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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
31

Modelo experimental de urolitíase em ovinos: estudo clinico, laboratorial e hemogasométrico

Ferreira, Danilo Otávio Laurenti [UNESP] 28 June 2013 (has links) (PDF)
Made available in DSpace on 2014-06-11T19:31:11Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 0 Previous issue date: 2013-06-28Bitstream added on 2014-06-13T20:27:21Z : No. of bitstreams: 1 ferreira_dol_dr_botfmvz.pdf: 1985035 bytes, checksum: c151af561f19d11ca3e9b4868aeff6d6 (MD5) / A urolitíase obstrutiva apresenta elevada incidência em ovinos, principalmente nos animais confinados, e sua etiologia é multifatorial. Estudos relativos à litogênese, diagnóstico, tratamento e prevenção são necessários e tem aplicabilidade direta na produção intensiva de cordeiros. O objetivo geral deste trabalho foi desenvolver um modelo experimental para estudo da urolitíase em ovinos. De modo específico, pretendeu-se testar este modelo por avaliações laboratoriais (urinálise, hemogasometria, dosagem sérica de ureia e creatinina), confirmação do diagnóstico por exame ultrassonográfico e identificação dos tipos de cálculo (análise química). Utilizaram-se 100 ovinos, machos, com idade aproximada de três meses, confinados, divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos: Grupo I (n=40) 400mg/kg/PV de cloreto de amônio/animal/dia por 21 dias consecutivos; Grupo II (n=40) 400mg/kg/PV de cloreto de amônio/animal/dia por 42 dias consecutivos; Grupo III (n=20) controle, não recebeu cloreto de amônio. O cloreto de amônio foi adicionado no cocho junto com a ração total, que era constituída de 85% de concentrado e 15% de feno triturado de Coast-cross. Os Momentos (M) de colheita de amostras e avaliação clínica foram realizados com intervalo de sete dias, sendo M0 (imediatamente antes do início do tratamento com cloreto de amônio), M1 (sete dias após), M2, M3 (suspensão do cloreto de amônio em GI), M4, M5 e M6, totalizando 56 dias de confinamento. Colheram-se amostras de urina e de sangue total de todos os animais, nos diferentes momentos, para urinálise, hemogasometria e dosagem sérica de ureia e creatinina. Procedeu-se avaliação ultrassonográfica dos rins e da bexiga e, o exame físico dos animais em todos os momentos. Recuperaram-se cálculos no post-mortem após o final de experimento, que foram enviados para análise química... / The obstructive urolithiasis has the highest incidence in sheep, especially in confined animals, and its etiology is multifactorial. Studies on lithogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prevention are needed and have direct applicability in intensive production of lambs. The aim of this study was to assemble an experimental model for the study of urolithiasis in sheep. Specifically, it was intended to test this model through laboratory evaluations (urinalysis, blood gas analysis, serum urea and creatinine), confirmation of diagnosis by ultrasound examination and identification of the types of calculi (chemical analysis). It was used 100 male feedlot sheep, aged approximately three months, randomly divided into three groups: Group I (n=40) - 400mg/kg/PV of ammonium chloride/animal/day for 21 consecutive days; Group II (n=40) - 400mg/kg/PV of ammonium chloride/animal/day for 42 consecutive days; Group III (n=20) - control, the animals did not receive ammonium chloride. Ammonium chloride was added in the trough along with the total ration , that was constituted by 85% of concentrate and 15 % of Coast-cross's hay triturated. The moments (M) of samples and clinical evaluation were performed with an interval of seven days, M0 (immediately prior to initiation of treatment with ammonium chloride, 15 days of feedlot), M1, M2, M3 (suspension of ammonium chloride in GI, 35 days of feedlot), M4, M5 and M6 (total 56 days of feedlot). Urine and whole blood samples were taken from all animals at different times, for urinalysis, blood gas analysis and serum urea and creatinine dosage. Ultrasound evaluation of the kidneys and bladder, and physical examination of animals were performed at all moments. Calculi were recovered in the post-mortem after the end of the experiment, which were sent for chemical analysis. In urinalysis, GIII did not showed cylinders... (Complete abstract click electronic access below)
32

Modelo experimental de urolitíase em ovinos : estudo clinico, laboratorial e hemogasométrico /

