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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
31

Correlation of endophyte toxins (ergovaline and lolitrem B) with clinical disease : fescue foot and perennial ryegrass staggers

Tor-Agbidye, John 13 August 1993 (has links)
Endophytic fungi (A. coenophialum and A. lolii) which infect grasses produce ergot alkaloids that serve as the grasses' chemical defenses and enhance the vigor of the grass. Turf-type tall fescue with high endophyte levels has been deliberately developed to produce a greener, more vigorous, pest-resistant turf. Consumption of endophyte-infected grass causes various toxicity symptoms in livestock. Cattle in the southeastern and midwestern United States, where tall fescue is grown on 14 million hectares, often develop signs of toxicosis during summer months from grazing plants in fected by A. coenophialum. A more severe form of the disease, fescue foot, has been associated with cold environment and reported in late fall and winter months not only in the southeastern United States but also in the northwest United States. In New Zealand, where perennial ryegrass is grown on 7 million hectares of pasture, sheep often develop a condition called ryegrass staggers from grazing plants infected by A. lolii. New Zealand reports economic losses grazing plants infected by A. lolii. New Zealand reports economic losses associated with the sheep industry of $205 million per year. In the United States, economic losses associated with the beef cattle industry alone is estimated at $600 million per year. Range finding experiments and case studies of fescue foot and perennial ryegrass staggers (PRGS) were conducted on cattle and sheep under grazing and barn conditions. The main objective was to determine threshold levels of the endophyte toxins, ergovaline (EV) (appendix 1) and lolitrem B (appendix 2), associated with the diseases of fescue foot and PRGS respectively. Fescue foot was experimentally induced in cattle under barn studies in the spring with 825 ppb ergovaline. The ergovaline contaminated feed was given for a period of 42 days. Similar barn studies in sheep in spring to early summer did not produce clinical fescue foot with up to 1215 ppb. Field studies of natural fescue foot in a herd of sheep were conducted, (ie 540 ppb) values of ergovaline in the feed, but clinical disease was not produced in late fall through winter. A case study from a herd of sheep revealed 813 ppb dietary ergovaline had produced fescue foot in the months of fall (November). Fields of perennial ryegrass (PRG) where sheep received 2,135 ppb lolitrem B toxin were associated with clinical cases of PRGS in 42 sheep of 237 sheep (18 percent incidence rate) in the Willamette Valley of Oregon. Three months later, sheep on this same field which then had 1,465 ppb lolitrem B, did not have PRGS. These were the first range finding experiments undertaken in this locale to document threshold levels of endophyte toxins associated with fescue foot and PRGS. / Graduation date: 1994
32

Ruminant brucellosis in Egypt : frequency, distribution and potential control strategies

Hegazy, Yamen Mohammed January 2010 (has links)
No description available.
33

Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep : studies on epidemiology, food hygiene and vaccination /

Lundén, Anna, January 1900 (has links)
Diss. (sammanfattning) Uppsala : Sveriges lantbruksuniv. / Härtill 6 uppsatser.
34

Modelo experimental de urolitíase em ovinos: estudo clinico, laboratorial e hemogasométrico

