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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Defeitos em cristais formados por átomos de 4He / Defects in crystals formed by 4He

Vale, Renato Pessoa 16 August 2018 (has links)
Orientadores: Silvio Antonio Sachetto Vitiello, Maurice de Koning / Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin / Made available in DSpace on 2018-08-16T14:29:42Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Vale_RenatoPessoa_D.pdf: 5594892 bytes, checksum: 6cd9dc97441dc729a416210efb11ec2d (MD5) Previous issue date: 2010 / Resumo: Neste trabalho apresentamos um estudo feito sobre defeitos em um sólido quântico formado por átomos de 4He. Embora ainda não exista um mecanismo para explicar a fase supersólida deste sistema, ela tem sido frequentemente associada com a presença de desordem no cristal, que pode ocorrer com a existência de algum tipo de defeito. O método do trabalho reversível é aplicado para calcular a concentração de vacâncias e a energia livre de ligação entre estes defeitos pontuais. Inicialmente, esta metodologia é aplicada a um sólido quântico descrito por uma função de onda tipo Jastrow, para em seguida ser aplicada no nosso sistema de interesse. A função de onda sombra é utilizada para modelar o 4He sólido hcp, cujas configurações são amostradas através do método de Monte Carlo utilizando o algoritmo de Metropolis. Além da determinação das concentrações de monovacâncias e divacâncias, nossos resultados indicam que não existe uma tendência de se formar aglomerados deste defeito, que poderia levar a uma separação de fases. Posteriormente, utilizamos o método de Peierls-Nabarro para estudar defeitos lineares do tipo discordâncias. Para isto, determinamos as constantes elásticas do material, sendo esta a primeira estimativa teórica destas propriedades para o hélio sólido. Nosso modelo indica que estes defeitos lineares possuem uma tendência em se separar em pares de discordâncias parciais. Além disso, a resistência intrínseca da rede cristalina desempenha um papel importante na mobilidade destes defeitos. Portanto, um mecanismo para explicar a fase supersólida do 4He, que envolva a presença de discordâncias, deve levar em conta esta resistência / Abstract: In this work we present a study about defects in a quantum solid formed by atoms of 4He. Although there is no mechanism to explain the supersolid phase of this system, it has often been associated with the presence of disorder in the crystal, which can occur with the presence of some type of defect. The reversible work method is applied to calculate the concentration of the vacancies and the binding free energy between these point defects. Initially, this methodology is applied to a quantum solid described by a Jastrow wave function, to then be applied in our system of interest. A shadow wave function is used to model the hcp solid helium, whose con gurations are sampled by the Monte Carlo method using the Metropolis algorithm. Besides the determination of monovacancy and divacancy concentrations, our results indicate that there is not a tendency to form clusters of these defects, which could lead to a phase separation. Subsequently, we used the Peierls-Nabarro method to study linear defects like dislocations. With this purpose, we determined the elastic constants of material, this being the rst theoretical estimates of these properties for solid helium. Our model indicates that these linear defects have a tendency to separate into pairs of partial dislocations. Furthermore, the intrinsic resistance of the crystal lattice plays an important role in the mobility of these defects. Therefore, a mechanism to explain the supersolid phase of helium, which involves the presence of dislocations, should take account of this resistance / Doutorado / Física da Matéria Condensada / Doutor em Ciências
2

Teorias variacionais dos sistemas formados por átomos de 4He / Variational theories for systems of 4He' atoms

Reis, Marcelo Augusto dos, 1978- 29 February 2008 (has links)
Orientador: Silvio A. S. Vitiello / Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin / Made available in DSpace on 2018-08-11T05:46:23Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Reis_MarceloAugustodos_M.pdf: 11400954 bytes, checksum: da0c111de1e988997b785a1a91546049 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2008 / Resumo: Este trabalho propõe duas funções de onda variacionais baseadas no conceito de partículas sombra e que descrevem a fase sólida dos sistemas formados por átomos de 4He. Uma delas, denominada Função de Onda Sombra Livre e Periódica (PFS) fornece bons resultados para esta fase aferidos pelas suas propriedades, entre elas as energias do sistema e a distribuição radial de pares que se mostraram em bom acordo com outros resultados da literatura. A outra, denominada Função de Onda Sombra Periódica (PS) além de fornecer bons resultados para as propriedades de interesse, se destaca por conseguir descrever a fase supersólida e desse modo predizer uma Condensação de Bose-Einstein na fase sólida. Todos os resultados que obtivemos foram decorrentes de nossas próprias implementações numéricas através do método Monte Carlo Variacional / Abstract: This work proposes two variational wave functions based on the concept of shadow particles that describes the solid phase of systems formed by atoms of 4He. One of them, called Periodic Free Shadow Wave Function (PFS) provides good results for this phase like the energies of the system and the Radial Distribution Function that proved to be in good agreement with other results of the literature. The other, called the Periodic Shadow Wave Function (PS) in addition to providing good results for these properties, describes the supersolid phase and thus predicts a Bose-Einstein Condensation of the solid phase. All the results that have been obtained are due to our own numerical implementations of the Variational Monte Carlo method / Mestrado / Física da Matéria Condensada / Mestre em Física
3

Cálculo de energias cinéticas em sistemas formados por átomos de 4He na fase sólida / Calculation of kinetic energy in the systems consisting of 4He atoms in the solid phase