Ferreira, Danilo Otávio Laurenti. January 2013 (has links)
Orientador: Roberto Calderon Gonçalves / Banca: Simone Biagio Chiacchio / Banca: Rogério Martins Amorim / Banca: Luiz Claudio Nogueira Mendes / Banca: Júlio Augusto Naylor Lisboa / Resumo: A urolitíase obstrutiva apresenta elevada incidência em ovinos, principalmente nos animais confinados, e sua etiologia é multifatorial. Estudos relativos à litogênese, diagnóstico, tratamento e prevenção são necessários e tem aplicabilidade direta na produção intensiva de cordeiros. O objetivo geral deste trabalho foi desenvolver um modelo experimental para estudo da urolitíase em ovinos. De modo específico, pretendeu-se testar este modelo por avaliações laboratoriais (urinálise, hemogasometria, dosagem sérica de ureia e creatinina), confirmação do diagnóstico por exame ultrassonográfico e identificação dos tipos de cálculo (análise química). Utilizaram-se 100 ovinos, machos, com idade aproximada de três meses, confinados, divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos: Grupo I (n=40) 400mg/kg/PV de cloreto de amônio/animal/dia por 21 dias consecutivos; Grupo II (n=40) 400mg/kg/PV de cloreto de amônio/animal/dia por 42 dias consecutivos; Grupo III (n=20) controle, não recebeu cloreto de amônio. O cloreto de amônio foi adicionado no cocho junto com a ração total, que era constituída de 85% de concentrado e 15% de feno triturado de Coast-cross. Os Momentos (M) de colheita de amostras e avaliação clínica foram realizados com intervalo de sete dias, sendo M0 (imediatamente antes do início do tratamento com cloreto de amônio), M1 (sete dias após), M2, M3 (suspensão do cloreto de amônio em GI), M4, M5 e M6, totalizando 56 dias de confinamento. Colheram-se amostras de urina e de sangue total de todos os animais, nos diferentes momentos, para urinálise, hemogasometria e dosagem sérica de ureia e creatinina. Procedeu-se avaliação ultrassonográfica dos rins e da bexiga e, o exame físico dos animais em todos os momentos. Recuperaram-se cálculos no post-mortem após o final de experimento, que foram enviados para análise química... (Resumo completo, clicar acesso eletrônico abaixo) / Abstract: The obstructive urolithiasis has the highest incidence in sheep, especially in confined animals, and its etiology is multifactorial. Studies on lithogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prevention are needed and have direct applicability in intensive production of lambs. The aim of this study was to assemble an experimental model for the study of urolithiasis in sheep. Specifically, it was intended to test this model through laboratory evaluations (urinalysis, blood gas analysis, serum urea and creatinine), confirmation of diagnosis by ultrasound examination and identification of the types of calculi (chemical analysis). It was used 100 male feedlot sheep, aged approximately three months, randomly divided into three groups: Group I (n=40) - 400mg/kg/PV of ammonium chloride/animal/day for 21 consecutive days; Group II (n=40) - 400mg/kg/PV of ammonium chloride/animal/day for 42 consecutive days; Group III (n=20) - control, the animals did not receive ammonium chloride. Ammonium chloride was added in the trough along with the total ration , that was constituted by 85% of concentrate and 15 % of Coast-cross's hay triturated. The moments (M) of samples and clinical evaluation were performed with an interval of seven days, M0 (immediately prior to initiation of treatment with ammonium chloride, 15 days of feedlot), M1, M2, M3 (suspension of ammonium chloride in GI, 35 days of feedlot), M4, M5 and M6 (total 56 days of feedlot). Urine and whole blood samples were taken from all animals at different times, for urinalysis, blood gas analysis and serum urea and creatinine dosage. Ultrasound evaluation of the kidneys and bladder, and physical examination of animals were performed at all moments. Calculi were recovered in the post-mortem after the end of the experiment, which were sent for chemical analysis. In urinalysis, GIII did not showed cylinders... (Complete abstract click electronic access below) / Doutor
33

Integrated control of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep using plant extracts. and bicontrol agents.