Ferreira, Danilo Otávio Laurenti [UNESP] 28 June 2013 (has links) (PDF)
Made available in DSpace on 2014-06-11T19:31:11Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 0 Previous issue date: 2013-06-28Bitstream added on 2014-06-13T20:27:21Z : No. of bitstreams: 1 ferreira_dol_dr_botfmvz.pdf: 1985035 bytes, checksum: c151af561f19d11ca3e9b4868aeff6d6 (MD5) / A urolitíase obstrutiva apresenta elevada incidência em ovinos, principalmente nos animais confinados, e sua etiologia é multifatorial. Estudos relativos à litogênese, diagnóstico, tratamento e prevenção são necessários e tem aplicabilidade direta na produção intensiva de cordeiros. O objetivo geral deste trabalho foi desenvolver um modelo experimental para estudo da urolitíase em ovinos. De modo específico, pretendeu-se testar este modelo por avaliações laboratoriais (urinálise, hemogasometria, dosagem sérica de ureia e creatinina), confirmação do diagnóstico por exame ultrassonográfico e identificação dos tipos de cálculo (análise química). Utilizaram-se 100 ovinos, machos, com idade aproximada de três meses, confinados, divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos: Grupo I (n=40) 400mg/kg/PV de cloreto de amônio/animal/dia por 21 dias consecutivos; Grupo II (n=40) 400mg/kg/PV de cloreto de amônio/animal/dia por 42 dias consecutivos; Grupo III (n=20) controle, não recebeu cloreto de amônio. O cloreto de amônio foi adicionado no cocho junto com a ração total, que era constituída de 85% de concentrado e 15% de feno triturado de Coast-cross. Os Momentos (M) de colheita de amostras e avaliação clínica foram realizados com intervalo de sete dias, sendo M0 (imediatamente antes do início do tratamento com cloreto de amônio), M1 (sete dias após), M2, M3 (suspensão do cloreto de amônio em GI), M4, M5 e M6, totalizando 56 dias de confinamento. Colheram-se amostras de urina e de sangue total de todos os animais, nos diferentes momentos, para urinálise, hemogasometria e dosagem sérica de ureia e creatinina. Procedeu-se avaliação ultrassonográfica dos rins e da bexiga e, o exame físico dos animais em todos os momentos. Recuperaram-se cálculos no post-mortem após o final de experimento, que foram enviados para análise química... / The obstructive urolithiasis has the highest incidence in sheep, especially in confined animals, and its etiology is multifactorial. Studies on lithogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prevention are needed and have direct applicability in intensive production of lambs. The aim of this study was to assemble an experimental model for the study of urolithiasis in sheep. Specifically, it was intended to test this model through laboratory evaluations (urinalysis, blood gas analysis, serum urea and creatinine), confirmation of diagnosis by ultrasound examination and identification of the types of calculi (chemical analysis). It was used 100 male feedlot sheep, aged approximately three months, randomly divided into three groups: Group I (n=40) - 400mg/kg/PV of ammonium chloride/animal/day for 21 consecutive days; Group II (n=40) - 400mg/kg/PV of ammonium chloride/animal/day for 42 consecutive days; Group III (n=20) - control, the animals did not receive ammonium chloride. Ammonium chloride was added in the trough along with the total ration , that was constituted by 85% of concentrate and 15 % of Coast-cross's hay triturated. The moments (M) of samples and clinical evaluation were performed with an interval of seven days, M0 (immediately prior to initiation of treatment with ammonium chloride, 15 days of feedlot), M1, M2, M3 (suspension of ammonium chloride in GI, 35 days of feedlot), M4, M5 and M6 (total 56 days of feedlot). Urine and whole blood samples were taken from all animals at different times, for urinalysis, blood gas analysis and serum urea and creatinine dosage. Ultrasound evaluation of the kidneys and bladder, and physical examination of animals were performed at all moments. Calculi were recovered in the post-mortem after the end of the experiment, which were sent for chemical analysis. In urinalysis, GIII did not showed cylinders... (Complete abstract click electronic access below)
35

Comparação de técnicas no diagnóstico da infecção leptospírica em ovinos e implicações na saúde pública

