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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Adaptive techniques for scalable video compression

Mehrseresht, Nagita, Electrical Engineering & communication, UNSW January 2005 (has links)
In this work we investigate adaptive techniques which can be used to improve the performance of highly scalable video compression schemes under resolution scaling. We propose novel content adaptive methods for motion compensated 3D discrete wavelet transformation (MC 3D-DWT) of video. The proposed methods overcome problems of ghosting and non-aligned aliasing artifacts, which can arise in regions of motion model failure, when the video is reconstructed at reduced temporal or spatial resolutions. We also study schemes which facilitate simultaneous scaling of compressed video bitstreams based on both constant bit-rate and constant distortion criteria, using simple and generic scaling operations. In regions where the motion model fails, the motion compensated temporal discrete wavelet transform (MC TDWT) causes ghosting artifacts under frame-rate scaling, due to temporal lowpass filtering along invalid motion trajectories. To avoid ghosting artifacts, we adaptively select between different lowpass filters, based on a local estimate of the motion modelling accuracy. Experimental results indicate that the proposed adaptive transform substantially removes ghosting artifacts while also preserving the high compression efficiency of the original MC TDWT. We also study the impact of various MC 3D-DWT structures on spatial scalability. Investigating the interaction between spatial aliasing, scalability and energy compaction shows that the t+2D structure essentially has higher compression efficiency. However, where the motion model fails, structures of this form cause non-aligned aliasing artifacts under spatial scaling. We propose novel adaptive schemes to continuously adapt the structure of MC 3D-DWT based on information available within the compressed bitstream. Experimental results indicate that the proposed adaptive structure preserves the high compression efficiency of the t+2D structure while also avoiding the appearance of non-aligned aliasing artifacts under spatial scaling. To provide simultaneous rate and distortion scaling, we study ???layered substream structure. Scaling based on distortion generates variable bit-rate traffic which satisfies the desired average bit-rate and is consistent with the requirements of leaky-bucket traffic models. We propose a novel method which also satisfies constraints on instantaneous bit-rate. This method overcomes the weakness of previous methods with small leaky-bucket buffer sizes. Simulation results indicate promising performance with both MC 3D-DWT interframe and JPEG2000 intraframe compression.
2

Adaptive techniques for scalable video compression

Mehrseresht, Nagita, Electrical Engineering & communication, UNSW January 2005 (has links)
In this work we investigate adaptive techniques which can be used to improve the performance of highly scalable video compression schemes under resolution scaling. We propose novel content adaptive methods for motion compensated 3D discrete wavelet transformation (MC 3D-DWT) of video. The proposed methods overcome problems of ghosting and non-aligned aliasing artifacts, which can arise in regions of motion model failure, when the video is reconstructed at reduced temporal or spatial resolutions. We also study schemes which facilitate simultaneous scaling of compressed video bitstreams based on both constant bit-rate and constant distortion criteria, using simple and generic scaling operations. In regions where the motion model fails, the motion compensated temporal discrete wavelet transform (MC TDWT) causes ghosting artifacts under frame-rate scaling, due to temporal lowpass filtering along invalid motion trajectories. To avoid ghosting artifacts, we adaptively select between different lowpass filters, based on a local estimate of the motion modelling accuracy. Experimental results indicate that the proposed adaptive transform substantially removes ghosting artifacts while also preserving the high compression efficiency of the original MC TDWT. We also study the impact of various MC 3D-DWT structures on spatial scalability. Investigating the interaction between spatial aliasing, scalability and energy compaction shows that the t+2D structure essentially has higher compression efficiency. However, where the motion model fails, structures of this form cause non-aligned aliasing artifacts under spatial scaling. We propose novel adaptive schemes to continuously adapt the structure of MC 3D-DWT based on information available within the compressed bitstream. Experimental results indicate that the proposed adaptive structure preserves the high compression efficiency of the t+2D structure while also avoiding the appearance of non-aligned aliasing artifacts under spatial scaling. To provide simultaneous rate and distortion scaling, we study ???layered substream structure. Scaling based on distortion generates variable bit-rate traffic which satisfies the desired average bit-rate and is consistent with the requirements of leaky-bucket traffic models. We propose a novel method which also satisfies constraints on instantaneous bit-rate. This method overcomes the weakness of previous methods with small leaky-bucket buffer sizes. Simulation results indicate promising performance with both MC 3D-DWT interframe and JPEG2000 intraframe compression.
3