Ahmed, Mawahib Alhag Ali. 29 November 2013 (has links)
Infection of small ruminants by gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) is a major health concern because they cause substantial economic losses, especially in the tropics and sub-tropics. For many years, control of GIN has been based upon use of anthelmintics. However, there is now a global challange because mutant GIN individuals can tolerate most of the widely used anthelmintics. Therefore, alternative control measures are needed. The objective of the study was to screen a number of plant species for their anthelmintic effects, and to evaluate selected strains of Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) and Clonostachys rosea (Schroers) for activity against sheep GIN. Subsequently, the combined treatments would test a dual control strategy for nematodes by using a combination of plant extracts with biocontrol agents. Ethanol extracts of 25 plant species were screened for their anthelmintic effects against Haemonchus contortus (Rudolphi 1803). Extracts of each plant were used in vitro at various concentrations (10, 20 and 30%) to treat 10 day faecal cultures. Five plants with high efficacies (Ananas comosus L. Merr., Aloe ferox Mill., Allium sativum Linn., Lespedeza cuneata Dum. Cours. and Warburgia salutaris Bertol.f. Chiov) were selected for further investigation, using ethanol, dichloromethane and water extracts at four concentrations (2.5, 5, 10 and 20%). Ethanol was the most effective solvent. Larval counts decreased as a result of increasing extract concentrations. An ethanolic extract of Lespedeza cuneata caused more than 70% mortality at all concentrations. In an in vivo study, the five plants A. comosus, A. ferox, A. sativum, L. cuneata and W. salutaris extracts were compared to a positive Control (Equimax®, a modern anthelmintic based on abamectin and praziquantel). Gender, eggs count (EPG₀) and initial body weights were used in assigning sheep (24 females and 24 males) to six groups. Each group was randomly assigned a treatment. Plant extracts were applied as an oral dose (100 mg kg⁻¹ BW), one dose per week per animal for 42 days (Phase 1). Subsequently, the same sheep were dosed for three consecutive days with the same treatments, keeping them in the same groups (Phase 2). Rectal faecal samples were taken for counting of eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) and L₃ larvae per gram (LPG) in faecal cultures. With application of plant extracts, the EPG count decreased with time (P<0.001), and the impact of the plant extracts increased (P<0.001) with time. Two extracts, from A. comosus and L. cuneata, were the most effective in Phase 1 (58% and 61% reduction of EPG, respectively,), and in Phase 2 (77% and 81% reduction of EPG, respectively). In a study on potential biocontrol agents, two strains of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and one of Clonostachys rosea f. rosea (C. rosea), and compared with a diatomaceous earth (DE) product for their anthelmintic activity in sheep. Bacillus thuringiensis and C. rosea were fed to sheep at a rate of 1g kg⁻¹ BW, and DE was fed at 2% of sheep diet. The biocontrol treatments had no effect on EPG (P>0.05), but reduced GIN larvae per gram (LPG) (P<0.001) in faecal culture. Efficacy varied with time (P<0.001). By Day 7 Bt, C. rosea and DE had caused mortalities of GIN of 75.7, 86.9 and 60.6%, respectively. In addition, the efficacy of feeding 1g kg⁻¹ BW of C. rosea chlamydospores to sheep every day, every second day and every third day was tested. Daily feeding of fungal chlamydospores reduced LPG (a count of 12±1.67 GIN larvae) (P<0.001) more than feeding them the biocontrol agent every second day (39±0.77) or third day (58±1.77). By Day 12, feeding the biocontrol agent to sheep every day, every second day, or every third day caused mortality of GIN larvae of 90, 63 and 49%, respectively. Four dietary levels (treatments) of C. rosea (0.25g (F1), 0.5g (F2), 1g (F3) and control (C) of C. rosea product kg-1 BW) were tested. Treatments were each mixed with a complete diet and fed to sheep once daily for 10 weeks, according to body weights. Increased doses of the biocontrol agent reduced LPG (P<0.001), larval development (LD) (P<0.001), and increased efficacy (P<0.001). On Day 70, F1, F2, F3 and the Control controlled LD by 33.3, 72.3, 89.4 and 2.6%, respectively. Clonostachys rosea was effective in reducing third stage larvae (L₃) on pastures significantly (P<0.001) by Day 63 and Day 70. Ethanolic extracts of A. comosus, A. ferox, A. sativum, L. cuneata and W. salutaris all reduced egg production by GIN parasites of sheep. Feeding sheep cultured chlamydospores of a biocontrol fungus, Clonostachys rosea, reduced counts of nematode larvae in sheep; and 1g C. rosea chlamydospores kg⁻¹ BW daily was enough to reduce nematode infective larvae, therefore reducing the degree of pasture contamination. An initial trial showed that the combination of the two treatments of an A. comosus extract and C. rosea chlamydospores was more effective than either treatment on its own in controlling gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep. A long-term trial is being undertaken currently to confirm this finding. / Thesis (Ph.D.)-University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, 2013.
34

Perfil Hematológico e Bioquímico Sérico de Ovinos Infectados com Nematóides e Medicados com Ivermectina e Closantel / Hematologiy And Serum Biochemical Panel Sheep Infected with Nematodes and Dosed with Ivermectin and Closantel

