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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

Examining the Impact of Social Pressure on Golf Putting Performance

Kingsbury, Adam 07 January 2020 (has links)
Fine-motor skills in any domain (e.g., sports, surgery, music) are subject to performance decrements under pressure. A large majority of studies that have examined “choking under pressure” used golf putting as a paradigm to test participants. Golf putting is a fine-motor skill that is highly susceptible to deviations in performance, yet a skill that appears to be deceptively simple without a steep learning curve. The following thesis contained three studies that examined the influence of social evaluative threat on the objective outcome performance (holed or not holed, distance to the hole), as well as the kinematic variables associated with the putting stroke itself. Performance was measured using a high-speed infrared camera called the TOMI® which collected real-time 3D data about a number of different kinematic parameters for each putt that was struck. While it was expected that a learning effect would characterize the longitudinal trajectory of performance, it was also expected that state anxiety would moderate this trajectory. In Study 1, 35 amateur golfers, completed a self-report measure of state anxiety and performed golf putting tasks under a neutral condition followed by a social-evaluative condition. Somatic anxiety was related to differential performance trajectories, while cognitive anxiety was associated with variability in the backstroke. In Study 2, 27 beginner participants participated in an improved design based on Study 1. Somatic anxiety temporarily moderated performance under pressure for the novices. In Study 3, 55 beginner participants were recruited and randomized to either a stress-free learning task (n = 29), or a social-evaluative learning task (n = 26), to address research limitations from the first two studies. Furthermore, methodological concerns present in both Study 1 and 2 were addressed, with the aim of contributing to the debate surrounding theoretical mechanisms of how performance decrements occur, specifically under social-evaluative threat. High levels of somatic anxiety moderated the objective performance trajectory of the experimental group, and surprisingly decreased the amount of time taken to prepare for each putt in the social-evaluative task. In all three studies, somatic anxiety significantly moderated both objective and indirect performance (as indicated by kinematics and routine time). Taken together, these studies suggest that one’s interpretation of physiological symptoms while under social evaluative threat can temporarily impair performance trajectories of a fine-motor skill.

Who do you think you are? constructing self/identity in women's rugby through aggression, control and unacceptable behavior

Baird, Shannon M 01 January 2010 (has links)
Some behaviors in sport may be labeled: bad, unnecessary and distasteful. Sport psychologists have used concepts of aggression to understand and lessen these behaviors. To date, most research has conceptualized aggression as a product of individual cognition. Specifically, aggression is defined in the sport psychology literature as any behavior motivated by the intent to harm one's opponent (Baron, 1977; Bredemeier & Shields, 1986b; Husman & Silva, 1984; Kirker, Tenenbaum & Mattson, 2000). Consequently, sport psychology analyses of aggression tend to reproduce take-for-granted conceptions of aggression as male, physical and other-directed. To better understand sport aggression, it has been argued that symbolic interactionism has much to offer (Baird & McGannon, 2009). By utilizing symbolic interactionism we can reconceptualize aggression as a social construct given meaning in and through interaction with self and others. From this perspective, self notions and interactions with others are important "locations" of meaning making and are significant in the study of behavior. The present study used symbolic interactionism to explore female rugby players' experiences of aggression and how they interpret, define and structure experiences relative to self development. In conjunction with participant-observation, 12 semi-structured interviews with female rugby players ages 18-45 were conducted to explore: (1) how do women define themselves as ruggers/how do they (re)produce these identities in and out of rugby, (2) how do women define and experience aggression, and (3) how are these accounts used in the construction of self/identity? Data emerging from interviews and observations suggested that athletes defined and experienced behavior in ways challenging contemporary sport psychology conceptualizations of aggression. The participants often used the word aggression to describe forceful and physical play. In sport psychology literature, this is typically referred to as assertive behavior (Husman & Silva, 1984; Tenenbaum, Saks, Miller, Golden, & Doolin, 2000) and aggressive behavior is a label reserved for unacceptable behavior motivated by the intent to harm (Tenenbaum et al., 2000). According to the women in this study, unacceptable behavior was not defined by intent; rather, unacceptable behavior was a negotiated space that was constructed through notions of lack of control. That is, if a player was constructed as out of control, that player was seen as engaging in unacceptable behavior. In terms of self/identity construction, pain, contact and aggression emerged as important in the (re)production of self-related experiences within and outside of rugby. Within rugby these characteristics indicated a player's rugbyness. Outside of rugby these characteristics were often exhibited by non-rugby players as proof that rugby was a male sport. These participants both resisted and reinforced that notion. Rather than (re)define rugby by other female characteristics, these athletes used their rugby selves to say that pain, contact and aggression are not male only behaviors. The women used the bruises on their bodies to claim their rugby selves and prove, "I'm more than you think I am." This research offers a unique glimpse of female collision athletes' experiences of aggression and contributes a new conceptualization of "unacceptable" behavior to the existent sport psychology literature.

