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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Learning the Effectiveness of Content and Methodology in an Intelligent Tutoring System

Dailey, Matthew D 03 May 2011 (has links)
Classroom instruction time is a valuable yet scarce resource to teachers, who must decide how to best meet their objectives by selecting which topics to spend time on and when to move forward. Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) are a powerful tool for teachers in this regard, allowing them to measure their students' current level of knowledge, helping them gauge student knowledge acquisition, and providing them with valuable insight into learning methodologies. By using ITS to identify the effectiveness of proven methods of instruction, we can more effectively teach students both in and outside of the classroom. In this paper we review the results and contributions of a new Bayesian data mining method which can be used to identify what works in an ITS and how it can be used to learn from data which is not in the typical randomized controlled trial design. We then discuss modifications to this dataset which use more knowledge about the students to improve accuracy. Lastly we evaluate this model on detecting and predicting long term student retention, and discuss methods to improve its predictive accuracy.
2

Student Modeling within a Computer Tutor for Mathematics: Using Bayesian Networks and Tabling Methods

Wang, Yutao 15 September 2015 (has links)
"Intelligent tutoring systems rely on student modeling to understand student behavior. The result of student modeling can provide assessment for student knowledge, estimation of student¡¯s current affective states (ie boredom, confusion, concentration, frustration, etc), prediction of student performance, and suggestion of the next tutoring steps. There are three focuses of this dissertation. The first focus is on better predicting student performance by adding more information, such as student identity and information about how many assistance students needed. The second focus is to analyze different performance and feature set for modeling student short-term knowledge and longer-term knowledge. The third focus is on improving the affect detectors by adding more features. In this dissertation I make contributions to the field of data mining as well as educational research. I demonstrate novel Bayesian networks for student modeling, and also compared them with each other. This work contributes to educational research by broadening the task of analyzing student knowledge to student knowledge retention, which is a much more important and interesting question for researchers to look at. Additionally, I showed a set of new useful features as well as how to effectively use these features in real models. For instance, in Chapter 5, I showed that the feature of the number of different days a students has worked on a skill is a more predictive feature for knowledge retention. These features themselves are not a contribution to data mining so much as they are to education research more broadly, which can used by other educational researchers or tutoring systems. "
3

Characterizing Productive Perseverance Using Sensor-Free Detectors of Student Knowledge, Behavior, and Affect

Botelho, Anthony 18 April 2019 (has links)
Failure is a necessary step in the process of learning. For this reason, there has been a myriad of research dedicated to the study of student perseverance in the presence of failure, leading to several commonly-cited theories and frameworks to characterize productive and unproductive representations of the construct of persistence. While researchers are in agreement that it is important for students to persist when struggling to learn new material, there can be both positive and negative aspects of persistence. What is it, then, that separates productive from unproductive persistence? The purpose of this work is to address this question through the development, extension, and study of data-driven models of student affect, behavior, and knowledge. The increased adoption of computer-based learning platforms in real classrooms has led to unique opportunities to study student learning at both fine levels of granularity and longitudinally at scale. Prior work has leveraged machine learning methods, existing learning theory, and previous education research to explore various aspects of student learning. These include the development of sensor-free detectors that utilize only the student interaction data collected through such learning platforms. Building off of the considerable amount of prior research, this work employs state-of-the-art machine learning methods in conjunction with the large scale granular data collected by computer-based learning platforms in alignment with three goals. First, this work focuses on the development of student models that study learning through the use of advancements in student modeling and deep learning methodologies. Second, this dissertation explores the development of tools that incorporate such models to support teachers in taking action in real classrooms to promote productive approaches to learning. Finally, this work aims to complete the loop in utilizing these detector models to better understand the underlying constructs that are being measured through their application and their connection to productive perseverance and commonly-observed learning outcomes.
4

Towards Personalized Learning using Counterfactual Inference for Randomized Controlled Trials

Zhao, Siyuan 26 April 2018 (has links)
Personalized learning considers that the causal effects of a studied learning intervention may differ for the individual student (e.g., maybe girls do better with video hints while boys do better with text hints). To evaluate a learning intervention inside ASSISTments, we run a randomized control trial (RCT) by randomly assigning students into either a control condition or a treatment condition. Making the inference about causal effects of studies interventions is a central problem. Counterfactual inference answers “What if� questions, such as "Would this particular student benefit more if the student were given the video hint instead of the text hint when the student cannot solve a problem?". Counterfactual prediction provides a way to estimate the individual treatment effects and helps us to assign the students to a learning intervention which leads to a better learning. A variant of Michael Jordan's "Residual Transfer Networks" was proposed for the counterfactual inference. The model first uses feed-forward neural networks to learn a balancing representation of students by minimizing the distance between the distributions of the control and the treated populations, and then adopts a residual block to estimate the individual treatment effect. Students in the RCT usually have done a number of problems prior to participating it. Each student has a sequence of actions (performance sequence). We proposed a pipeline to use the performance sequence to improve the performance of counterfactual inference. Since deep learning has achieved a huge amount of success in learning representations from raw logged data, student representations were learned by applying the sequence autoencoder to performance sequences. Then, incorporate these representations into the model for counterfactual inference. Empirical results showed that the representations learned from the sequence autoencoder improved the performance of counterfactual inference.
5