Adaptive Error Control Schemes for Scalable Video Transmission over Wireless Internet

Lee, Chen-Wei 22 July 2008 (has links)
Based on the fast evolution of wireless networks and multimedia compression technologies in recent years, real-time multimedia transmission over wireless networks will be the next step for the implementation of contemporary communication system. Lower bandwidth and higher loss rate make wireless networks hard to transmit multimedia content than its wired counterpart. In addition, the common delay constraint from real-time multimedia transmission raises the challenges for the design of wireless communication system. This dissertation proposes an adaptive unequal error protection (UEP) and packet size assignment scheme for scalable video transmission over a burst error channel. An analytic model is developed to evaluate the impact of channel bit-error-rate on the quality of streaming scalable video. A video transmission scheme, which combines the adaptive assignment of packet size with unequal error protection to increase the end-to-end video quality is proposed. Several distinct scalable video transmission schemes over burst-error channel have been compared, and the simulation results reveal that the proposed transmission schemes can react to varying channel conditions with less and smoother quality degradation. Furthermore, in order to meet the real time need in many video transmission applications, this dissertation has proposed low time-complexity packet size assignment schemes. Meanwhile, from the test result, it can be seen that although this method has sacrificed a little bit video quality as compared to optimized method, yet it can adapt to all kinds of network situations and display smoother quality and performance. Moreover, as compared to optimized method, this strategy greatly reduces the calculation time-complexity.
4

On Causal Video Coding with Possible Loss of the First Encoded Frame

Eslamifar, Mahshad January 2013 (has links)
Multiple Description Coding (MDC) was fi rst formulated by A. Gersho and H. Witsenhausen as a way to improve the robustness of telephony links to outages. Lots of studies have been done in this area up to now. Another application of MDC is the transmission of an image in diff erent descriptions. If because of the link outage during transmission, any one of the descriptions fails, the image could still be reconstructed with some quality at the decoder side. In video coding, inter prediction is a way to reduce temporal redundancy. From an information theoretical point of view, one can model inter prediction with Causal Video Coding (CVC). If because of link outage, we lose any I-frame, how can we reconstruct the corresponding P- or B-frames at the decoder? In this thesis, we are interested in answering this question and we call this scenario as causal video coding with possible loss of the fi rst encoded frame and we denote it by CVC-PL as PL stands for possible loss. In this thesis for the fi rst time, CVC-PL is investigated. Although, due to lack of time, we mostly study two-frame CVC-PL, we extend the problem to M-frame CVC-PL as well. To provide more insight into two-frame CVC-PL, we derive an outer-bound to the achievable rate-distortion sets to show that CVC-PL is a subset of the region combining CVC and peer-to-peer coding. In addition, we propose and prove a new achievable region to highlight the fact that two-frame CVC-PL could be viewed as MDC followed by CVC. Afterwards, we present the main theorem of this thesis, which is the minimum total rate of CVC-PL with two jointly Gaussian distributed sources, i.e. X1 and X2 with normalized correlation coeffi cient r, for di fferent distortion pro files (D1,D2,D3). Defi ning Dr = r^2(D1 -1) + 1, we show that for small D3, i.e. D3 < Dr +D2 -1, CVC-PL could be treated as CVC with two jointly Gaussian distributed sources; for large D3, i.e. D3 > DrD2/(Dr+D2-DrD2), CVC-PL could be treated as two parallel peer-to-peer networks with distortion constraints D1 and D2; and for the other cases of D3, the minimum total rate is 0.5 log (1+ ??)(D3+??)/ (Dr+?? )(D2+?? ) + 0.5 log Dr/(D1D3) where ??=D3-DrD2+r[(1-D1)(1-D2)(D3-Dr)(D3-D2)]^0.5/[Dr+D2-(D3+1) ] We also determine the optimal coding scheme which achieves the minimum total rate. We conclude the thesis by comparing the scenario of CVC-PL with two frames with a coding scheme, in which both of the sources are available at the encoders, i.e. distributed source coding versus centralized source coding. We show that for small D2 or large D3, the distributed source coding can perform as good as the centralized source coding. Finally, we talk about future work and extend and formulate the problem for M sources.
5