Fornazari, Felipe [UNESP] 27 February 2012 (has links) (PDF)
Made available in DSpace on 2014-06-11T19:29:31Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 0 Previous issue date: 2012-02-27Bitstream added on 2014-06-13T20:59:41Z : No. of bitstreams: 1 fornazari_f_me_botfmvz.pdf: 2852612 bytes, checksum: e40a8e5e7c4376ca3afa50ffbb940c4c (MD5) / Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) / A leptospirose é uma enfermidade infecto-contagiosa, de caráter zoonótico, que possui grande importância mundial. É causada por diversas espécies de bactérias patogênicas do gênero Leptospira, ocorrendo com maior frequência em regiões tropicais com condições sanitárias precárias. A infecção ocorre pelo contato direto ou indireto com a urina de animais infectados, e pode variar de assintomática até quadros clínicos graves que causam a morte. A leptospirose em ovinos é responsável por queda na produção animal, e por riscos para a saúde pública. O desenvolvimento de técnicas de diagnóstico permite identificar animais doentes, auxiliando no tratamento precoce, controle de reservatórios, e na prevenção da enfermidade. O presente estudo teve como objetivo principal comparar diferentes técnicas de diagnóstico na leptospirose em ovinos. Amostras de rim, fígado e sangue foram coletadas de 465 animais provenientes de um abatedouro. O soro foi submetido à Soroaglutinação Microscópica (SAM), e as amostras de rim e fígado dos animais soropositivos foram individualmente analisadas por quatro técnicas: cultivo bacteriano, técnica de Warthin Starry (WS), PCR convencional (PCR) e PCR quantitativa (qPCR). Amostras teciduais de 15 ovinos soronegativos, escolhidos aleatoriamente, foram utilizadas como controles negativos. No exame sorológico 21 animais foram positivos (4,5%) para os sorovares Hardjo (n=12), Hebdomadis (n=5), Sentot (n=2), Wolfii (n=1) e Shermani (n=1). Os títulos apresentados foram 100 (n=10), 200 (n=2), 400 (n=6) e 1600 (n=3). No cultivo bacteriano nenhum animal apresentou resultado positivo; na técnica de WS quatro animais foram positivos em amostras de rim, e nenhum de fígado; na PCR seis animais foram positivos em amostras de rim, e nenhum de fígado; e na qPCR 11 animais foram positivos, 8 em amostras... / Leptospirosis is an infectious disease, of zoonotic character, which has great importance worldwide. It is caused by several species of pathogenic bacteria of Leptospira genera, occurring more frequently in tropical regions with poor sanitary conditions. The infection occurs by direct or indirect contact with urine of infected animals, and can vary from asymptomatic to severe clinical pictures that lead to death. Leptospirosis in sheep is responsible for decrease in animal production, and for risks in public health. The development of diagnostic techniques allows to identifying sick animals, assisting in early treatment, reservoirs control, and disease prevention. The present study had as main objective to compare different techniques of leptospirosis diagnostic in sheep. Samples of kidney, liver and blood were collected from 465 animals originated from a slaughterhouse. The sera were submitted to Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT), and kidney and liver samples of seropositive animals were individually analyzed by four techniques: bacteriological culture, Warthin Starry (WS) technique, conventional PCR (PCR), and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Tissue samples from 15 seronegative sheep, chosen randomly, were used as negative controls. In serologic exam 21 animals were positive (4.5%) to serovars Hardjo (n=12), Hebdomadis (n=5), Sentot (n=2), Wolfii (n=1) and Shermani (n=1). The titers presented were 100 (n=10), 200 (n=2), 400 (n=6) and 1600 (n=3). In bacteriologic culture no animal presented positive result; in WS technique four animals were positive in kidney samples, and none in liver; in PCR six animals were positive in kidney samples, and none in liver; and in qPCR 11 animals were positive, 8 in kidney samples and three in liver samples. The bacterial quantification resulting from qPCR revealed median of 4.32 bacteria/μL in liver... (Complete abstract click electronic access below)
36

Comparação de técnicas no diagnóstico da infecção leptospírica em ovinos e implicações na saúde pública /

