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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Implementation of Two-Equation Turbulence Models in U2NCLE

Shringi, Vishwas 14 December 2001 (has links)
This report presents the study of two-equation turbulence modeling. The primary objective of this study is to implement two-equation k-ε and k-ω turbulence models as a part of the incompressible flow solver, U²NCLE, on unstructured grids. There are several two-equation models but the selection of one which is in par with the model in UNCLE solver is required so that this model can be compared for robustness and accuracy as dem-onstrated by turbulence models in UNCLE. The selection also requires that the pre-defined arrays and variables can be used to avoid overhead and deviation from the solution procedure used in U²NCLE. The present study deals with the two-equation k-ε model contributed by Shih and Lumley and the two-equation k-ω model contributed by Wilcox. Implementation of these models will give the user multiple options of two-equation turbulence modeling for solution purpose. Particular attention is paid to the efficiency of the implementation. Various approximations to the source terms are considered and the most optimal and accurate approximation is identified. These models are validated via relatively small model problems, for example a flat plate case, by comparing the results with the results obtained from the respective models in UNCLE and the existing two-equation q-ω model in U²NCLE. Further validation is carried out by comparing computed forces and moments with experi-mental data for the SUBOFF model with sail and stern appendages.
2

Axisymmetric free shear flows with and without swirl

Morse, Alan Peter January 1980 (has links)
No description available.
3

Evaluation of RANS turbulence models for flow problems with signigicant impact of boundary layers

Furbo, Eric January 2010 (has links)
This master’s thesis was provided by the Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI. The task is to test several RANS (Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes) models on two different case geometries and compare the results with LES and experimental data. The first is two dimensional, constructed for flow separation at a sharp edge. The second is three dimensional and flow separation occurs at a smooth surface. The models tested are implemented in the open source CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) program, OpenFOAM. OpenFOAM uses the finite volume method and the SIMPLE algorithm as solution procedure. The main flow features evaluated is the shape, position and size of the flow separation. Most of the models tested have problems describing the complex dynamics of flow separation in these particular cases. In addition to the simulations, the RANS k-epsilon turbulence model is presented and the RANS equations and the equation for the turbulent kinetic energy are derived from the Navier-Stokes equations. The theory behind wall functions is described and these equations together with the equations in the k-epsilon model are compared with the equations implemented in OpenFOAM.
4

PARTIALLY AVERAGED NAVIER-STOKES METHOD FOR TURBULENCE CLOSURES: CHARACTERIZATION OF FLUCTUATIONS AND EXTENSION TO WALL BOUNDED FLOWS

Lakshmipathy, Sunil 2009 May 1900 (has links)
The work presented in this dissertation concerns continued development, validation and verification of the partially averaged Navier-Stokes (PANS) method - a variable resolution closure model for turbulence. Linear eddy viscosity models (LEVM), which are popular because of their simplicity and affordability in terms of computational cost have fundamental deficiencies and cannot be trusted to accurately represent turbulence in realistic complex flows. The more high fidelity approaches such as large eddy simulations (LES) and direct numerical simulations (DNS) are out of realm of engineering applicability because of their high requirements in computing power. PANS, a variable resolution approach considered in this study, lies between LEVM and LES in terms of computational cost and is designed to prudently utilize the available computing power to improve accuracy. This dissertation presents the various studies performed to characterize the PANS fluctuations and extend the model for use in various wall bounded flows. The road map towards our goal includes: (i) Comparing a-priori and a-posteriori eddy viscosity values to establish whether PANS is capable of producing the pre-specified level of reduction. (ii) Investigating the scaling of PANS fluctuations for different levels of prescribed resolution and establishing if the fluctuations abide by known turbulence scaling laws. (iii) Extending PANS to k-w formulation which is better suited for wall-bounded shear flows, and (iv) Modifying the present LEVM to yield reasonable behavior in the rapid distortion limit where the turbulence is elastic in nature which ultimately affects PANS performance. Results reported in this dissertation illustrate that the PANS closure yields reliable and predictable reduction in the modeled viscosity. The accuracy of the simulations improve as the effective damping is reduced by lowering the specified viscosity providing credibility to the PANS method as a bridging model that performs as intended.
5

Simulation the axial-flow fans and its performance evaluation.