Scalable video coding sobre TCP

Sanhueza Gutiérrez, Andrés Edgardo January 2015 (has links)
Ingeniero Civil Eléctrico / En tiempos modernos la envergadura del contenido multimedia avanza más rápido que el desarrollo de las tecnologías necesarias para su correcta difusión a través de la red. Es por esto que se hacen necesarios nuevos protocolos que sirvan como puente entre ambas entidades para así obtener un máximo de provecho del contenido a pesar de que la tecnología para distribuirlos aún no sea la adecuada. Es así, que dentro de las últimas tecnologías de compresión de video se encuentra Scalable Video Coding (SVC), la cual tiene por objetivo codi car distintas calidades en un único bitstream capaz de mostrar cualquiera de las calidades embebidas en éste según se reciba o no toda la información. En el caso de una conexión del tipo streaming, en donde es necesaria una uidez y delidad en ambos extremos, la tecnología SVC tiene un potencial muy grande respecto de descartar un mínimo de información para privilegiar la uidez de la transmisión. El software utilizado para la creación y manipulación de estos bitstreams SVC es Joint Scalable Video Model (JSVM). En este contexto, se desarrolla el algoritmo de deadline en Matlab, que omite informaci ón del video SVC de acuerdo a qué tan crítico sea el escenario de transmisión. En este escenario se considera la percepción de uidez del usuario como medida clave, por lo cual se prioriza mantener siempre una tasa de 30 fps a costa de una pérdida de calidad mínima. El algoritmo, omite información de acuerdo a qué tan lejos se esté de este deadline de 30 fps, si se está muy lejos, se omite información poco relevante, y si se está muy cerca, información más importante. Los resultados se contrastan con TCP y se evalúan para distintos valores de RTTs, cumpliendo totalmente el objetivo para valores menores a 150 ms que resultan en diferencias de hasta 20 s a favor del algoritmo de deadline al término de la transmisión. Esta mejora en tiempo de arribo no descarta información esencial y sólo degrada ligeramente la calidad del video en pos de mantener la tasa de 30fps. Por el contrario, en escenarios muy adversos de 300 ms en RTT, las omisiones son de gran envergadura y comprometen frames completos, en conjunto con una degradación generalizada del video y la aparición de artefactos en éste. Por tanto la propuesta cumple los objetivos en ambientes no muy adversos. Para toda la simulación se uso un video en movimiento de 352x288 y 150 frames de largo.
6

Analyse de Performance des Services de Vidéo Streaming Adaptatif dans les Réseaux Mobiles / Performance Analysis of HTTP Adaptive Video Streaming Services in Mobile Networks