Fornazari, Felipe. January 2012 (has links)
Orientador: Helio Langoni / Banca: Jane Megid / Banca: Márcia Marinho / Resumo: A leptospirose é uma enfermidade infecto-contagiosa, de caráter zoonótico, que possui grande importância mundial. É causada por diversas espécies de bactérias patogênicas do gênero Leptospira, ocorrendo com maior frequência em regiões tropicais com condições sanitárias precárias. A infecção ocorre pelo contato direto ou indireto com a urina de animais infectados, e pode variar de assintomática até quadros clínicos graves que causam a morte. A leptospirose em ovinos é responsável por queda na produção animal, e por riscos para a saúde pública. O desenvolvimento de técnicas de diagnóstico permite identificar animais doentes, auxiliando no tratamento precoce, controle de reservatórios, e na prevenção da enfermidade. O presente estudo teve como objetivo principal comparar diferentes técnicas de diagnóstico na leptospirose em ovinos. Amostras de rim, fígado e sangue foram coletadas de 465 animais provenientes de um abatedouro. O soro foi submetido à Soroaglutinação Microscópica (SAM), e as amostras de rim e fígado dos animais soropositivos foram individualmente analisadas por quatro técnicas: cultivo bacteriano, técnica de Warthin Starry (WS), PCR convencional (PCR) e PCR quantitativa (qPCR). Amostras teciduais de 15 ovinos soronegativos, escolhidos aleatoriamente, foram utilizadas como controles negativos. No exame sorológico 21 animais foram positivos (4,5%) para os sorovares Hardjo (n=12), Hebdomadis (n=5), Sentot (n=2), Wolfii (n=1) e Shermani (n=1). Os títulos apresentados foram 100 (n=10), 200 (n=2), 400 (n=6) e 1600 (n=3). No cultivo bacteriano nenhum animal apresentou resultado positivo; na técnica de WS quatro animais foram positivos em amostras de rim, e nenhum de fígado; na PCR seis animais foram positivos em amostras de rim, e nenhum de fígado; e na qPCR 11 animais foram positivos, 8 em amostras... (Resumo completo, clicar acesso eletrônico abaixo) / Abstract: Leptospirosis is an infectious disease, of zoonotic character, which has great importance worldwide. It is caused by several species of pathogenic bacteria of Leptospira genera, occurring more frequently in tropical regions with poor sanitary conditions. The infection occurs by direct or indirect contact with urine of infected animals, and can vary from asymptomatic to severe clinical pictures that lead to death. Leptospirosis in sheep is responsible for decrease in animal production, and for risks in public health. The development of diagnostic techniques allows to identifying sick animals, assisting in early treatment, reservoirs control, and disease prevention. The present study had as main objective to compare different techniques of leptospirosis diagnostic in sheep. Samples of kidney, liver and blood were collected from 465 animals originated from a slaughterhouse. The sera were submitted to Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT), and kidney and liver samples of seropositive animals were individually analyzed by four techniques: bacteriological culture, Warthin Starry (WS) technique, conventional PCR (PCR), and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Tissue samples from 15 seronegative sheep, chosen randomly, were used as negative controls. In serologic exam 21 animals were positive (4.5%) to serovars Hardjo (n=12), Hebdomadis (n=5), Sentot (n=2), Wolfii (n=1) and Shermani (n=1). The titers presented were 100 (n=10), 200 (n=2), 400 (n=6) and 1600 (n=3). In bacteriologic culture no animal presented positive result; in WS technique four animals were positive in kidney samples, and none in liver; in PCR six animals were positive in kidney samples, and none in liver; and in qPCR 11 animals were positive, 8 in kidney samples and three in liver samples. The bacterial quantification resulting from qPCR revealed median of 4.32 bacteria/μL in liver... (Complete abstract click electronic access below) / Mestre
37

Modelo experimental de urolitíase em ovinos : estudo clinico, laboratorial e hemogasométrico /