Student Modeling From Different Aspects

Wang, Yan 14 April 2016 (has links)
With the wide usage of online tutoring systems, researchers become interested in mining data from logged files of these systems, so as to get better understanding of students. Varieties of aspects of students’ learning have become focus of studies, such as modeling students’ mastery status and affects. On the other hand, Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT), which is an unbiased method for getting insights of education, finds its way in Intelligent Tutoring System. Firstly, people are curious about what kind of settings would work better. Secondly, such a tutoring system, with lots of students and teachers using it, provides an opportunity for building a RCT infrastructure underlying the system. With the increasing interest in Data mining and RCTs, the thesis focuses on these two aspects. In the first part, we focus on analyzing and mining data from ASSISTments, an online tutoring system run by a team in Worcester Polytechnic Institute. Through the data, we try to answer several questions from different aspects of students learning. The first question we try to answer is what matters more to student modeling, skill information or student information. The second question is whether it is necessary to model students’ learning at different opportunity count. The third question is about the benefits of using partial credit, rather than binary credit as measurement of students’ learning in RCTs. The fourth question focuses on the amount that students spent Wheel Spinning in the tutoring system. The fifth questions studies the tradeoff between the mastery threshold and the time spent in the tutoring system. By answering the five questions, we both propose machine learning methodology that can be applied in educational data mining, and present findings from analyzing and mining the data. In the second part, we focused on RCTs within ASSISTments. Firstly, we looked at a pilot study of reassessment and relearning, which suggested a better system setting to improve students’ robust learning. Secondly, we proposed the idea to build an infrastructure of learning within ASSISTments, which provides the opportunities to improve the whole educational environment.
6

Boredom and student modeling in intelligent tutoring systems

Hawkins, William J 25 April 2014 (has links)
Over the past couple decades, intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) have become popular in education. ITSs are effective at helping students learn (VanLehn, 2011; Razzaq, Mendicino & Heffernan, 2008; Koedinger et al, 1997) and help researchers understand how students learn. Such research has included modeling how students learn (Corbett & Anderson, 1995), the effectiveness of help given within an ITS (Beck et al, 2008), the difficulty of different problems (Pardos & Heffernan, 2011), and predicting long-term outcomes like college attendance (San Pedro et al, 2013a), among many other studies. While most studies have focused on ITSs from a cognitive perspective, a growing number of researchers are paying attention to the motivational and affective aspects of tutoring, which have been recognized as important components of human tutoring (Lepper et al, 1993). Recent work has shown that student affect within an ITS can be detected, even without physical sensors or cameras (D’Mello et al, 2008; Conati & Maclaren, 2009; Sabourin et al, 2011; San Pedro et al, 2013b). Initial studies with these sensor-less affect detectors have shown that certain problematic affective states, such as boredom, confusion and frustration, are prevalent within ITSs (Baker et al, 2010b). Boredom in particular has been linked to negative learning outcomes (Pekrun et al, 2010; Farmer & Sundberg, 1986) and long-term disengagement (Farrell, 1988). Therefore, reducing or responding effectively to these affective states within ITSs may improve both short- and long-term learning outcomes. This work is an initial attempt to determine what causes boredom in ITSs. First, we determine which is more responsible for boredom in ITSs: the content in the system, or the students themselves. Based on the findings of that analysis, we conduct a randomized controlled trial to determine the effects of monotony on student boredom. In addition to the work on boredom, we also perform analyses that concern student modeling, specifically how to improve Knowledge Tracing (Corbett & Anderson, 1995), a popular student model used extensively in real systems like the Cognitive Tutors (Koedinger et al, 1997) and in educational research.
7

Assessing the Impact of Positive Feedback in Constraint-based Tutors

Barrow, Devon January 2008 (has links)
Across many domains, Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) are used to facilitate practice, providing a customized learning environment and personal tutoring experience for students to learn at their own pace through effective student modeling and feedback. Most current ITSs are built around cognitive learning theories including Ohlsson's theory on learning from performance errors and Anderson's ACT theories of skill acquisition which focus primarily on providing negative feedback or corrective feedback, facilitating learning by correcting errors. Research into the behavior and methods used by expert tutors suggest that experienced tutors use positive feedback quite extensively and successfully. This research investigates positive feedback; learning by capturing and responding to correct behavior, supported by cognitive learning theories. The research aim is to develop and implement a systematic approach to delivering positive feedback in Intelligent Tutoring Systems, in particular SQL-Tutor, a constraint-based tutor which instructs users in the design of Structured Query Language (SQL) database queries. An evaluation study was conducted at the University of Canterbury involving a control group of students who used the original version of SQL-Tutor giving only negative feedback and an experimental group using the modified version of SQL-Tutor where both negative and positive feedback were given. Results of the study show that students learn quite similarly from one system to another, however those in the experimental group take significantly less time to solve the same number of problems, in fewer attempts compared to those in the control group. Students in the experimental group also learn approximately the same number of concepts as students in the control but in much less time. This indicates that positive feedback results in increased amount of learning over a shorter period of time and improves the effectiveness of learning in ITSs.
8