Ye, Zakaria 02 May 2017 (has links)
Le trafic vidéo a subi une augmentation fulgurante sur Internet ces dernières années. Pour pallier à cette importante demande de contenu vidéo, la technologie du streaming adaptatif sur HTTP est utilisée. Elle est devenue par ailleurs très populaire car elle a été adoptée par les différents acteurs du domaine de la vidéo streaming. C’est une technologie moins couteuse qui permet aux fournisseurs de contenu, la réutilisation des serveurs web et des caches déjà déployés. En plus, elle est exempt de tout blocage car elle traverse facilement les pare-feux et les translations d’adresses sur Internet. Dans cette thèse, nous proposons une nouvelle méthode de vidéo streaming adaptatif appelé “Backward-Shifted Coding (BSC)”. Il se veut être une solution complémentaire au standard DASH, le streaming adaptatif et dynamique utilisant le protocole HTTP. Nous allons d’abord décrire ce qu’est la technologie BSC qui se base sur le codec (encodeur décodeur) à multi couches SVC, un algorithme de compression extensible ou évolutif. Nous détaillons aussi l’implémentation de BSC dans un environnement DASH. Ensuite,nous réalisons une évaluation analytique de BSC en utilisant des résultats standards de la théorie des files d’attente. Les résultats de cette analyse mathématique montrent que le protocole BSC permet de réduire considérablement le risque d’interruption de la vidéo pendant la lecture, ce dernier étant très pénalisant pour les utilisateurs. Ces résultats vont nous permettre de concevoir des algorithmes d’adaptation de qualité à la bande passante en vue d’améliorer l’expérience utilisateur. Ces algorithmes permettent d’améliorer la qualité de la vidéo même étant dans un environnement où le débit utilisateur est très instable.La dernière étape de la thèse consiste à la conception de stratégies de caching pour optimiser la transmission de contenu vidéo utilisant le codec SVC. En effet, dans le réseau, des serveurs de cache sont déployés dans le but de rapprocher le contenu vidéo auprès des utilisateurs pour réduire les délais de transmission et améliorer la qualité de la vidéo. Nous utilisons la programmation linéaire pour obtenir la solution optimale de caching afin de le comparer avec nos algorithmes proposés. Nous montrons que ces algorithmes augmentent la performance du système tout en permettant de décharger les liens de transmission du réseau cœur. / Due to the growth of video traffic over the Internet in recent years, HTTP AdaptiveStreaming (HAS) solution becomes the most popular streaming technology because ithas been succesfully adopted by the different actors in Internet video ecosystem. Itallows the service providers to use traditional stateless web servers and mobile edgecaches for streaming videos. Further, it allows users to access media content frombehind Firewalls and NATs.In this thesis we focus on the design of a novel video streaming delivery solutioncalled Backward-Shifted Coding (BSC), a complementary solution to Dynamic AdaptiveStreaming over HTTP (DASH), the standard version of HAS. We first describe theBackward-Shifted Coding scheme architecture based on the multi-layer Scalable VideoCoding (SVC). We also discuss the implementation of BSC protocol in DASH environment.Then, we perform the analytical evaluation of the Backward-Sihifted Codingusing results from queueing theory. The analytical results show that BSC considerablydecreases the video playback interruption which is the worst event that users can experienceduring the video session. Therefore, we design bitrate adaptation algorithms inorder to enhance the Quality of Experience (QoE) of the users in DASH/BSC system.The results of the proposed adaptation algorithms show that the flexibility of BSC allowsus to improve both the video quality and the variations of the quality during thestreaming session.Finally, we propose new caching policies to be used with video contents encodedusing SVC. Indeed, in DASH/BSC system, cache servers are deployed to make contentsclosed to the users in order to reduce network latency and improve user-perceived experience.We use Linear Programming to obtain optimal static cache composition tocompare with the results of our proposed algorithms. We show that these algorithmsincrease the system overall hit ratio and offload the backhaul links by decreasing thefetched content from the origin web servers.
7

Cross Layer Design for Video Streaming over 4G Networks Using SVC

Radhakrishna, Rakesh 19 March 2012 (has links)
Fourth Generation (4G) cellular technology Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Long Term Evolution (LTE) offers high data rate capabilities to mobile users; and, operators are trying to deliver a true mobile broadband experience over LTE networks. Mobile TV and Video on Demand (VoD) are expected to be the main revenue generators in the near future [36] and efficient video streaming over wireless is the key to enabling this. 3GPP recommends the use of H.264 baseline profiles for all video based services in Third Generation (3G) Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) networks. However, LTE networks need to support mobile devices with different display resolution requirements like small resolution mobile phones and high resolution laptops. Scalable Video Coding (SVC) is required to achieve this goal. Feasibility study of SVC for LTE is one of the main agenda of 3GPP Release10. SVC enhances H.264 with a set of new profiles and encoding tools that may be used to produce scalable bit streams. Efficient adaptation methods for SVC video transmission over LTE networks are proposed in this thesis. Advantages of SVC over H.264 are analyzed using real time use cases of mobile video streaming. Further, we study the cross layer adaptation and scheduling schemes for delivering SVC video streams most efficiently to the users in LTE networks in unicast and multicast transmissions. We propose SVC based video streaming scheme for unicast and multicast transmissions in the downlink direction, with dynamic adaptations and a scheduling scheme based on channel quality information from users. Simulation results indicate improved video quality for more number of users in the coverage area and efficient spectrum usage with the proposed methods.
8

Adaptive video transmission over wireless channels with optimized quality of experiences