Kang, Tsang-Chou 30 July 2002 (has links)
This thesis studies to simulate the axial flow fans by using the CFD software. Designing two geometries types of axial flow fans which had different twist angles and the same contour¡]70¡Ñ70¡Ñ15 mm¡^with the Joukowski airfoil; then, defining the boundaries shapes identical with the experimental instrument. In the part of numerical calculation, varying the rotation speed ¡]rpm¡^,volume flow rate¡]CFM¡^and seven types of turbulence models to simulate the flow fields and evaluate the axial flow fans performance curves. Utilizing the comparison of the experimental and simulate results to provide the appropriate turbulent models to periodic the performance curve precisely.
6

Numerical stability and heat transfer analyses of supercritical water flowing upward In vertical heated pipes

Ebrahimnia, Elaheh 27 March 2014 (has links)
A numerical study is performed to model the 2-D axisymmetric turbulent flow of supercritical water flowing upward in vertical pipes with constant wall heat fluxes, using ANSYS CFX v14.5. This study was aimed to use CFD in analyzing supercritical flow instability and heat transfer. Two types of flow instabilities are analyzed and results are compared with 1-D non-linear code solutions. Also, conditions for approximating the thresholds of instabilities based on steady-state results are assessed. It is determined that the results of instability thresholds obtained using the k-ɛ and the SST models are similar. Also the results of CFD and 1-D codes are different mainly due to the difference in the pressure drop predictions. Moreover, approximating the flow instability threshold by the conditions proposed holds true for a CFD solution. Results also indicate that Prt does not have a noticeable effect on the instability threshold for the cases examined.
7

Application of genetic algorithms to problems in computational fluid dynamics

Fabritius, Björn January 2014 (has links)
In this thesis a methodology is presented to optimise non–linear mathematical models in numerical engineering applications. The method is based on biological evolution and uses known concepts of genetic algorithms and evolutionary compu- tation. The working principle is explained in detail, the implementation is outlined and alternative approaches are mentioned. The optimisation is then tested on a series of benchmark cases to prove its validity. It is then applied to two different types of problems in computational engineering. The first application is the mathematical modeling of turbulence. An overview of existing turbulence models is followed by a series of tests of different models applied to various types of flows. In this thesis the optimisation method is used to find improved coefficient values for the k–ε, the k–ω-SST and the Spalart–Allmaras models. In a second application optimisation is used to improve the quality of a computational mesh automatically generated by a third party software tool. This generation can be controlled by a set of parameters, which are subject to the optimisation. The results obtained in this work show an improvement when compared to non–optimised results. While computationally expensive, the genetic optimisation method can still be used in engineering applications to tune predefined settings with the aim to produce results of higher quality. The implementation is modular and allows for further extensions and modifications for future applications.
8

A Study of the Swirling Flow Pattern when Using TurboSwirl in the Casting Process

