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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Genotyping of multidrug-resistant strains of mycobacterium tuberculosis in the Limpopo Province

Kgasha, Matete Olga 2013 (has links)
Genotyping of TB is essential to investigate and confirm transmission of the multi-drug resistant tuberculosis and of great value in optimizing strategies for the determination of strains causing the increased mortality rates of TB outbreaks. Sputum samples (207) were collected from National Health Laboratory Services in Polokwane laboratory for determining mutations and genotypes of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains using GenoType®MTBDRplus (Hain LifeScience, Germany) and Real-Time PCR (Roche, South Africa) techniques. Of the 207 samples, 28 (13.5%) exhibited drug resistance. Thirteen of the 28 (46%) MDR-TB strains belonged to the non-Beijing family, with mutations at codons rpoB 516 and rpoB 526 for RIF and katG 315 and inhA 15 for INH resistance. The Non-Beijing strains 75% (21/28) were monoresistant to RIF 14% (3/21) at codons 516, 526, 531 of rpoB gene and INH 19% (4/21) at codon 315 of katG and codon 15 of inhA 5% (1/21). Of the eight Beijing strains, 3(8%) were INH- resistant at codon 315 for katG and codon 15 for inhA and 3(8%) were RIF-resistant with mutations at codons 516 and 526. Two samples were typed as MDR for the Beijing strains with codon 315 for INH and codons 526 and 531 for RIF. The sample with a co-infection for Beijing and non-Beijing was an MDR-TB strain with mutations in rpoB codons 526, 531, katG 315 and inhA 8, 15 and16. The study showed a high rate of drug resistance with the non-Beijing compared to Beijing strains and mutations in specific codons for RIF and INH are variable for the TB families. Thesis (M.Sc. (Medical Microbiology)) --University Limpopo, 2013
2

Factors affecting treatment outcomes in tuberculosis (TB) patients in the Limpopo Province, South Africa

Gafar, Mohammed Mergni 2013 (has links)
Tuberculosis (TB) threatens the public health all over the world. South Africa is ranked fifth on the list of 22 high burden countries. SA has not achieved the international targets for cure rate and default rate yet. This is attributed to high HIV/AIDS prevalence and emergence of multi- drug resistant TB. Limpopo Province experiences poor TB treatment outcome, in spite of the adoption of strategies that proved globally that they can improve the outcome. The factors affecting treatment outcome in Limpopo Province are as yet undocumented. The specific objectives of this study were to determine the demographic profile of TB patients in the Limpopo Province; to investigate the treatment outcomes and to establish the relationship between age, gender, HIV status, treatment regimen and health facility level and the treatment outcomes in patients diagnosed with pulmonaryTB for period between 2006- 2010, inclusive, in Limpopo Province. Method Retrospective data for the period between 2006 and 2010 (inclusive) were reviewed, and 1200 records of cases of confirmed TB patients were sampled from the ETR.net provincial database. All these patients were diagnosed and treated according to guidelines adopted by the national TB control programme. Standard WHO definitions were used to classify the TB treatment outcome. Chi squire test was used to investigate the association between age, gender, diagnostic category and treatment regimen and treatment outcome. Results Of the 1200 TB cases sampled, 656 (54%) were male. Most of them fell within the age group 22- 55 years (n=871; 72.5%)). According to diagnostic category, 1035 (86.2%) were new cases; 962 (80.1%) cases received regimen I (two months of rifampicin [R], isoniazid [H], pyrazinamide [Z} and ethambutol [E] followed by four months of rifampicin and isoniazid, 2RHZE+ 4RH); 893 (74.4%) cases had successful treatment; 118 (9.8%) defaulted on treatment; 26 (2.2%) had treatment failure, and 163 (13.6%) died. There was a strong association between age (P <0.001), diagnostic category (P < 0.001), treatment regimen (P < 0.001), and health facility level (P< 0.001) and treatment outcome. The success treatment was highly significant (P <0.001) for the cases that fell within the age group 3- 6 years, those that were diagnosed as new cases, those that received treatment at mine health facilities or were treated with regimen III (2RHZ + 4RH). While the default rate was highly significant (P< 0.05) for the cases aged 7- 12 or 22- 55 years, patients that had history of defaulting, and those that received treatment at a community health centre or village health facilities – treatment failure was highly significant (P< .05) for Those fell within age group 22-55 or 56- 74 years, those had initial treatment failure, those that received treatment at hospital or mobile health facilities or treated with regimen II (3RHZES + 5RH) while the death rate was highly significant (P< 0.05) for the cases either fall within age group 0-2, 22- 55 or 56- 74 years, had initial failure, received treatment at hospital or village health facilities or treated with regimen). The un success rate was very highly significant (P< 0.001) for those either characterized by; fall within age group 22- 55 years, had initial failure, received treatment at hospital or village health facilities or treated with regimen II. Conclusion TB treatment outcome are poor in the Limpopo Province, particularly among patients with previous history of TB treatment, those receiving treatment in hospitals, or those being treated with first line regimen II. This situation requires that the TB control programme and other relevant programmes be strengthened, for instance through integration at facility level, towards more effective response to the challenges which hamper progress towards international targets on TB. Further studies are needed to address the effect of HIV status and AIDS, CD4+ cell counts, anti-retroviral therapy (ART), cotrimoxazole preventive therapy (CPT) and radiological presentation, and their effect on TB treatment outcome in Limpopo Province. Those data are not routinely captured on ETR.net, hence were not included in the present study. Thesis (M.Pharm.) --University of Limpopo, 2013
3