Examining the Process of Life Skills Transfer from Sport to Life

Kendellen, Kelsey 27 November 2019 (has links)
The purpose of this doctoral dissertation was to examine the life skills transfer process from sport to life. Data collection occurred over 10-months, from September 2016 to June 2017. The overall sample was comprised of 13 university intramural athletes and 29 social agents playing key roles in the athletes’ lives outside of sport (e.g., parents, partners, and work colleagues). Four methods of data collection were employed: (a) individual semi-structured interviews, (b) chronological charts, (c) timelines, and (d) solicited journals. The findings from this dissertation are organized into three articles. In article one, a grounded theory methodology was used to examine how athletes apply in life the skills they believe they learned or refined in sport. Within the substantive grounded theory, life skills application is framed as an ongoing process that involves four steps (a) decision-making, (b) application, (c) appraisal, and (d) adaptation. Article one adds to the literature by outlining the key behavioural and cognitive mechanisms that help explain what occurs once athletes move beyond sport and apply in different life domains the skills they deem to have learned or refined in sport. Article two presents a longitudinal integrated qualitative approach for “getting at” the life skills transfer process from sport to life. The integrated approach is illustrated through an exemplar case of a 23-year-old athlete (Claire) and her process of learning/refining emotional regulation in sport and applying this skill outside of sport. Three individuals able to speak to Claire’s behaviour outside of sport (i.e., mother, classmate, and work colleague) were also part of the case. Article two adds to the literature by demonstrating how qualitative techniques can be integrated to produce new insights on the life skills transfer process to an extent not previously gleaned through one-shot interview designs. In article three, the substantive grounded theory of life skills application was used to document one athlete’s (Joseph) journey through the life skills application process. Specifically, narrative inquiry was employed to tell Joseph’s story of applying the life skill of leadership at work as he progressed through the four steps described in the substantive grounded theory. Data collection involved three individual semi-structured interviews and three months of solicited journaling. Article three adds to the literature by moving beyond documenting examples of life skills application and instead, illustrating how Joseph’s emotions, thoughts, and behaviours evolved over time to influence his experiences of life skills application. Overall, the findings from this dissertation make theoretical, methodological, and empirical contributions to the life skills transfer literature in sport psychology and further elucidate the notion that sport can have a lasting impact on youth’s development.

Exploring Traditional and Novel Applications for Sport Psychology in Masters Sport

