Aplin, William Neil
The choice of travel mode for the journey to work is an important aspect in the planning of adequate transportation systems in urban areas. This choice process is complex and consequently a generalized theoretical basis for modal choice is difficult to construct. Nevertheless, empirical modeling of modal choice behaviour has enabled transportation planners to predict future travel demands for different modes. Furthermore, such models have led to a body of knowledge which has allowed researchers to explore the modal choice decision on a more theoretical basis. This study involves the analysis of the modal choice process for White commuters in Cape Town. The investigation of the role of modal split in transportation planning is provided to illustrate the relevance of this sub-process in the overall transportation planning process. An investigation of some of the theoretical and applied literature in this field indicates, that to obtain suitable and simple planning tools for modal split analysis, an empirical approach to modelling is probably the best alternative. The theoretical approaches are still in an embryonic stage and require more research before they offer a practical solution to modal split modelling. The data collection technique used in this study involved the distribution of a questionnaire survey to a sample of employees at their workplace. The technique provided an excellent response rate and can be performed with a minimum of resources. Other detailed travel time studies are described and once again all appreciable amount of data was able to be collected with a minimum of funds and manpower.
Investigating the introduction of economic land use developments to create rail contra-flow using a strategic model: a case study of JohannesburgNgobeni, Ntombifuthi 27 January 2020 (has links)
South Africa is still recovering from the effects of the apartheid government and spatial design that marginalises the demographic that resides at the edges and outskirts of cities. The country has come a long way from where it was, but still has a long way to go to eradicate the effects this fragmentation has had on access to socio economic opportunities. Diversifying land use and creating localised economic hubs may provide a helping hand in reducing the need to travel far distances to seek opportunity, and by extension create an attraction for surrounding communities. The dual role of nullifying past prejudice implemented through strategic spatial design while introducing the perspective of using the relationship between land use and transport to create rail contra flow and localised socio-economic hubs is one that can be achieved strategically. The modelling software that will help to demonstrate the model output of the research, which will be a simulation of contra-flow after the introduction of economic land use developments, is PTV VISUM.
Cameron, Robert James
12 March 2020
This dissertation defines and describes the concept of 'transit deserts’, and the important role public transport plays in the lives of people who have few or no other alternatives. Transit deserts are defined as areas containing large portions of public transport dependent populations with limited access to private vehicles where the level of mass public transport does not adequately service the need of the populations in question (Jiao and Dillivan, 2013). The methodology to identify transit deserts (Jiao and Dillivan, 2013; Jiao, 2017) is tested in this study within a South African context, i.e. Cape Town. Since all available literature on measuring transit deserts was generated in the United States, a clearly defined modus operandi was established. Therefore, this dissertation aimed to modify and adapt the existing method to the Cape Town context. An explanation to how certain details related to the existing method were changed to be applicable to a South African city is provided in this study. The modified method involved identifying the public transport dependent population as a measure of public transport need, calculating the supply of public transport, and then measuring the gap between the need and the supply. This study will find that transit deserts exist in Cape Town and are spatially located on the outskirts of the metropolitan, in suburban and rural portions of the city. Transit gaps are also identified in previously marginilised areas known as the Cape Flats. Significantly, this study revealed the need for Cape Town to gather comprehensive transportation network data that is up-to-date and publicly available. This recommendation would allow for a more effective analysis of public transport need and supply in order to report on the location of transit deserts more accurately.