SYNTHESIS OF NOVEL AZIRIDINE DERIVATIVES OF PODOCARPIC ACID

Rhoden, Stephen 1 January 2007 (has links)
Podocarpic acid (a diterpenoid resin acid extracted from the Podocarpacea specie of plants) has shown cytotoxicity against carcinoma of the nasopharynx. Since this discovery has been made, research has been performed in order to alter the structure of the resin acid so as to increase the anticancer activity. The carboxylic acid and phenol functional groups, which are present in podocarpic acid, make it possible to synthesize new derivatives selectively at the C-15, C-13, and C-7 positions as well as by substitution of the phenol hydroxyl group. Thus numerous derivatives can be prepared, in high yield, for the purpose of investigating their potential, as new drug leads for the treatment of cancer. In this study, Doyle's catalyst (Dirhodium tetrakis caprolactamate) was used to form a novel derivative in high yield (85%) which contained a 3-membered aziridine ring at the C-6 and C-7 position. The main thrust of this research involved the formation a series of novel derivatives of the aziridine compound by utilizing phenol and m-chlorophenol as nucleophiles to open the aziridine ring. These novel compounds will now be sent to the National Institute of Health (NIH) for bioassay against 60 human cancer cell lines. M.S. Department of Chemistry Sciences Industrial Chemistry MS
4

The occurrence and molecular characterization of non-tuberculous mycobacteria in cattle, African buffalo (syncerus caffer) and their environments in South Africa and genomic characterization and proteomic comparison with mycobacterium bovis

Gcebe, Nomakorinte 2015 (has links)
The aim of this study was to investigate the diversity and prevalence of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in cattle, African buffaloes and their environments in South Africa and the potential of these NTM to elicit cross- reactive immune responses in these animal species which may in turn lead to false diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis. A total of 40 NTM species were identified during a countrywide survey. Mycobacterium terrae, Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum, Mycobacterium vaccae/ Mycobacterium vanbaalenii and a group of isolates closely related to Mycobacterium moriokaense (M. moriokaense-like isolates) were the four most frequently isolated species. Further characterization of M. moriokaense- like isolates revealed two novel NTM species which were named Mycobacterium malmesburii sp.nov. and Mycobacterium komanii sp.nov. respectively. Genomes of M. nonchromogenicum, M. malmesburii sp. nov., M. komanii sp. nov., and M. fortuitum ATCC 6841 were elucidated and investigated for genes encoding homologues of M. bovis predominant immunogenic proteins. These included genes encoding for the Esx family proteins (esx genes), mpb70, mpb63, mpb64, hspX, tpx, Rv1120c, canA and dnaK. The esx gene orthologs encoded in ESX-1 (esxA and esxB), ESX-3 (esxH and esxG), esxR, and ESX-4 (esxT and esxU) loci were identified in the NTM genomes while those encoded in ESX-2 locus were absent in all the four NTM genomes and only esxN (encoded in the ESX-5 locus) and its homologue, esxK were present in M. nonchromogenicum. Gene orthologs encoding for MPB70 (M. malmesburii sp.nov. and M. komanii sp.nov.), DnaK (all four NTM species), CanA (all four NTM species), MPB64 (all four NTM species), Rv1120c (in all four NTM species), TpX, MBP63 and HspX (all in M. nonchromogenicum and M. fortuitum), were found in the NTM genomes. In contrast orthologs of mpb83 and espC were not detected in any of the four NTM. We could not judge just based on the overall protein sequence homologies of the antigens whether the NTM homologues will give rise to cross-reactive immune responses. We consequently checked the existence in NTM of epitopes shown to be immunogenic in M. bovis and M. tuberculosis. Amino acid sequence alignment of the EsxA and EsxB of the NTM sequenced in this study as well as M. smegmatis, M. bovis and M. tuberculosis respectively was done to investigate their similarities at “immunogenic” epitope level. In this analysis, we found that the six bovine T-cell recognized epitopes of M. bovis ESAT-6 described by Vordermeier et al., 2003 and 2007 had similarities to those of M. fortuitum and M. nonchromogenicum (showing sequence similarity of as high as 81.28% and as low as 52.9% ). Likewise a certain degree of sequence similarity between the six M. bovis CFP 10 immunogenic epitopes and those of the NTM species (highest similarity of 75% observed between all NTM and M. bovis and lowest similarity of 50% between M. komanii sp.nov, M. malmesburii sp.nov and M. bovis.) was observed. Still, with sequence homologies of less than 100% between the M. bovis immunogenic epitopes and those of the NTM, it was difficult to unambiguously predict T-cell cross-recognition. Comparison of the EsxR and EsxH amino acid sequences at immunogenic epitope level, revealed higher sequence similarities in the epitopes of NTM and those of M. bovis than the predicted protein sequences of EsxA and EsxB. A sequence similarity of 100% was observed between two of the five M. bovis immunogenic epitopes of EsxR and those of M. fortuitum, M. malmesburii sp. nov. and M. komanii sp.nov. Full cross- recognition of these NTM EsxR epitopes is therefore highly likely, and may lead to misdiagnosis of bovine Tuberculosis (BTB). The other three EsxR/EsxH epitopes shown to be immunogenic in M. bovis also exist in the three NTM showing similarity of as low as 77.7%. Thesis (PhD)--University of Pretoria, 2015. WOTRO Science for Global Development Genomics Research Institute (GRI) Veterinary Tropical Diseases PhD Unrestricted
5

A enfermeira ananéri no país do futuro

Barreira, Ieda de Alencar. 1996 (has links)
Thesis (Doutorado em Enfermagem)--Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Escola de Enfermagem Anna Nery, 1992. Includes bibliographical references (p. 356-363).
6

A enfermeira ananéri no país do futuro

Barreira, Ieda de Alencar. 1996 (has links)
Thesis (Doutorado em Enfermagem)--Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Escola de Enfermagem Anna Nery, 1992. Includes bibliographical references (p. 356-363).

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