Ferreira, Danilo Otávio Laurenti. January 2013 (has links)
Orientador: Roberto Calderon Gonçalves / Banca: Simone Biagio Chiacchio / Banca: Rogério Martins Amorim / Banca: Luiz Claudio Nogueira Mendes / Banca: Júlio Augusto Naylor Lisboa / Resumo: A urolitíase obstrutiva apresenta elevada incidência em ovinos, principalmente nos animais confinados, e sua etiologia é multifatorial. Estudos relativos à litogênese, diagnóstico, tratamento e prevenção são necessários e tem aplicabilidade direta na produção intensiva de cordeiros. O objetivo geral deste trabalho foi desenvolver um modelo experimental para estudo da urolitíase em ovinos. De modo específico, pretendeu-se testar este modelo por avaliações laboratoriais (urinálise, hemogasometria, dosagem sérica de ureia e creatinina), confirmação do diagnóstico por exame ultrassonográfico e identificação dos tipos de cálculo (análise química). Utilizaram-se 100 ovinos, machos, com idade aproximada de três meses, confinados, divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos: Grupo I (n=40) 400mg/kg/PV de cloreto de amônio/animal/dia por 21 dias consecutivos; Grupo II (n=40) 400mg/kg/PV de cloreto de amônio/animal/dia por 42 dias consecutivos; Grupo III (n=20) controle, não recebeu cloreto de amônio. O cloreto de amônio foi adicionado no cocho junto com a ração total, que era constituída de 85% de concentrado e 15% de feno triturado de Coast-cross. Os Momentos (M) de colheita de amostras e avaliação clínica foram realizados com intervalo de sete dias, sendo M0 (imediatamente antes do início do tratamento com cloreto de amônio), M1 (sete dias após), M2, M3 (suspensão do cloreto de amônio em GI), M4, M5 e M6, totalizando 56 dias de confinamento. Colheram-se amostras de urina e de sangue total de todos os animais, nos diferentes momentos, para urinálise, hemogasometria e dosagem sérica de ureia e creatinina. Procedeu-se avaliação ultrassonográfica dos rins e da bexiga e, o exame físico dos animais em todos os momentos. Recuperaram-se cálculos no post-mortem após o final de experimento, que foram enviados para análise química... (Resumo completo, clicar acesso eletrônico abaixo) / Abstract: The obstructive urolithiasis has the highest incidence in sheep, especially in confined animals, and its etiology is multifactorial. Studies on lithogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prevention are needed and have direct applicability in intensive production of lambs. The aim of this study was to assemble an experimental model for the study of urolithiasis in sheep. Specifically, it was intended to test this model through laboratory evaluations (urinalysis, blood gas analysis, serum urea and creatinine), confirmation of diagnosis by ultrasound examination and identification of the types of calculi (chemical analysis). It was used 100 male feedlot sheep, aged approximately three months, randomly divided into three groups: Group I (n=40) - 400mg/kg/PV of ammonium chloride/animal/day for 21 consecutive days; Group II (n=40) - 400mg/kg/PV of ammonium chloride/animal/day for 42 consecutive days; Group III (n=20) - control, the animals did not receive ammonium chloride. Ammonium chloride was added in the trough along with the total ration , that was constituted by 85% of concentrate and 15 % of Coast-cross's hay triturated. The moments (M) of samples and clinical evaluation were performed with an interval of seven days, M0 (immediately prior to initiation of treatment with ammonium chloride, 15 days of feedlot), M1, M2, M3 (suspension of ammonium chloride in GI, 35 days of feedlot), M4, M5 and M6 (total 56 days of feedlot). Urine and whole blood samples were taken from all animals at different times, for urinalysis, blood gas analysis and serum urea and creatinine dosage. Ultrasound evaluation of the kidneys and bladder, and physical examination of animals were performed at all moments. Calculi were recovered in the post-mortem after the end of the experiment, which were sent for chemical analysis. In urinalysis, GIII did not showed cylinders... (Complete abstract click electronic access below) / Doutor
38

Integrated control of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep using plant extracts. and bicontrol agents.