Costa, Kizzy Millenn de Freitas Mendonça 08 September 2011 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2016-08-15T20:31:01Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 kizzyMFMC_DISSERT.pdf: 774522 bytes, checksum: da3661ec2a393e4af5e31278032e04d2 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2011-09-08 / Despite its known resistance, the sheep are subject to endoparasitoses, which are the main limiting factor for its production worldwide, especially in tropical regions. This study aims to evaluate the changes in parasitic load, serum biochemical and hematological panel, and Famacha scores of mixed-bred sheep naturally infected with nematodes and treated with ivermectin and closantel. The study was conducted at July 2010, in a farm in the municipality of Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil. We selected 41 animals were divided into three groups: group I- control (without treatment), group II- treated with ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg), and Group III- treated with closantel (5 mg/kg). Stool samples were collected on days 0, 7, 14 and 21 after treatment for quantitative analysis (EPG) and qualitative analysis (stool culture), we used samples from days 0, 14 and 21. The first blood sample was given on day 0, the second and third 24 and 72 hours after the first, respectively the fourth and fifth 7 and 14 days after the first of which analyzed the blood count, serum total protein, albumin and globulins, and albumin/globulins ratio. Famacha scores were determined the degree of each animal at all times of sampling. Closantel administration was effective for the reduction of parasite counts, especially Haemonchus contortus, in evaluated sheep. On the other hand, there was parasite resistance to ivermectin. Famacha data showed negative correlation with packed cell volume, leukocytes, hemoglobin, albumin, total protein, globulin and albumin/globulin ratio. The packed cell volume showed a strong and positive correlation with hemoglobin, albumin and total protein. Treatment with ivermectin and closantel were not responsible for considerable changes in hematological and biochemical parameters evaluated. / Apesar de sua conhecida resistência, os ovinos estão sujeitos as endoparasitoses, sendo este o principal fator limitante para a sua produção em todo o mundo, especialmente em regiões tropicais. Este trabalho objetiva avaliar a carga parasitária, o perfil hematológico e bioquímico sérico, e o grau Famacha de ovinos sem padrão racial definido infectados e tratados com ivermectina e closantel. O trabalho foi realizado no mês de julho de 2010, numa propriedade rural no município de Mossoró-RN. Foram selecionados 41 animais, os quais foram divididos em três grupos: grupo I- controle (sem tratamento), grupo II- tratado com ivermectina (0,2 mg/kg) e Grupo III- tratado com closantel (5 mg/kg). As amostras de fezes foram coletadas nos dias 0, 7, 14 e 21, pós-tratamento para análise quantitativa (OPG) e para análise qualitativa (coprocultura), foram utilizadas amostras nos dias 0, 14 e 21. A primeira coleta de sangue se deu no dia 0, a segunda e a terceira 24 e 72 horas após a primeira, respectivamente, a quarta e a quinta 7 e 14 dias após a primeira, dos quais foram analisados o hemograma, os níveis séricos de proteínas totais, albumina e globulinas, e a relação albumina/globulinas. Foi determinado o grau de anemia pelo método Famacha de cada animal em todos os momentos de coleta de amostras. O tratamento com closantel foi eficaz na redução da carga parasitária, principalmente Haemonchus contortus, nos ovinos avaliados. Por outro lado, houve resistência dos parasitas à ivermectina. Os dados de Famacha apresentaram correlação negativa com volume globular, leucócitos, hemoglobina, albumina, proteínas totais, globulinas e relação albumina/globulinas. O volume globular apresentou uma correlação forte e positiva com hemoglobina, albumina e proteínas totais. Os tratamentos com closantel e ivermectina não foram responsáveis por alterações consideráveis nos parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos avaliados.
35

Efeito da fototerapia com doidos superluminosos (890nm) na reparação tendínea: modelo experimental em ovinos. -

Mattos, Luiz Henrique Lima de [UNESP] 11 December 2012 (has links) (PDF)
Made available in DSpace on 2014-06-11T19:23:40Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 0 Previous issue date: 2012-12-11Bitstream added on 2014-06-13T20:50:47Z : No. of bitstreams: 1 mattos_lhl_me_botfmvz.pdf: 829995 bytes, checksum: 73939ace7310759bbb3cd6221db93211 (MD5) / Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) / Este projeto teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos da fototerapia na cicatrização do tendão usando diodos superluminosos fixados em 890nm. Foram induzidas lesões cirúrgicas de 0,2cm de largura x 0,5cm de comprimento, realizadas no segundo terço do Tendão Flexor Digital Superficial de 10 ovelhas saudáveis que foram divididos em dois grupos: grupo tratado com diodos superluminosos com o comprimento de onda acima mencionado e grupo controle, tratado com placebo. A Cinesioterapia foi realizada em ambos os grupos. Os exames ultrassonográficos Modo B e Doppler foram realizados durante os primeiros 14 dias após a cirurgia e, em seguida, nos dias 21 e 28, a fim de avaliar o processo de cicatrização do tendão. A biópsia foi realizada no dia 28 para avaliar a neovascularização e o padrão tendão de fibra no exame histopatológico. Ausência de claudicação e uma melhoria significativa (p < 0,05) na dor após palpação foram observadas no grupo tratado. Além disso, no modo B foi evidenciada uma redução significativa do edema (p < 0,05) nestes animais. Não foi encontrada diferença estatística em relação à evolução da lesão. Houve diferença histológica (p < 0,05) para a neovascularização no grupo tratado. Fototerapia com diodos superluminosos de 890nm minimiza os efeitos do processo inflamatório / This project aimed to evaluate the effects of phototherapy on tendon healing using superluminous diodes set at 890nm. Surgical lesions were induced by 0.2 cm wide x 0.5 cm long, made in the second third of the superficial digital flexor tendon of 10 healthy sheep were divided into two groups: group treated with superluminous diodes with the wavelength mentioned above and control group treated with placebo. The Kinesiotherapy was performed in both groups. The B mode ultrasound examination and Doppler were performed during the first 14 days after surgery and then on days 21 and 28, to evaluate the healing of the tendon. A biopsy was performed on day 28 to evaluate neovascularization and tendon fiber pattern on histopathological examination. No lameness and a significant improvement (p <0.05) in pain after palpation were observed in the treated group. Furthermore, in the mode B was observed a significant reduction in edema (p <0.05) in these animals. No statistical difference was found in relation to the evolution of the lesion. Significant difference was seen (p <0.05) for neovascularization in the treated group. Phototherapy with 890nm superluminous diodes minimizes the effects of the inflammatory process
36