Towards a framework for assessing the impact of organisational capacity on integrated transport planning in district municipalitiesMalila, Bonile Lucas January 2018 (has links)
Some South African municipalities are facing challenges in performing transport planning functions. These challenges include a lack of organisational structure and human resource capacity, onerous planning frameworks, lack of guidance in preparing transport plans and lack of funding. To address these challenges, the Department of Transport has made various interventions, including the placement of interns in several municipalities across the country, reviewing transport planning frameworks and developing planning guidelines for the preparation of Integrated Transport Plans (ITPs). However, the impact on the ground has been minimal in terms of the quality of ITPs produced and their implementation. The impact of a lack of human resources and organisational capacity has not been investigated within a district municipal context. There is, therefore, a need to investigate capacity limitations and possible interventions as these factors may improve the quality and implementation of district municipality ITPs. The research reported upon in this dissertation was motivated by this need. Drawing on two case studies (the Alfred Nzo and Sedibeng District Municipalities), the study set out to assess how adequately District Municipalities (DMs) meet the minimum requirements for the preparation of ITPs. The study also set out to assess organisational capacity constraints that impact upon the performance of the two DMs surveyed. In fulfilling the aims of the study it was considered beneficial to use a mixed method qualitative survey and case study research approach, taking into account the research questions and limitations. A content analysis approach was adopted, whereby both the contents of the DITP documents, and the minimum requirements, were systematically examined. This ensured that the conclusions drawn from analysing the data collected were grounded. An assessment of the quality of the District Integrated Transport Plan (DITP), and the implementation thereof, also gave an indication as to whether the staff capacity employed by the DM was sufficient to fulfil its mandate. The study revealed that reviewing the minimum requirements might work to ensure that poorly resourced DMs are not subjected to requirements that are geared towards more affluent DMs. Learning from other countries, the study showed that having a monitoring chapter in the minimum requirements, and subsequently in the DITP, could ensure that quality control measures, as well as tools to monitor projects listed in the DITP, are put in place. The research showed that the Sedibeng DITP had an organisational structure and human resource capacity responsible for transport planning. It further revealed that the detailed nature of the Sedibeng DITP could be attributed to the fact that there is a relatively well-established organisational structure and a human resource capacity responsible for transport in the DM. Whilst on the case of Alfred Nzo DITP the research showed that there is no organisational structure and human resource capacity responsible for transport, which might account for the lack of details in its DITP. Furthermore, the research supported a hypothesis that the lack of human resources and organisational capacity have negative impact on the development and implementation of the ITPs at DMs level. In conclusion, the study recommends that transport planners should be employed by the National or provincial department of transport and be placed in DMs with the aim of increasing capacity whilst the DM is working on the reconfiguration of its organisational structure. Furthermore, the study recommends that the minimum content of the DITPs should be amended to meet the available capacity constraints and to align the categorisation of municipalities with that provided in the Municipal Structures Act. The minimum requirements should acknowledge this categorisation of municipalities, and where there is a need for the DM to scale down the minimum content of its plan based on capacity limitations or class of the DM, the minimum requirements should permit these deviations.
A GIS based planning support system for inclusionary housing profitability optimisation in Cape Town, South AfricaKrause, Philip 19 February 2019 (has links)
Apartheid era legislation, along with automobile-oriented city planning practices, have left legacies of race/class-linked spatial inequality, and unsustainable land-use transport inter-relationships in post-Apartheid South African cities. Most poor urban communities still live in peripheral settlements, which are far from employment, education, and social opportunities. Consequently, these communities are reliant on public transit services which are inadequate and often unsafe. Despite substantial democratic era public transit investment, this automobile-oriented spatial legacy, rapid urbanisation and a growing middle class have contributed to increased automobile ownership and severe traffic congestion. This, along with inner-city and surrounding precinct regeneration programmes, guided by neo-liberal market-friendly agendas, have contributed towards gentrification and consequent displacement of poorer communities from the few remaining central, but previously affordable, precincts. Intervention is required to halt this trend, and to enable poorer communities’ return to central urban neighbourhoods. Inclusionary housing in private sector housing developments could be one such intervention. Since 2007, national and municipal authorities have devoted resources to developing inclusionary housing policies; over a decade later, none have progressed beyond draft state. A core challenge has been establishing mechanisms that ensure sufficient flexibility to accommodate widely differing market conditions between precincts. Decisions by local authorities/private property developers to grant concessions/pursue projects are influenced by constraining factors applicable to the particular land parcels considered. The ease and rigour of such decision-making at both a policy and implementation level could arguably be enhanced by a GIS (geographic information system) based PSS (planning support system), that is capable of analysing spatial and non-spatial factors on multiple land parcels. This could enable a comparison of the impact that concessions (in exchange for inclusion of affordable units) may have on the financial viability of projects. The research objective of this dissertation was to establish the technical feasibility of developing such a GIS-based inclusionary housing profitability assessment PSS, capable of utilising existing GIS data (maintained by City of Cape Town metropolitan municipality), and which is capable of aiding local authorities and property developers, and ultimately, low-income communities. In conducting this research, a system intending to meet this objective was developed. Through engagement with stakeholders, five case study sites were identified. These were analysed using the system, allowing assessment of their suitability for inclusionary housing, while also allowing for the performance of the system itself to be evaluated. Case study findings suggest that moderately wealthy neighbourhoods are best suited to inclusionary housing projects, as the impact of cross-subsidisation appeared strongest. Project viability was found to be highly sensitive to market conditions, highlighting the importance of using accurate and up-to-date market data. Ultimately, it was concluded that stakeholders see value in the development of a GIS based inclusionary housing PSS, but for the system to truly meet its objective of aiding inclusionary housing policy development and implementation decisions, additional functionality would be required.
