genetic Algorithms (GAs)based RL (GARL) are instances of this strategy. A hybrid learning architecture of GARL and TDRL, HGATDRL, is proposed to combine them together to improve the learning ability.
AMRLS and HGATDRL are tested on several SDM problems, including the maze world problem, pursuit domain problem, cartpole balancing system, mountain car problem, and flight control system. Experimental results show that the proposed framework and method can enhance the learning ability and improve learning performance of a multiple RL system.

60 
The Characteristics and Neural Substrates of Feedbackbased Decision Process in Recognition MemoryHan, Sanghoon 10 April 2008 (has links)
The judgment of prior stimulus occurrence, generally referred to as item recognition, is perhaps the most heavily studied of all memory skills. A skilled recognition observer not only recovers high fidelity memory evidence, he or she is also able to flexibly modify how much evidence is required for affirmative responding (the decision criterion) depending upon whether the context calls for a cautious or liberal task approach. The ability to adaptively adjust the decision criterion is a relatively understudied recognition skill, and the goal of this thesis is to examine reinforcement learning mechanisms contributing to recognition criterion adaptability. In Chapter 1, I review a measurement model whose theoretical framework has been successfully applied to recognition memory research (i.e., Signal Detection Theory). I also review major findings in the recognition literature examining the adaptive flexibility of criteria. Chapter 2 reports behavioral experiments that examine the sensitivity of decision criteria to trialbytrial feedback by manipulating feedback validity in a potentially covert manner. Chapter 3 presents another series of behavioral experiments that used even subtler feedback manipulations based on predictions from reinforcement learning and category learning literatures. The findings suggested that feedback induced criterion shifts may rely upon procedural learning mechanisms that are largely implicit. The data also revealed that the magnitudes of induced criterion shifts were significantly correlated with personality measures linked to reward seeking outside the laboratory. In Chapter 4 functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to explore possible neurobiological links between brain regions traditionally linked to reinforcement processing, and recognition decisions. Prominent activations in striatum tracked the intrinsic goals of the subjects with greater activation for correct responding to old items compared to correct responding to new items during standard recognition testing. Furthermore, the pattern was amplified and reversed by the addition of extrinsic rewards. Finally, activation in ventral striatum tracked individual differences in personality reward seeking measures. Together, the findings further support the idea that a reinforcement learning system contributes to recognition decisionmaking. In the final chapter, I review the main implications arising from the research and suggest future research that could bolster the current results and implications. / Dissertation

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