Estudo clínico-citológico em ovinos sadios e portadores de afecções pulmonares de ocorrência natural, utilizando-se o lavado traqueobrônquico como auxílio diagnóstico

Marcondes, Julio Simões [UNESP] 22 February 2007 (has links) (PDF)
Made available in DSpace on 2014-06-11T19:23:44Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 0 Previous issue date: 2007-02-22Bitstream added on 2014-06-13T19:30:12Z : No. of bitstreams: 1 marcondes_js_me_botfmvz.pdf: 567670 bytes, checksum: 1ff58f582a8a4a863c4ee08a32172d9a (MD5) / Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) / Os estudos das secreções traqueobrônquicas são amplamente utilizados nas pesquisas de condições patológicas pulmonares nas diversas espécies animais, inclusive no homem. Os objetivos desta pesquisa foram a viabilização da técnica de colheita de lavado traqueobrônquico na espécie ovina e o estudo da relação clínico-citológica do lavado de ovinos portadores de afecções respiratórias e clinicamente sadios. Foram utilizados neste estudo 19 ovinos sem sintomatologia respiratória e 23 portadores de enfermidade respiratória com sinais clínicos e envolvimento de vias aéreas, divididos nos respectivos grupos. Após o exame físico foi realizado o lavado traqueobrônquico por via nasotraqueal. A colheita do lavado foi feita com a inoculação e aspiração de solução fisiológica estéril. As amostras foram processadas citologicamente através de citocentrifugação e coradas pelos métodos Giemsa, Shorr e Gram. Nos animais sadios notou-se predomínio de macrófagos, seguido por células epiteliais cilíndricas, neutrófilos e linfócitos. No grupo de animais doentes notou-se redução no número de macrófagos e aumento da freqüência cardíaca. Embora não tenha ocorrido diferença estatística significativa entre os grupos avaliados, notou-se tendência ao aumento de neutrófilos nos animais doentes. A técnica estudada mostrou-se eficaz na obtenção de fluidos traqueobrônquicos, por ser de fácil realização por médicos veterinários no campo, pouco dispendiosa, e obter material representativo da região traqueobrônquica. / The studies of the tracheobrochial secretions are very useful in the research of the lung pathological conditions in different animal's species and in humans. The purposes of this research are to enable the collection technique of the tracheobronchial lavage in ovine and the study of the clinical cytology relationship of the lavage in ovines with respiratory disease and clinically healthy. In this study there were used 19 ovines without respiratory symptoms and 23 with respiratory disease with symptoms and airway involvement, separated in respective groups. After physical examination the tracheobronchial lavage was performed by nasotracheal via. The tracheobronchial lavage was performed by injection and aspiration of sterile saline. Cytology of the samples was proceeding by centrifugation and collored by Giemsa, Shorr and Gram methods. In the healthy animals was noted prevalence of macrophages, followed by cylindric epithelial cells, neutrophils and lymphocytes. In the ill animals group there was reduction in the macrophages and higher heart rate. Despite there was no considerable statistic difference between the analyzed groups, a tendency in the increase of the neutrophils number in the ill group was noted. The evaluated technical showed itself to be efficient to obtain tracheobronchial fluid, considering its easy proceeding by veterinarians in the field, no expensive and obtaining representative volume of the samples from the tracheobronchial region.
37

Estudo clínico-citológico em ovinos sadios e portadores de afecções pulmonares de ocorrência natural, utilizando-se o lavado traqueobrônquico como auxílio diagnóstico /