Makepeace, Tyler 18 June 2020 (has links)
Due to the expanding aging population, Masters sport is becoming an increasingly popular activity for older adults (Weir et al., 2010). However, few resources are available to support lifelong sport adherence for middle-aged and older adults in competitive sport, or Masters athletes (MAs). The purpose of the thesis was to explore how MAs apply deliberate psychological strategies as a support to enhance their performance, experience, or adherence to the adult sport lifestyle. It also explored how mental performance consultants (MPCs) viewed the application of sport psychology to MAs, including content to which skills/strategies could be applied, and delivery approaches. In Manuscript 1, semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight Canadian MAs (Mage = 51, range 38-62; 3 males, 5 females) from 12 sports (10 individual, 2 team) to explore how they applied psychological skills/strategies as a support to the Masters sport experience. Data were thematically analyzed (Braun & Clark, 2012) deductively (Weinberg & Gould, 2015) and inductively. The results demonstrated that MAs used traditional mental skills predominantly to enhance performance, while novel Masters-specific skills were used to maintain sport adherence. MAs promptly illustrated sport psychology content, but were rather limited when discussing their methods/techniques. In Manuscript 2, five two-person semi- structured group interviews were pursued with ten professional Canadian MPCs (8 women, 2 men) who had experience consulting MAs. These interviews explored the content consultants delivered to MAs and whether there were implications of specific adult attributes associated with service delivery. Data were thematically analyzed (Braun & Clark, 2012) inductively. The results showed MPCs’ perceptions on psychological content they believed was highly pertinent in their consulting practice with MAs. Specifically, they described targeted content related to performance readiness, prioritizing sport, protecting/recovering sport enjoyment, and aging/self-compassionate considerations. MPCs also highlighted nuances related to approaches to consultation with adult sportspersons and the delivery of psychological services to MAs. In both studies with the MAs and the MPCs, interviewees described various barriers and constraints that influenced approaches to consultation and service delivery. Altogether, the corroborative results from both studies suggest the benefits of psychological support services for MAs, the use of MPCs’ services and expertise as an additional support to maintain lifelong sport activity, and provide a formative guide for content and approaches to delivery with the Masters clientele.

Toward a Cross-Disciplinary Analysis of Group Development Models: Intersecting Organizational Studies with Applied Sport Psychology

Le Blanc-Blanchard, Michèle January 2011 (has links)
Group development research conducted within applied sport psychology shares many conceptual similarities with the field of organizational studies. This thesis investigates how the cross-integration of two group development models referenced from separate fields of study can converge to produce a comprehensive analytic model for evaluating group performance. Integrating Tuckman's (1965; Tuckman & Jensen, 1977) successive five stage group development model with Carron's (1982) general conceptual system for cohesiveness in sport teams, this thesis develops an original integrative cross-disciplinary schematic for group development. Guided by a systems approach, the analysis of this model reveals how cross-disciplinary research conducted within these two fields serves to identify mutual benefits, while highlighting the similarities and differences from both group development models. A key contribution of this study is the consideration of opportunities for enhancing current knowledge, and the harmonization of strategic and humanistic approaches to management. The conclusions drawn from this thesis raise significant questions about the potential yielded through the adoption of theoretical applications from applied sport psychology to an organizational context.

#GGNation: A Case Study Exploring Student-Athlete Mental Health at a Canadian University Using Design Thinking

Graper, Sydney 03 October 2023 (has links)
Canadian university sports are gaining momentum as a high-performance sports culture, leading to greater demands and potential mental health (MH) risks for student-athletes. Despite the abundance of research and resources pertaining to MH, student-athletes continue to experience significant MH challenges. This thesis aimed to reimagine student-athlete MH support at a Canadian university using a Design Thinking (DT) approach. This was achieved through a case study about the University of Ottawa (uOttawa) Gee-Gees. DT is a creative and collaborative approach to understanding your end-users, challenging assumptions, and redefining problems to create innovative solutions you can prototype and test (Brown, 2008). The methodological framework was inspired by Hasso Plattner Institute’s (2018) six-step model: 1) understand, 2) observe, 3) point of view, 4) ideate, 5) prototype, and 6) test. This study explicitly engages in the first three steps of the HPI process, otherwise known as the “Compassion space” (Chambers, 2021). Findings from each step are presented through two journal articles and used to inform future research dedicated to the remaining three steps (“Solution space”; HPI, 2018). Article one focuses on the “Understand” phase, aimed to generate ecological insights from multiple stakeholders into how the varsity sports department at uOttawa supports student-athlete MH. Three activities were conducted incrementally, including stakeholder mapping (to identify relevant stakeholders), stakeholder analysis (to prioritize stakeholder engagement), and enabler interviews (to understand diverse perspectives on the explored topic). Nine enabler interviews were conducted and analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis. The findings are presented through three themes: Enhancing the accessibility of MH services, providing proactive and holistic care, and building a sustainable integrated support team model. This case helps illustrate the varsity environment as one interconnected system and demonstrates the shared responsibility of all enablers to promote and protect positive MH. Article Two encompasses two HPI phases. First, the “Observe” phase is to observe the daily realities of uOttawa student-athletes in their localized varsity sports environment. To facilitate this, six digital stories were produced by student-athletes and analyzed using empathy mapping (i.e., interpreting what a person says, thinks, feels, and does). Individual empathy maps informed the subsequent “Point of View” phase, designed to establish a point of view from a student athlete's perspective and present the findings creatively and in an easily digestible manner. Six empathy maps were condensed into three fictional personas that help illustrate student-athlete experiences at uOttawa. Presenting these personable stories to relevant stakeholders will be beneficial to garnering deeper empathy and compassion for student-athletes experiencing MH challenges. The results of each phase yield a comprehensive understanding of student-athletes’ needs, experiences, and the environment in which they compete and study. Thereby contributing to the design of a (future) desirable, viable, and feasible solution the varsity sports department can implement. Moreover, supplementary methods and results are outlined to showcase the interdisciplinary collaborative approach used to understand further the uOttawa Gee-Gees high-performance integrated support team (IST), a crucial component for understanding the uOttawa’s varsity sports landscape. This thesis addresses new ways to explore student-athlete MH, contributes a Canadian perspective to student-athlete research, and paves the way for DT in the sports psychology field.

