Effect of graphitization on the static mechanical properties of service exposed ASTM A516 Gr. 65 steam pipe metalDu Preez, Christiaan January 2017 (has links)
The focus of this research project is to establish what effect graphitization has on the static mechanical properties of service exposed ASTM A516 Grade 65 steam pipe material, which operated for prolonged periods above 425 ̊C. The research study was conducted on three graphitized service exposed steam pipe weldment samples and on a newly welded and post weld heat treated sample with graphitized service exposed steam pipe material. Macro samples were removed from each of the samples at two positions and these were evaluated with regard to graphite nodule size, nearest neighbour spacing and % planar graphitization in the parent pipe and HAZ regions on either side of the welds. It was found on all of the service exposed samples that the graphite nodules of the HAZ regions have a smaller median nodule size, smaller median nearest neighbour spacing and increased % planar graphitization in comparison to the parent pipe material. The service expose parent pipe material on either side of the weldments of the respective samples was chemically analyzed. This was done with the focus being on the deoxidizing element content (Si and Al) of the respective parent pipe regions and to what extent these elements influenced the development of planar graphitization in these regions. No correlation could be identified between the level of deoxidizing elements and the levels of % planar graphitization in the parent pipe material. Tensile and Charpy impact samples were removed from the respective service exposed samples parent material on either side of the weld and from the HAZ regions on the side with the highest levels of planar graphitization. These samples were tested and the yield and ultimate tensile strength and Charpy impact toughness of the respective samples were then evaluated to establish how these static mechanical properties were influenced by the % planar graphitization. The yield and ultimate tensile strength of the service exposed material did not show a statistically significant correlation with the % planar graphitization. The Charpy impact toughness results did however show a statistically significant negative correlation towards the % planar graphitization. This was clearly evident from the results of the HAZ regions of the service exposed weldments (Samples A-C) which had the highest levels of % planar graphitization and the lowest impact toughness, while the newly welded and post weld heat treated Sample D had no planar graphitization outside the HAZ and the highest impact toughness. This research project not only investigated how planar graphitization affects the static mechanical properties of service exposed pipe material, it also investigated on a microstructural basis, how planar graphitization nucleates and grows. The microstructural investigation showed that the free carbon required for the development of planar graphitization originated from the regions outside the HAZ, which were formed when the pearlite bands were dissolved during the welding of the steam pipe. The heat input from the welding sensitized this region for the development of planar graphitization, probably due to the formation of a “carbon-rich” matrix due to the partial dissolution of the cementite precipitates. All the carbide precipitates in this region consisted of M3C. aluminium-rich precipitates were found inside newly nucleated graphite nodules, indicating its role as a possible heterogeneous nucleation site. Growth of newly formed graphite nodules showed a preference towards high-angle grain boundaries and regions with dislocations for the initial growth stages of the graphite nodules. The microstructure of the region outside the HAZ of the newly introduced seam weld on the service exposed steam pipe material (with graphitization), was also investigated using advanced electron microscopy methods and it yielded no evidence of the development of planar graphitization.
Eichenberg, Thomas William
21 August 1990
Condensation Induced Water-Hammer, CIWH, has been an historical problem for the nuclear power industry over the past 2 decades. It has caused damage to plant systems, and considerable anguish to plant operators. This thesis has embarked on an attempt to characterize the fluid motion, heat transfer, mixing, and stability of a horizontal, stratified flow of steam over subcooled water. A literature review was conducted to determine the state of numerical and analytical methods which have been applied to this problem. The result of the review has led to the implementation of new analytical interfacial stability models. Information from the review has also led to the development of correlations for wave frequency and amplitude on the phase interface. A numerical model has been developed to estimate the temperature profile on the phase interface. Also, the model will construct, by use of the above correlations, an estimate of the interface wave structure. This wave structure is then evaluated against a non-linear model for interface stability to determine the onset of slug formation. The numerical model has been used to evaluate two known CIWH events. The results indicate that the onset of slug formation is necessary, but not sufficient, to ensure a water-hammer event. The results imply that there is the possibility that once a slug has formed, it may break up before a trapped steam void can fully collapse. The model also indicates that CIWH in steam generator, feedwater nozzle sections is not due to the formation of slug on an unstable phase interface. Rather, CIWH may occur when the liquid level inside of the feedwater nozzle is above the top of the feedring, thus creating an isolated steam pocket. The rapid condensation of the trapped steam in the causes CIWH. This particular result implies that it may be possible to completely avoid CIWH in the feedwater nozzle altogether. / Graduation date: 1991
Vu, Hung Viet
Thesis (M.S.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, 1982. / MICROFICHE COPY AVAILABLE IN ARCHIVES AND ENGINEERING. / Bibliography: leaf 42. / by Hung Viet Vu. / M.S.
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