Marcondes, Julio Simões. January 2007 (has links)
Orientador: Roberto Calderon Gonçalves / Banca: Alice Maria Melville Paiva / Banca: Simone Biagio Chiacchio / Resumo: Os estudos das secreções traqueobrônquicas são amplamente utilizados nas pesquisas de condições patológicas pulmonares nas diversas espécies animais, inclusive no homem. Os objetivos desta pesquisa foram a viabilização da técnica de colheita de lavado traqueobrônquico na espécie ovina e o estudo da relação clínico-citológica do lavado de ovinos portadores de afecções respiratórias e clinicamente sadios. Foram utilizados neste estudo 19 ovinos sem sintomatologia respiratória e 23 portadores de enfermidade respiratória com sinais clínicos e envolvimento de vias aéreas, divididos nos respectivos grupos. Após o exame físico foi realizado o lavado traqueobrônquico por via nasotraqueal. A colheita do lavado foi feita com a inoculação e aspiração de solução fisiológica estéril. As amostras foram processadas citologicamente através de citocentrifugação e coradas pelos métodos Giemsa, Shorr e Gram. Nos animais sadios notou-se predomínio de macrófagos, seguido por células epiteliais cilíndricas, neutrófilos e linfócitos. No grupo de animais doentes notou-se redução no número de macrófagos e aumento da freqüência cardíaca. Embora não tenha ocorrido diferença estatística significativa entre os grupos avaliados, notou-se tendência ao aumento de neutrófilos nos animais doentes. A técnica estudada mostrou-se eficaz na obtenção de fluidos traqueobrônquicos, por ser de fácil realização por médicos veterinários no campo, pouco dispendiosa, e obter material representativo da região traqueobrônquica. / Abstract: The studies of the tracheobrochial secretions are very useful in the research of the lung pathological conditions in different animal's species and in humans. The purposes of this research are to enable the collection technique of the tracheobronchial lavage in ovine and the study of the clinical cytology relationship of the lavage in ovines with respiratory disease and clinically healthy. In this study there were used 19 ovines without respiratory symptoms and 23 with respiratory disease with symptoms and airway involvement, separated in respective groups. After physical examination the tracheobronchial lavage was performed by nasotracheal via. The tracheobronchial lavage was performed by injection and aspiration of sterile saline. Cytology of the samples was proceeding by centrifugation and collored by Giemsa, Shorr and Gram methods. In the healthy animals was noted prevalence of macrophages, followed by cylindric epithelial cells, neutrophils and lymphocytes. In the ill animals group there was reduction in the macrophages and higher heart rate. Despite there was no considerable statistic difference between the analyzed groups, a tendency in the increase of the neutrophils number in the ill group was noted. The evaluated technical showed itself to be efficient to obtain tracheobronchial fluid, considering its easy proceeding by veterinarians in the field, no expensive and obtaining representative volume of the samples from the tracheobronchial region. / Mestre
38

Efeito da fototerapia com doidos superluminosos (890nm) na reparação tendínea : modelo experimental em ovinos. -

Mattos, Luiz Henrique Lima de. January 2012 (has links)
Orientador: Ana Liz Garcia Alves / Coorientador: Roberto Calderon Gonçalves / Banca: Monica de Oliveira Orsi Gameiro / Banca: Celso Antonio Rodrigues / Resumo: Este projeto teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos da fototerapia na cicatrização do tendão usando diodos superluminosos fixados em 890nm. Foram induzidas lesões cirúrgicas de 0,2cm de largura x 0,5cm de comprimento, realizadas no segundo terço do Tendão Flexor Digital Superficial de 10 ovelhas saudáveis que foram divididos em dois grupos: grupo tratado com diodos superluminosos com o comprimento de onda acima mencionado e grupo controle, tratado com placebo. A Cinesioterapia foi realizada em ambos os grupos. Os exames ultrassonográficos Modo B e Doppler foram realizados durante os primeiros 14 dias após a cirurgia e, em seguida, nos dias 21 e 28, a fim de avaliar o processo de cicatrização do tendão. A biópsia foi realizada no dia 28 para avaliar a neovascularização e o padrão tendão de fibra no exame histopatológico. Ausência de claudicação e uma melhoria significativa (p < 0,05) na dor após palpação foram observadas no grupo tratado. Além disso, no modo B foi evidenciada uma redução significativa do edema (p < 0,05) nestes animais. Não foi encontrada diferença estatística em relação à evolução da lesão. Houve diferença histológica (p < 0,05) para a neovascularização no grupo tratado. Fototerapia com diodos superluminosos de 890nm minimiza os efeitos do processo inflamatório / Abstract: This project aimed to evaluate the effects of phototherapy on tendon healing using superluminous diodes set at 890nm. Surgical lesions were induced by 0.2 cm wide x 0.5 cm long, made in the second third of the superficial digital flexor tendon of 10 healthy sheep were divided into two groups: group treated with superluminous diodes with the wavelength mentioned above and control group treated with placebo. The Kinesiotherapy was performed in both groups. The B mode ultrasound examination and Doppler were performed during the first 14 days after surgery and then on days 21 and 28, to evaluate the healing of the tendon. A biopsy was performed on day 28 to evaluate neovascularization and tendon fiber pattern on histopathological examination. No lameness and a significant improvement (p <0.05) in pain after palpation were observed in the treated group. Furthermore, in the mode B was observed a significant reduction in edema (p <0.05) in these animals. No statistical difference was found in relation to the evolution of the lesion. Significant difference was seen (p <0.05) for neovascularization in the treated group. Phototherapy with 890nm superluminous diodes minimizes the effects of the inflammatory process / Mestre
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Biological control of gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants, using Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) and Clonostachys rosea (Schroers).