Tracing Knowledge and Engagement in Parallel by Observing Behavior in Intelligent Tutoring Systems

Schultz, Sarah E 27 January 2015 (has links)
Two of the major goals in Educational Data Mining are determining students’ state of knowledge and determining their affective state. It is useful to be able to determine whether a student is engaged with a tutor or task in order to adapt to his/her needs and necessary to have an idea of the students' knowledge state in order to provide material that is appropriately challenging. These two problems are usually examined separately and multiple methods have been proposed to solve each of them. However, little work has been done on examining both of these states in parallel and the combined effect on a student’s performance. The work reported in this thesis explores ways to observe both behavior and performance in order to more fully understand student state.
9

Modeling Student Retention in an Environment with Delayed Testing

Li, Shoujing 24 April 2013 (has links)
Over the last two decades, the field of educational data mining (EDM) has been focusing on predicting the correctness of the next student response to the question (e.g., [2, 6] and the 2010 KDD Cup), in other words, predicting student short-term performance. Student modeling has been widely used for making such inferences. Although performing well on the immediate next problem is an indicator of mastery, it is by far not the only criteria. For example, the Pittsburgh Science of Learning Center's theoretic framework focuses on robust learning (e.g., [7, 10]), which includes the ability to transfer knowledge to new contexts, preparation for future learning of related skills, and retention - the ability of students to remember the knowledge they learned over a long time period. Especially for a cumulative subject such as mathematics, robust learning, particularly retention, is more important than short-term indicators of mastery. The Automatic Reassessment and Relearning System (ARRS) is a platform we developed and deployed on September 1st, 2012, which is mainly used by middle-school math teachers and their students. This system can help students better retain knowledge through automatically assigning tests to students, giving students opportunity to relearn the skill when necessary and generating reports to teachers. After we deployed and tested the system for about seven months, we have collected 287,424 data points from 6,292 students. We have created several models that predict students' retention performance using a variety of features, and discovered which were important for predicting correctness on a delayed test. We found that the strongest predictor of retention was a student's initial speed of mastering the content. The most striking finding was that students who struggled to master the content (took over 8 practice attempts) showed very poor retention, only 55% correct, after just one week. Our results will help us advance our understanding of learning and potentially improve ITS.
10

Modelagem probabilística de aspectos afetivos do aluno em um jogo educacional colaborativo

Pontarolo, Edilson January 2008 (has links)
Este trabalho apresenta o processo de construção de um modelo de inferência de emoções que um aluno sente em relação a outros alunos durante interação síncrona em um contexto de jogo colaborativo de aprendizagem. A inferência de emoções está psicologicamente fundamentada na abordagem da avaliação cognitiva e foram investigadas relações entre objetivos e normas comportamentais do aluno e aspectos de sua personalidade. Especificamente, foram empregados o modelo OCC de emoções e o modelo Big-Five (Cinco Grandes Fatores) de traços de personalidade para a fundamentação teórica da modelagem. O modelo afetivo representa a vergonha e orgulho apresentados pelo aluno em resposta à avaliação cognitiva de suas próprias ações e a reprovação e admiração apresentadas pelo aluno em resposta a ações de seu parceiro de jogo, a partir da avaliação do comportamento observável dos parceiros representado por suas interações no jogo colaborativo, em relação a normas comportamentais do aluno. A fim de suportar a incerteza presente na informação afetiva e cognitiva do aluno, adotou-se uma representação deste conhecimento através de Rede Bayesiana. Um refinamento qualitativo parcial e a respectiva parametrização quantitativa do modelo probabilístico foram efetuados a partir da análise de uma base de casos obtida através da condução de experimentos. A fim de prover um ambiente experimental, foi concebido e prototipado um jogo colaborativo no qual dois indivíduos conjugam esforços a fim de resolver problemas lógicos comuns à dupla, através de ações coordenadas, negociação simples e comunicação estruturada, em competição com outras duplas. / This work presents the construction of a model to infer emotions a student feels towards other students during synchronous interaction in the context of a collaborative learning game. The emotions inference is psychologically based on cognitive appraisal theory. Some relations between students’ personality and their goals and behavioral standards were also investigated. This modeling was based on OCC emotion model and Big-Five personality model. The affective model represents the student’s proud and shame as an answer to the cognitive appraisal of her/his own attributed interactions, and the student’s admiration and reproach as an answer to the cognitive appraisal of her/his partner attributed interactions, both according to the student’s behavioral standards. Bayesian Network knowledge representation was employed to better stand for the uncertainty present in the student’s cognitive and affective information. Employing a data-driven procedure, the probabilistic model was partially refined in terms of qualitative relations and quantitative parameters. Experimental data were obtained by using a game prototype implemented in order to support a collaborative dynamics of coordinated action, simple negotiation and structured communication, through which students interacted in order to solve shared problems, during synchronous competition with other students.

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