Measuring and analysing the impacts of travel demand management interventions on commuter travel behaviour : the case of rail-based park-and-ride facilities in Cape TownVan Rensburg, Johann January 2011 (has links)
Includes abstract. / Includes bibliographical references (leaves 78-81). / This dissertation reports upon the findings of a study undertaken in Cape Town to measure the impacts of park-and-ride facility upgrades on commuting behaviour at selected rail stations. The study analysed data from two sources covering the period before and after park-andride facility upgrades at three affected rail stations (Brackenfell, Kraaifontein and Kuilsrivier) and three control stations. The purpose of including the control group was to assist in assessing whether any utilisation changes observed across the before and after periods were the result of external factors.
An investigation into the performance of full BRT and partial bus priority strategies on arterial intersections and corridorsChitauka, Friedrich Chizhyindiswe January 2015 (has links)
Rapid urbanisation is a global problem affecting most developing and intermediate countries. As the world’s urban population is set to double by the year 2050, growth in urban infrastructure and services is needed but is generally lagging behind this exponential growth, especially in most African countries. It is a reality that calls for smart responses. This implies that current resources need to be used efficiently to enable them to cater for the needs of an ever increasing urban population. Smart Transport is an innovative response to the urgent mobility and accessibility needs of urban inhabitants. Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and bus priority measures are examples of smart transport. Research into High Level of Service Bus Systems (HLSB) or more commonly known as BRT in South African settings; has shown that they can successfully improve urban mobility while simultaneously reducing congestion, energy consumption, vehicular emissions and increase transit efficiencies. BRT is defined as a rubber-tired form of rapid transit that combines stations, vehicles, services, running ways, and ITS elements into an integrated system with a strong image and identity(Barker, Alvarez, Barnes, et al., 2003). However, the relatively high capital and operating costs of full specification/feature BRT systems are prohibitive to many local authorities. In many cities where they have already been implemented, this service is often subsidised. Furthermore, the road space is a limiting factor, as many of the areas that BRT systems needs to extend into, simply cannot accommodate conventional traffic mitigation strategies such as road widening or reservation of median lanes for BRT infrastructure. In the long term, BRT has been selected as the preferred model for mass urban transit by government i.e. all of South Africa’s major centres are in the process of implementing BRT systems. However, there is wide range of individual bus priority measures such as Bus Signal Priority (BSP) which have been used to improve public bus performance on urban corridors around the world. An opportunity exists to find alternative ways to extract maximum benefits of full specification/feature BRT. Hence the fundamental question this thesis will seek to answer is: Is it possible to reap the performance benefits of a full specification BRT system or full bus priority by implementation of partial Bus Priority Schemes at strategic locations along transit routes? Literature reviewed shows that; the full-feature BRT model in South Africa (SA) was adopted without being subjected to a process of due diligence and objective evaluation at the time. Enhanced bus systems that do not exhibit all the prescribed features of a full-feature BRT are dismissed as "BRT-lite" by proponents of the full-feature BRT model such as the Institute for Transportation and Development Policy (ITDP). The high levels of poverty among users, poor urban spatial form and financially constrained local authorities has brought the appropriateness of full-feature BRT for along SA's urban arterials into question. This roll-out of these full schemes has drawn criticism from institutions such as the World Bank who argue that the challenge in improving quality public transportation in SA lies in its access and affordability (Wood, 2014). This criticism is in light of the fact that Lagos BRT which is widely categorised as BRT-lite has demonstrated that improvements to public bus performance can be achieved in constrained African urban centres with less infrastructure and cheaper cost. Similarly, many North American cities have improved the performance of their public bus operations by using combinations of bus priority measures which are deemed most relevant for their local contexts rather than implementing full-feature BRT systems. The primary aim of this research is determine the effectiveness of alternative or partial bus priority measures compared to the baseline scenario and full priority. The study area chosen is Klipfontein Road in Cape Town (CT).