Baloyi, Mahlatse Annabella. January 2011 (has links)
Gastrointestinal nematode parasites cause great losses in the production of small ruminants through reduced productivity and the cost of preventive and curative treatments. Because of the threat of anthelmintic resistance, biological control of sheep nematodes has been identified as an alternative to anthelmintic drugs. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) (Berliner) and Clonostachys rosea (Schroers) have been widely studied as biocontrol agents. B. thuringiensis has been used for the biocontrol of insects and C. rosea has been successfully used as biocontrol agent of Botrytis cinera (De Bary) in plants. B. thuringiensis and C. rosea strains were isolated from soil collected from the Livestock Section at Ukulinga Research Farm, University of KwaZulu Natal, Pietermaritzburg. Twenty-five strains of Bt and 10 strains of C. rosea were successfully isolated. The Bt colonies were identified by their circular, white, flat and undulate character, and the gram-positive and rod-shaped endospores. C. rosea was identified by white colonies on Potato-dextose agar and the characteristic conidiophores, which were branched and showed phialides at the tips. In vitro screening of the isolates was undertaken to select the best isolates. The isolates that caused significantly greater mortality were Bt isolate B2, B10 and B12 and C. rosea isolates P1, P3 and P8. These isolates caused substantial nematode mortality in both faeces and water bioassay. Nematode counts were reduced by 28.5% to 62% and 44% to 69.9% in faecal bioassay for Bt and C. rosea, respectively. In the water bioassay, nematode counts were reduced by 62% to 85% for Bt and by 62.7% to 89.3% for C. rosea. The best inoculum level at which the best isolates were most effective, and the optimum frequency of application were determined. The trial was conducted using bioassays with faeces and water. Inoculum levels of 10(6), 10(8), 10(10), 10(12) spores ml-1 for Bt and 10(6), 10(8) and 10(10) conidia ml-1 for C. rosea was used in the faecal bioassay. The inoculum levels tested in water bioassay were 10(6), 10(8), 10(10) and 10(12) spores ml-1 for Bt and 10(9), 10(10), 10(11), 10(12) conidia ml-1 for C. rosea. In the faecal bioassay, B2 was the most effective Bt isolate at an inoculum level of 10(10) spores ml-1. Isolate P3 was the best C. rosea isolate at 10(8) conidia ml-1. In the water bioassay, Isolate P3 caused a mortality of 85% at inoculum levels of 10(9), 10(10) and 10(11) conidia ml-1. The performance of biological control agents in the field is sometimes inconsistent. Combining different biocontrol agents may be a method of improving their reliability and performance. However, the combination of most of the isolates was antagonistic, with efficacy less than that of either individual biocontrol agent. In particular, Isolate P3 was more effective when used alone than when combined with any other isolates. Therefore, the combination of biocontrol agents does not always result in synergistic interaction. There were some additive interactions between two bacterial isolates, and with one bacterial and fungal combination. The effect of feeding the best of the biocontrol agents, or diatomaceous earth (DE), was evaluated in sheep. Two doses of Bt (1g and 2g kg-1BW) and C. rosea (1g kg-1BW) reduced the numbers of L3 nematode larvae in sheep faeces. The DE product (at 15% of feed) also reduced L3 numbers but it was less effective than either the Bt or the C. rosea products. Nematode counts were reduced by 74.6%, 75.1%, 84.6%, 68.5% and 27.5% for Bt 1g kg-1BW, Bt 2g kg-1BW, C. rosea (1g kg-1 BW), DE and control, respectively. / Thesis (M.Sc.)-University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, 2011.
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Pneumonia and pleurisy in sheep : studies of prevalence, risk factors, vaccine efficacy and economic impact : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