Ahmed, Mawahib Alhag Ali. 29 November 2013 (has links)
Infection of small ruminants by gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) is a major health concern because they cause substantial economic losses, especially in the tropics and sub-tropics. For many years, control of GIN has been based upon use of anthelmintics. However, there is now a global challange because mutant GIN individuals can tolerate most of the widely used anthelmintics. Therefore, alternative control measures are needed. The objective of the study was to screen a number of plant species for their anthelmintic effects, and to evaluate selected strains of Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) and Clonostachys rosea (Schroers) for activity against sheep GIN. Subsequently, the combined treatments would test a dual control strategy for nematodes by using a combination of plant extracts with biocontrol agents. Ethanol extracts of 25 plant species were screened for their anthelmintic effects against Haemonchus contortus (Rudolphi 1803). Extracts of each plant were used in vitro at various concentrations (10, 20 and 30%) to treat 10 day faecal cultures. Five plants with high efficacies (Ananas comosus L. Merr., Aloe ferox Mill., Allium sativum Linn., Lespedeza cuneata Dum. Cours. and Warburgia salutaris Bertol.f. Chiov) were selected for further investigation, using ethanol, dichloromethane and water extracts at four concentrations (2.5, 5, 10 and 20%). Ethanol was the most effective solvent. Larval counts decreased as a result of increasing extract concentrations. An ethanolic extract of Lespedeza cuneata caused more than 70% mortality at all concentrations. In an in vivo study, the five plants A. comosus, A. ferox, A. sativum, L. cuneata and W. salutaris extracts were compared to a positive Control (Equimax®, a modern anthelmintic based on abamectin and praziquantel). Gender, eggs count (EPG₀) and initial body weights were used in assigning sheep (24 females and 24 males) to six groups. Each group was randomly assigned a treatment. Plant extracts were applied as an oral dose (100 mg kg⁻¹ BW), one dose per week per animal for 42 days (Phase 1). Subsequently, the same sheep were dosed for three consecutive days with the same treatments, keeping them in the same groups (Phase 2). Rectal faecal samples were taken for counting of eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) and L₃ larvae per gram (LPG) in faecal cultures. With application of plant extracts, the EPG count decreased with time (P<0.001), and the impact of the plant extracts increased (P<0.001) with time. Two extracts, from A. comosus and L. cuneata, were the most effective in Phase 1 (58% and 61% reduction of EPG, respectively,), and in Phase 2 (77% and 81% reduction of EPG, respectively). In a study on potential biocontrol agents, two strains of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and one of Clonostachys rosea f. rosea (C. rosea), and compared with a diatomaceous earth (DE) product for their anthelmintic activity in sheep. Bacillus thuringiensis and C. rosea were fed to sheep at a rate of 1g kg⁻¹ BW, and DE was fed at 2% of sheep diet. The biocontrol treatments had no effect on EPG (P>0.05), but reduced GIN larvae per gram (LPG) (P<0.001) in faecal culture. Efficacy varied with time (P<0.001). By Day 7 Bt, C. rosea and DE had caused mortalities of GIN of 75.7, 86.9 and 60.6%, respectively. In addition, the efficacy of feeding 1g kg⁻¹ BW of C. rosea chlamydospores to sheep every day, every second day and every third day was tested. Daily feeding of fungal chlamydospores reduced LPG (a count of 12±1.67 GIN larvae) (P<0.001) more than feeding them the biocontrol agent every second day (39±0.77) or third day (58±1.77). By Day 12, feeding the biocontrol agent to sheep every day, every second day, or every third day caused mortality of GIN larvae of 90, 63 and 49%, respectively. Four dietary levels (treatments) of C. rosea (0.25g (F1), 0.5g (F2), 1g (F3) and control (C) of C. rosea product kg-1 BW) were tested. Treatments were each mixed with a complete diet and fed to sheep once daily for 10 weeks, according to body weights. Increased doses of the biocontrol agent reduced LPG (P<0.001), larval development (LD) (P<0.001), and increased efficacy (P<0.001). On Day 70, F1, F2, F3 and the Control controlled LD by 33.3, 72.3, 89.4 and 2.6%, respectively. Clonostachys rosea was effective in reducing third stage larvae (L₃) on pastures significantly (P<0.001) by Day 63 and Day 70. Ethanolic extracts of A. comosus, A. ferox, A. sativum, L. cuneata and W. salutaris all reduced egg production by GIN parasites of sheep. Feeding sheep cultured chlamydospores of a biocontrol fungus, Clonostachys rosea, reduced counts of nematode larvae in sheep; and 1g C. rosea chlamydospores kg⁻¹ BW daily was enough to reduce nematode infective larvae, therefore reducing the degree of pasture contamination. An initial trial showed that the combination of the two treatments of an A. comosus extract and C. rosea chlamydospores was more effective than either treatment on its own in controlling gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep. A long-term trial is being undertaken currently to confirm this finding. / Thesis (Ph.D.)-University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, 2013.
39