Re-Thinking Concussion Support: From Psychological and Social Needs to Leveraging Mental Performance Consultants

Seguin, Cassandra 09 February 2023 (has links)
The overarching purposes of this research were to (a) explore an under-acknowledged and under-emphasized aspect of the sport-related concussion experience: psychosocial factors of the injury experience and (b) identify possible intervention opportunities to support the associated psychological and social needs. A collaborative inquiry (Bray et al., 2000) was employed to generate data on the psychosocial experience of concussions in elite sport and to co-develop support strategies from a sport psychology lens. This qualitative research project involved three phases during which psychological and social needs, as well as psychosocial factors that facilitated and/or hindered the concussion recovery process, were discussed through two lenses. The first lens was an experiential one, whereby elite athletes who became concussed as a result of their sport engagement shared their experiences (Phase A). The second lens was that of professional expertise, whereby mental performance consultants who work in elite sport and deliver psychosocial support to concussed elite athletes shared their perspectives and clients’ experiences (Phase B). Following the sharing of these perspectives, a community of practice (Wenger et al., 2002) of mental performance consultants was formed to collaboratively discuss how mental performance consultants might be able to support the aforementioned psychological and social needs, and ultimately, concussion recovery (Phase C). Phase A. Ten elite athletes (as defined by Swann et al., 2015) participated in semi-structured focus groups (Smith & Sparkes, 2016). Athletes discussed their experiences of injury, challenges, facilitators and barriers to recovery, support mechanisms, support that was lacking but desired, and what they would do to help someone else with a concussion. The transcripts from these focus groups (n = 5, M = 58.1 min, Range: 46-88 min), follow-up questions, and informal conversations were analyzed using thematic narrative analysis (Smith, 2016), contributing to an understanding of the athletes’ lived experiences. Phase B. Nine mental performance consultants from the Canadian Sport Psychology Association and/or Association for Applied Sport Psychology who were working in high-performance sport participated in three focus groups (M = 79 min, Range = 66-98 min). Mental performance consultants were asked about their time in the field and other aspects of their consulting experience (e.g., sports, integrated within teams or not), the types of interventions they have done with concussed athletes, their perceptions of psychosocial support during the phases of concussion management, and challenges to effective service delivery. Verbatim transcripts of these focus groups were sent to the consultants and member reflections were requested (Smith & McGannon, 2018). The generated data were thematically analyzed using a six-phase cyclical and iterative approach (Braun et al., 2016). Phase C. Eight mental performance consultants from various sport contexts formed a community of practice (Wenger et al., 2002; E. Wenger-Trayner & Wenger-Trayner, 2021). The group met over a period of four months (n = 8 meetings, M = 80 min, Range = 60-90 min). These meetings were intended to address the identified interests of the members of the community regarding support for concussed elite athletes. Concussion symptomatology, management efforts, and research were discussed; and professional scope of practice and intervention opportunities were explored through best practice discussions, client case studies, and engagements with two external experts. Mental performance consultants completed individual reflections (i.e., weekly reflective questions, value creation stories, personal value narratives; Wenger et al., 2011; E. Wenger-Trayner & Wenger-Trayner, 2015) resulting in 34 single-spaced pages of generated data, which were analyzed using the Value Creation Framework (E. Wenger-Trayner & Wenger-Trayner, 2015; 2021). The results of this multi-phase collaborative inquiry are presented in four articles. The first article offers a multi-systems perspective (Bronfenbrenner, 1977; 1979; 1992) on athletes’ concussion experiences by exploring two collaboratively created narratives (Wertz, 2011; Willis, 2019) from the engagements with athletes in Phase A. Five themes (i.e., athletic identity, (dis)trust in relationships, concussion protocols, sport culture, and timing related to major events and recovery) are discussed. The second article combines the perspectives of athletes from Phase A and mental performance consultants in Phase B to identify psychological and social needs across the concussion recovery process. Four psychological needs (i.e., acceptance, normality, confidence, self-efficacy) and two social needs (i.e., trust in relationships, social support) were identified by both populations. The third article was collaboratively written to practically present how and where mental performance consultants can support concussed athletes across the phases of the injury based on the discussions in Phase C. Scope of practice, collaboration opportunities, and intervention strategies are discussed across four phases of injury (i.e., pre-injury, injury onset, rehabilitation, return to sport). The fourth article reflects the mental performance consultants’ participatory experiences in Phase C by exploring the value of the community of practice as a professional development and knowledge translation tool. Positive value was experienced across all eight cycles of the Value Creation Framework. Through the general discussion and practical implications sections of this dissertation, these results are situated within the landscapes of concussion research and practice to highlight opportunities for transforming concussion protocols and broadening the overall lens through which the concussion experience can be examined.