The MyCiTi is currently generating large volumes of raw transactional information in the form of commuter smartcard transactions, which can be considered Big Data. Agent Based modelling (ABM) has been applied internationally as a means of deriving actionable intelligence from Big Data. It is proposed that ABM can be used to unlock the hidden potential within the aforementioned data. This paper demonstrates how to go about developing and calibrating a MATSim-based ABM to analyse AFC data. It is found that data formatting algorithms are critical in the preparation of data for modelling activities. These algorithms are highly complex, requiring significant time investment prior to development. Furthermore, the development of appropriate ABM calibration parameters requires careful consideration in terms of appropriate data collection, simulation testing, and justification. This study serves as strong evidence to suggest that ABM is an appropriate analysis technique for MyCiTi data systems. Validation exercises reveal that ABM is able to calculate on board bus usage and system behaviour with a strong degree of accuracy (R-squared 0.85). It is however recommended that additional research be conducted into more detailed calibration activities, such as fine-tuning agent behaviour during simulation. Ultimately this research study achieves its explorative objectives of model development and testing, and paves a way forward for future research into the practical applications of Big Data and ABM in the South African context.
Tarrant, Adrian Joshua
Urban sprawl remains as a remnant of previous Apartheid legacy policies and has a daily impact on the majority of South African commuters: large, densely populated residential areas (i.e. informal settlements) are generally located on the periphery of towns or cities, far away from areas of employment. As a result, a large number of commuters have to travel great distances to-and from work on a daily basis, and those making use of private vehicles have to accept very high levels of congestion for a large part of their journey. Certain motorists, therefore, carefully select routes, in an attempt to bypass some of this congestion experienced on the arterials and highways, to minimise their travel time and many times this is achieved through the practice of rat-running. This minor dissertation proposes to quantify the number of rat-runners and to identify the routes that the motorists use when moving through a pre-defined study area, with a view towards developing an effective solution to this problem. To achieve this, it is necessary to explore the root causes behind rat-running and investigate what has been done elsewhere to, successfully, mitigate this problem. This information was used to derive a number of proposed mitigating measure alternatives, applicable to the study area's current rat-running where, after a final decision, a preferred solution and the way forward was established. Problem Description The existing Cape Town CBD is positioned in a unique location: the topography of the City, i.e. the position of Table Mountain (and other mountain ranges) and the Atlantic Sea (coastline) means that the majority of the population lives to the east of the CBD, with very few residential opportunities available to the west. As such, there are a limited number of road-based routes to access and exit the City's Central CBD, to and from these east-lying areas which results in significant peak period congestion issues on the City's road network. In fact, results from a study undertaken by GPS manufacturer Tomtom (2014) show that the Cape Town road network is the most congested in the country. It is anticipated that the above-mentioned conditions make it attractive/possible for vehicles leaving the CBD during the PM peak period to rat-run through the immediately adjacent suburban areas, in an attempt to bypass the excessive levels of congestion currently experienced on the major routes. This practice creates major health, safety and economic problems for the affected communities and is a cause for major unhappiness as a result of the associated deterioration in their overall quality of life.
An assessment of the effectiveness of speed humps as a traffic calming measure for accident reduction in DurbanMonyatsi, Lemohang 16 February 2021 (has links)
EThekwini municipality has been allocating millions of rands each year for speed humps as a traffic calming measure, to curb rat-running and ensure pedestrian safety in the city. Since 2012, the city has spent R42.1 million of its capital budget on speed humps. Despite all traffic calming efforts, there hasn't been significant changes in the city's total accidents. Between 2000 and 2015, the city's total crashes has never been below 50 000 per annum. In terms of injuries, the same trend can be observed. Person injuries have been increasing year-on-year since 2012. To date, there hasn't been a study conducted by EThekwini Municipality to assess the effectiveness of these speed humps implemented across the city. At the moment, despite the city's annual commitment to implement traffic calming, particularly in the form of speed humps, the city does not have an idea as to whether traffic calming measures put in place are successful or not, or whether they are effecting any changes at all. This research, therefore, aims to use information available to assess changes in specific roads, i.e. roads that have been traffic calmed. The study will look at these numbers which are key performance indicators before and after the implementation of speed humps. This study will assess the impact of reactive (responsive to requests) traffic calming in the form of speed humps using accident data. The assessment will look at changes relating to the number of crashes before and after implementation of speed humps, it will also focus on changes in the severity of accidents involved. The research will study changes in relation to the types of accident involved particularly pedestrians. These key performance indicators (KPIs) will be used to assess changes and answer the question of effectiveness.
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