Perfil Hematológico e Bioquímico Sérico de Ovinos Infectados com Nematóides e Medicados com Ivermectina e Closantel / Hematologiy And Serum Biochemical Panel Sheep Infected with Nematodes and Dosed with Ivermectin and Closantel

Costa, Kizzy Millenn de Freitas Mendonça 08 September 2011 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2016-08-15T20:31:01Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 kizzyMFMC_DISSERT.pdf: 774522 bytes, checksum: da3661ec2a393e4af5e31278032e04d2 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2011-09-08 / Despite its known resistance, the sheep are subject to endoparasitoses, which are the main limiting factor for its production worldwide, especially in tropical regions. This study aims to evaluate the changes in parasitic load, serum biochemical and hematological panel, and Famacha scores of mixed-bred sheep naturally infected with nematodes and treated with ivermectin and closantel. The study was conducted at July 2010, in a farm in the municipality of Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil. We selected 41 animals were divided into three groups: group I- control (without treatment), group II- treated with ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg), and Group III- treated with closantel (5 mg/kg). Stool samples were collected on days 0, 7, 14 and 21 after treatment for quantitative analysis (EPG) and qualitative analysis (stool culture), we used samples from days 0, 14 and 21. The first blood sample was given on day 0, the second and third 24 and 72 hours after the first, respectively the fourth and fifth 7 and 14 days after the first of which analyzed the blood count, serum total protein, albumin and globulins, and albumin/globulins ratio. Famacha scores were determined the degree of each animal at all times of sampling. Closantel administration was effective for the reduction of parasite counts, especially Haemonchus contortus, in evaluated sheep. On the other hand, there was parasite resistance to ivermectin. Famacha data showed negative correlation with packed cell volume, leukocytes, hemoglobin, albumin, total protein, globulin and albumin/globulin ratio. The packed cell volume showed a strong and positive correlation with hemoglobin, albumin and total protein. Treatment with ivermectin and closantel were not responsible for considerable changes in hematological and biochemical parameters evaluated. / Apesar de sua conhecida resistência, os ovinos estão sujeitos as endoparasitoses, sendo este o principal fator limitante para a sua produção em todo o mundo, especialmente em regiões tropicais. Este trabalho objetiva avaliar a carga parasitária, o perfil hematológico e bioquímico sérico, e o grau Famacha de ovinos sem padrão racial definido infectados e tratados com ivermectina e closantel. O trabalho foi realizado no mês de julho de 2010, numa propriedade rural no município de Mossoró-RN. Foram selecionados 41 animais, os quais foram divididos em três grupos: grupo I- controle (sem tratamento), grupo II- tratado com ivermectina (0,2 mg/kg) e Grupo III- tratado com closantel (5 mg/kg). As amostras de fezes foram coletadas nos dias 0, 7, 14 e 21, pós-tratamento para análise quantitativa (OPG) e para análise qualitativa (coprocultura), foram utilizadas amostras nos dias 0, 14 e 21. A primeira coleta de sangue se deu no dia 0, a segunda e a terceira 24 e 72 horas após a primeira, respectivamente, a quarta e a quinta 7 e 14 dias após a primeira, dos quais foram analisados o hemograma, os níveis séricos de proteínas totais, albumina e globulinas, e a relação albumina/globulinas. Foi determinado o grau de anemia pelo método Famacha de cada animal em todos os momentos de coleta de amostras. O tratamento com closantel foi eficaz na redução da carga parasitária, principalmente Haemonchus contortus, nos ovinos avaliados. Por outro lado, houve resistência dos parasitas à ivermectina. Os dados de Famacha apresentaram correlação negativa com volume globular, leucócitos, hemoglobina, albumina, proteínas totais, globulinas e relação albumina/globulinas. O volume globular apresentou uma correlação forte e positiva com hemoglobina, albumina e proteínas totais. Os tratamentos com closantel e ivermectina não foram responsáveis por alterações consideráveis nos parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos avaliados.
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Estudo clínico-citológico em ovinos sadios e portadores de afecções pulmonares de ocorrência natural, utilizando-se o lavado traqueobrônquico como auxílio diagnóstico /