Congruency Between Expectations of High School Coach and Athlete Off-Season Activities: Is Sport Diversification a Realistic Option?

DiSanti, Justin Samuel 06 August 2015 (has links)
No description available.


Ludewig, Annika Beatrice 12 July 2007 (has links)
No description available.

‘Money’ Free Throws: Understanding Clutch Performance Under Pressure from the Free Throw Line

Cohn, Daniel January 2016 (has links)
This study attempted to explore the phenomenon of free throw shooting under pressure. The participants in the study were 10, Division III college basketball players who agreed to take part in an interview centered around free throw shooting. The data were gathered from the responses of the players, using a semi-structured interview, developed by the researcher with the suggestions and approval of an expert basketball panel, comprised of sport psychology professors, NBA sport psychologists, basketball coaches, and former players. Four of the interviews were done in person, while the other six were done over the phone. The interviews were transcribed and coded using a constant comparative method described by Boeije (2002). This entailed a process of open coding, which resulted in 65 codes. Of these 65 codes, 57 codes were assigned into eight categories during a process of axial coding. These categories were as follows; routine, practice, focus, pressure, pressure management skills, confidence, clutch factors, and non-clutch factors. Confidence was technically a sub-category of clutch factors, but was deemed large and separate enough to be its own category. The coding of interviews went through a process of inter-rater reliability via an independent coder. The independent coder and the researcher agreed on over 86% of the coded responses. The disagreements were discussed and a mutual understanding was established. Players emphasized the importance of a pre-shot routine, especially under high-pressure circumstances. Players discussed the importance of practice in preparation for high-pressure free throws. Players gave their level of focus on task-relevant and task-irrelevant stimuli when attempting free throws, both under normal circumstances and under pressure circumstances. Players revealed pressure management strategies that they used to aid in the performance of attempting high pressure free throws. Possible links to clutch performance were explored by the researcher. / Kinesiology

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