Goodwin-Ray, Kathryn Anne January 2006 (has links)
The objectives of this thesis were to investigate patterns of lamb pneumonia prevalence of a large sample of New Zealand flocks including an investigation of spatial patterns, to evaluate farm-level risk factors for lamb pneumonia, to determine the efficacy of a commercially available vaccine for the disease and to estimate the likely cost of lamb pneumonia and pleurisy for New Zealand sheep farmers. Data were collected by ASURE NZ Ltd. meat inspectors at processing plants in Canterbury, Manawatu and Gisborne between December 2000 and September 2001. All lambs processed at these plants were scored for pneumonia (scores: 0, <10% or ≥10% lung surface area affected) involving 1,899,556 lambs from 1,719 farms. Pneumonia prevalence was evaluated for spatial patterns at farm level and for hierarchical patterns at lamb, mob and farm levels (Chapter 3). The average pneumonia prevalence in Canterbury, Feilding and Gisborne was 34.2%, 19.1% and 21.4% respectively. Odds ratios of lambs slaughtered between March and May were vastly higher than those slaughtered in other months indicating longer growth periods due to pneumonia. Since pneumonia scores were more variable between mobs within a flock than between flocks, it was concluded that pneumonia scores were poor indicators for the flock pneumonia level due to their lack of repeatability. There was no statistically significant spatial autocorrelation in pneumonia prevalence for any region, hence lamb pneumonia appeared to be largely independent of topographical and geo-climatic factors. A questionnaire-based case-control study was conducted investigating farm-level factors from a sample of farms with either high (case) or zero (control) pneumonia prevalence at slaughter (Chapter 4). Significant risk factors for case farms were: (1) shearing lambs on the day of weaning, (2) breeding ewe replacements on-farm (3) number of lambs sold (an indicator of flock size) and (4) increased percentage of lambs sold late in the season (March to May). Significant protective factors included: (1) set stocking lambs after weaning, (2) injecting lambs with Vitamin B12 at the time of tailing, (3) injecting lambs with Vitamin B12 at weaning. In Canterbury, flocks with Romney ewes and other ewes had a higher risk of pneumonia than those with fine wool type ewes (Merinos, Corriedales or Halfbreds). In a clinical trial, 8,364 lambs from seven commercial sheep farms with a history of lamb pneumonia were vaccinated with Ovipast Plus® or placebo by systematic random allocation within mob and farm. An assessment of the extent of pneumonic lesions was conducted at slaughter and lamb growth rate was monitored through the growth period (Chapter 5). The vaccination trial showed no statistically significant effect of Ovipast® vaccination on the extent of lung lesions at slaughter or ADG of lambs from the first treatment until slaughter. No significant differences were found between isolation rates of Pasteurella spp and patho-histological classifications from pneumonic lung samples of placebo and vaccinated lambs. A spreadsheet-based stochastic model was constructed to estimate the cost of lamb pneumonia and pleurisy to New Zealand farmers. The estimate was based on data of the effect of pneumonia on lamb growth rate, distributions of pneumonia severity, prevalence of moderate to severe pneumonia (≥10% lung surface area) and pleurisy prevalence (Chapter 6). The simulated annual average cost of pneumonia was NZ $28.1 million and that of pleurisy NZ $25.1 million. The combined cost of pneumonia and pleurisy to New Zealand farmers had an average of NZ $53.2 million (95% stochastic interval = $32.4-$78.9 million), or US $31.9 million per annum. This would equate to NZ $2.32 per lamb. In comparison, animal health, shearing expenses and feed expenses cost NZ $2.37, $2.62 and $1.85 per lamb, respectively. This research has demonstrated sub-clinical pneumonia to be a widespread disease in the New Zealand sheep farming population while previous research has focussed on case studies of affected farms. The estimated costs of pneumonia and pleurisy to New Zealand farmers ($53.2 million) highlight the financial effects of these diseases and the need for further research. We also found that the commercially available vaccine could neither prevent sub-clinical effects (lamb growth rate) nor clinical manifestations (pneumonic lung lesions) of lamb pneumonia. The case-control study has revealed farm-level factors which, in the absence of effective vaccines, indicated management practices that farmers might perceive as opportunities to control lamb pneumonia. However, it is advisable to evaluate the efficiency of such management changes. Pneumonia is aetiologically complex disease involving the interplay of many environmental, host and pathogen factors. It is also a difficult disease to study in the absence of diagnostic tests in live animals. However, further research should focus on the development of management changes until effective vaccines are available. A starting point for this research would be to evaluate the impact of such management changes in reducing the incidence of lamb pneumonia. More specifically, the roles of stress during crowding of lambs for extended periods warrants further investigation. The development of efficient vaccines requires an analysis of pathogens, especially Pasteurella (Mannheimia) haemolytica and Mycoplasma species, the sources of infection, their strain diversity and transmission dynamics.

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