Rugeles Vargas, Elkin Jezzid, 1981- 11 July 2011 (has links)
Orientador: Silvio Antonio Sachetto Vitiello / Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin / Made available in DSpace on 2018-08-19T15:54:09Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 RugelesVargas_ElkinJezzid_M.pdf: 2457986 bytes, checksum: a05f1eaea9e1009565c9c9e1adb72150 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2011 / Resumo: Neste trabalho estudamos o comportamento das energias do 4He sólido a baixas temperaturas para diferentes densidades, utilizando-se os métodos complementares de Difusão Monte Carlo (DMC) para a temperatura de 0 K e Integrais de Trajetória Pelo Método de Monte Carlo (PIMC) para as temperaturas de 1 e 2 K. Como os operadores das energias cinética ^T e potencial Û não comutam, utilizou-se o teorema de Hellman-Feymann no método DMC e propriedades termodinâmicas da energia no método PIMC, para estimar-se a energia cinética e potencial do sistema. Obtivemos resultados com um acordo muito bom com dados experimentais da literatura. O estudo da energia cinética é de interesse em sistemas que obedecem a simetria de Bose-Einstein, onde um decréscimo da energia cinética, abaixo de uma temperatura crítica Tc, pode ser considerado como uma evidência da condensação / Abstract: In this work we have studied the behavior of the energies in solid 4He at low temperatures for different densities, using two complementary methods, of Diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) method for a temperature of 0 K and Path Integrals by Monte Carlo (PIMC) method at temperatures of 1 and 2 K. Due to the fact that the kinetic ^ T and potential ^U operators do not commute, the Helman-Feyman theorem was used in the DMC method, and thermodynamic properties of the energy in PIMC method, to estimate the kinetic and potential energy of the system. We obtained results in a good agreement with experimental data. The study of the kinetic energy is interesting in systems that obey the Bose-Einstein symmetry, where a decrease in its value, below a critical temperature Tc, can be considered as an evidence of the existence of a condensate / Mestrado / Física / Mestre em Física
4

Phases, Transitions, Patterns, And Excitations In Generalized Bose-Hubbard Models

Kurdestany, Jamshid Moradi 05 1900 (has links) (PDF)
This thesis covers most of my work in the field of ultracold atoms loaded in optical lattices. This thesis can be divided into five different parts. In Chapter 1, after a brief introduction to the field of optical lattices I review the fundamental aspects pertaining to the physics of systems in periodic potentials and a short overview of the experiments on ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. In Chapter 2 we develop an inhomogeneous mean-field theory for the extended Bose-Hubbard model with a quadratic, confining potential. In the absence of this poten¬tial, our mean-field theory yields the phase diagram of the homogeneous extended Bose-Hubbard model. This phase diagram shows a superfluid (SF) phase and lobes of Mott-insulator(MI), density-wave(DW), and supersolid (SS) phases in the plane of the chemical potential and on-site repulsion ; we present phase diagrams for representative values of , the repulsive energy for bosons on nearest-neighbor sites. We demonstrate that, when the confining potential is present, superfluid and density-wave order parameters are nonuniform; in particular, we obtain, for a few representative values of parameters, spherical shells of SF, MI ,DW ,and SSphases. We explore the implications of our study for experiments on cold-atom dipolar con¬densates in optical lattices in a confining potential. In Chapter3 we present an extensive study of Mottinsulator( MI) and superfluid (SF) shells in Bose-Hubbard (BH) models for bosons in optical lattices with har¬monic traps. For this we develop an inhomogeneous mean-field theory. Our results for the BH model with one type of spinless bosons agrees quantitatively with quan¬tum Monte Carlo(QMC) simulations. Our approach is numerically less intensive than such simulations, so we are able to perform calculations on experimentally realistic, large three-dimensional(3D) systems, explore a wide range of parameter values, and make direct contact with a variety of experimental measurements. We also generalize our inhomogeneous mean-field theory to study BH models with har¬monic traps and(a) two species of bosons or(b) spin-1bosons. With two species of bosons we obtain rich phase diagrams with a variety of SF and MI phases and as¬sociated shells, when we include a quadratic confining potential. For the spin-1BH model we show, in a representative case, that the system can display alternating shells of polar SF and MI phases; and we make interesting predictions for experi¬ments in such systems. . In Chapter 4 we carry out an extensive study of the phase diagrams of the ex-tended Bose Hubbard model, with a mean filling of one boson per site, in one dimension by using the density matrix renormalization group and show that it contains Superfluid (SF), Mott-insulator (MI), density-wave (DW) and Haldane ¬insulator(HI) phases. We show that the critical exponents and central charge for the HI-DW,MI-HI and SF-MI transitions are consistent with those for models in the two-dimensional Ising, Gaussian, and Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) uni¬versality classes, respectively; and we suggest that the SF-HI transition may be more exotic than a simple BKT transition. We show explicitly that different bound¬ary conditions lead to different phase diagrams.. In Chapter 5 we obtain the excitation spectra of the following three generalized of Bose-Hubbard(BH) models:(1) a two-species generalization of the spinless BH model, (2) a single-species, spin-1 BH model, and (3) the extended Bose-Hubbard model (EBH) for spinless interacting bosons of one species. In all the phases of these models we show how to obtain excitation spectra by using the random phase approximation (RPA). We compare the results of our work with earlier studies of related models and discuss implications for experiments.

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