Chen, Chao, active 2013 18 February 2014 (has links)
Video traffic is growing rapidly in wireless networks. Different from ordinary data traffic, video streams have higher data rates and tighter delay constraints. The ever-varying throughput of wireless links, however, cannot support continuous video playback if the video data rate is kept at a high level. To this end, adaptive video transmission techniques are employed to reduce the risk of playback interruptions by dynamically matching the video data rate to the varying channel throughput. In this dissertation, I develop new models to capture viewers' quality of experience (QoE) and design adaptive transmission algorithms to optimize the QoE. The contributions of this dissertation are threefold. First, I develop a new model for the viewers' QoE in rate-switching systems in which the video source rate is adapted every several seconds. The model is developed to predict an important aspect of QoE, the time-varying subjective quality (TVSQ), i.e., the up-to-the-moment subjective quality of a video as it is played. I first build a video database of rate-switching videos and measure TVSQs via a subjective study. Then, I parameterize and validate the TVSQ model using the measured TVSQs. Finally, based on the TVSQ model, I design an adaptive rate-switching algorithm that optimizes the time-averaged TVSQs of wireless video users. Second, I propose an adaptive video transmission algorithm to optimize the Overall Quality (OQ) of rate-switching videos, i.e., the viewers' judgement on the quality of the whole video. Through the subjective study, I find that the OQ is strongly correlated with the empirical cumulative distribution function (eCDF) of the video quality perceived by viewers. Based on this observation, I develop an adaptive video transmission algorithm that maximizes the number of video users who satisfy given constraints on the eCDF of perceived video qualities. Third, I propose an adaptive transmission algorithm for scalable videos. Different from the rate-switching systems, scalable videos support rate adaptation for each video frame. The proposed adaptive transmission algorithm maximizes the time-averaged video quality while maintaining continuous video playback. When the channel throughput is high, the algorithm increases the video data rate to improve video quality. Otherwise, the algorithm decreases the video data rate to buffer more videos and to reduce the risk of playback interruption. Simulation results show that the performance of the proposed algorithm is close to a performance upper bound. / text
9

Cross Layer Design for Video Streaming over 4G Networks Using SVC

Radhakrishna, Rakesh 19 March 2012 (has links)
Fourth Generation (4G) cellular technology Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Long Term Evolution (LTE) offers high data rate capabilities to mobile users; and, operators are trying to deliver a true mobile broadband experience over LTE networks. Mobile TV and Video on Demand (VoD) are expected to be the main revenue generators in the near future [36] and efficient video streaming over wireless is the key to enabling this. 3GPP recommends the use of H.264 baseline profiles for all video based services in Third Generation (3G) Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) networks. However, LTE networks need to support mobile devices with different display resolution requirements like small resolution mobile phones and high resolution laptops. Scalable Video Coding (SVC) is required to achieve this goal. Feasibility study of SVC for LTE is one of the main agenda of 3GPP Release10. SVC enhances H.264 with a set of new profiles and encoding tools that may be used to produce scalable bit streams. Efficient adaptation methods for SVC video transmission over LTE networks are proposed in this thesis. Advantages of SVC over H.264 are analyzed using real time use cases of mobile video streaming. Further, we study the cross layer adaptation and scheduling schemes for delivering SVC video streams most efficiently to the users in LTE networks in unicast and multicast transmissions. We propose SVC based video streaming scheme for unicast and multicast transmissions in the downlink direction, with dynamic adaptations and a scheduling scheme based on channel quality information from users. Simulation results indicate improved video quality for more number of users in the coverage area and efficient spectrum usage with the proposed methods.
10

A New Service Architecture For Iptv Over Internet

Ozkardes, Merve 01 January 2013 (has links) (PDF)
Multimedia applications over the Internet and Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) gain a lot of attention. IPTV has a number of service requirements such as / high bandwidth, scalability, minimum delay, jitter and channel switch time. IP multicast, IMS (IP Multimedia System) Protocol and peer-to-peer approaches are proposed for implementing IPTV. However, IP multicast requires all the routers in the core network to possess multicast capability, IMS does not easily scale and P2P cannot eciently utilize the network resources because of its completely distributed nature. To this end, we propose new application layer multicast protocol Cluster Based Application Layer Multicast IPTV (CALMTV) which combines application layer multicast, scalable video coding and probing techniques to meet IPTV requirements. We present the components and their relevant algorithms and evaluate the performance of CALMTV with ns2 simulations. Our results compared with the published results of other IPTV architectures show that CALMTV has better performance in end-to-end delay and zapping time.

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