Marcondes, Julio Simões. January 2007 (has links)
Orientador: Roberto Calderon Gonçalves / Banca: Alice Maria Melville Paiva / Banca: Simone Biagio Chiacchio / Resumo: Os estudos das secreções traqueobrônquicas são amplamente utilizados nas pesquisas de condições patológicas pulmonares nas diversas espécies animais, inclusive no homem. Os objetivos desta pesquisa foram a viabilização da técnica de colheita de lavado traqueobrônquico na espécie ovina e o estudo da relação clínico-citológica do lavado de ovinos portadores de afecções respiratórias e clinicamente sadios. Foram utilizados neste estudo 19 ovinos sem sintomatologia respiratória e 23 portadores de enfermidade respiratória com sinais clínicos e envolvimento de vias aéreas, divididos nos respectivos grupos. Após o exame físico foi realizado o lavado traqueobrônquico por via nasotraqueal. A colheita do lavado foi feita com a inoculação e aspiração de solução fisiológica estéril. As amostras foram processadas citologicamente através de citocentrifugação e coradas pelos métodos Giemsa, Shorr e Gram. Nos animais sadios notou-se predomínio de macrófagos, seguido por células epiteliais cilíndricas, neutrófilos e linfócitos. No grupo de animais doentes notou-se redução no número de macrófagos e aumento da freqüência cardíaca. Embora não tenha ocorrido diferença estatística significativa entre os grupos avaliados, notou-se tendência ao aumento de neutrófilos nos animais doentes. A técnica estudada mostrou-se eficaz na obtenção de fluidos traqueobrônquicos, por ser de fácil realização por médicos veterinários no campo, pouco dispendiosa, e obter material representativo da região traqueobrônquica. / Abstract: The studies of the tracheobrochial secretions are very useful in the research of the lung pathological conditions in different animal's species and in humans. The purposes of this research are to enable the collection technique of the tracheobronchial lavage in ovine and the study of the clinical cytology relationship of the lavage in ovines with respiratory disease and clinically healthy. In this study there were used 19 ovines without respiratory symptoms and 23 with respiratory disease with symptoms and airway involvement, separated in respective groups. After physical examination the tracheobronchial lavage was performed by nasotracheal via. The tracheobronchial lavage was performed by injection and aspiration of sterile saline. Cytology of the samples was proceeding by centrifugation and collored by Giemsa, Shorr and Gram methods. In the healthy animals was noted prevalence of macrophages, followed by cylindric epithelial cells, neutrophils and lymphocytes. In the ill animals group there was reduction in the macrophages and higher heart rate. Despite there was no considerable statistic difference between the analyzed groups, a tendency in the increase of the neutrophils number in the ill group was noted. The evaluated technical showed itself to be efficient to obtain tracheobronchial fluid, considering its easy proceeding by veterinarians in the field, no expensive and obtaining representative volume of the samples from the tracheobronchial region. / Mestre

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