Bai, Haitong January 2016 (has links)
The use of a swirling flow can provide a more uniform velocity distribution and a calmer filling condition according to previous studies of both ingot and continuous casting processes of steel. However, the existing swirling flow generation methods developed in last decades all have some limitations. Recently, a new swirling flow generator, the TurboSwirl device, was proposed. In this work, the convergent nozzle was studied with different angles. The maximum wall shear stress can be reduced by changing the convergent angle between 40º and 60º to obtain a higher swirl intensity. Also, a lower maximum axial velocity can be obtained with a smaller convergent angle. Furthermore, the maximum axial velocity and wall shear stress can also be affected by moving the location of the vertical runner. A water model experiment was carried out to verify the simulation results of the effect of the convergent angle on the swirling flow pattern. The shape of the air-core vortex in the water model experiment could only be accurately simulated by using the Reynolds Stress Model (RSM). The simulation results were also validated by the measured radial velocity in the vertical runner by the ultrasonic velocity profiler (UVP). The TurboSwirl was reversed and connected to a traditional SEN to generate the swirling flow. The periodic characteristic of the swirling flow and asymmetry flow pattern were observed in both the simulated and measured results. The detached eddy simulation (DES) turbulence model was used to catch the time-dependent flow pattern and the predicted results agree well with measured axial and tangential velocities. This new design of the SEN with the reverse TurboSwirl could provide an almost equivalent strength of the swirling flow generated by an electromagnetic swirling flow generator. It can also reduce the downward axial velocities in the center of the SEN outlet and obtain a calmer meniscus and internal flow in the mold. / Tidigare studier visar att ett roterande flöde kan ge en mer likformig hastighetsfördelning och en lugnare fyllning i både göt- och stränggjutning av stål. De befintliga metoderna för att generera ett roterande flöde har vissa begränsningar. En ny metod för att generera det roterande flödet, en så kallad TurboSwirl, föreslogs nyligen. I detta arbete undersöktes ett konvergent munstycke med olika vinklar för att se hur detta påverkade det roterande flödet som genererades i anordningen. Resultaten visar att skjuvspänningen i systemet kan reduceras genom att ändra munstyckets vinkel mellan 40º till 60º. En lägre maximal axiell hastighet kan också uppnås med en mindre konvergent vinkel på munstycket. Det är även möjligt att påverka den maximala axiella hastigheten och skjuvspänningen i systemet genom att förflytta den vertikala kanalen i anordningen. Vattenmodellexperiment har utförts för att validera simuleringsresultaten. Det kraftigt roterande flödet kunde endast beskrivas väl av Reynolds Stress Model (RSM). Validering utfördes också genom att mäta den radiella hastigheten i den vertikala kanalen med en Ultrasonic Velocity Profiler (UVP). TurboSwirl-anordningen vändes och kopplades till gjutröret för att generera det roterande flödet. Detta studerades både med numeriska modeller och med vattenmodellering. Ett periodiskt asymmetriskt roterande flöde observerades både i numeriska modellerna och i vattenmodellerna. För att modellera detta periodiska flöde så användes detached eddy simulation (DES) modellen. Resultaten då denna modell användes stämmer väl med de experimentella mätningarna. Denna nya design med TurboSwirl kan uppnå liknande styrka på det roterande flödet som när elektromagnetisk omrörning användes. Det resulterande roterande flödet leder till en lägre axiell hastighet i gjutröret samt en lugnare yta och ett lugnare flöde i kokillen. / <p>QC 20161123</p>
9

[en] TURBULENT FLOW THROUGH A DUCT WITH CURVILINEAR OBSTRUCTION / [es] FLUJO TURBULENTO EN UN CONDUCTO CON OBSTRUCCIÓN CURVILÍNEA / [pt] ESCOAMENTO TURBULENTO EM UM DUTO COM OBSTRUÇÃO CURVILÍNEA

GLADYS AUGUSTA ZEVALLOS NALVARTE 31 July 2001 (has links)
[pt] No presente trabalho é realizada uma análise do desempenho de três diferentes modelos de turbulência na previsão de escoamentos que apresentam separação e recolamento. Investigou-se o escoamento turbulento através de dutos com obstruções curvilíneas. Os modelos selecionados pertencem a classe de modelos de duas equações diferenciais k-e para baixos números de Reynolds. A análise tem por objetivo verificar se estes modelos são capazes de captar as regiões de recirculação e recuperação de pressão após a obstrução, grandezas fundamentais para a avaliação da distribuição de tensões. Os campos de velocidade, energia cinética turbulenta, taxa de dissipação obtidos pelos diferentes modelos são comparados com dados numéricos e experimentais na literatura, visando identificar qual é o modelo mais adequado para esse tipo de escoamento. Para a determinação numérica do escoamento na geometria com uma obstrução curvilínea, do tipo cossenoidal, utilizou-se o método de volumes finitos com coordenadas curvilíneas não ortogonais que se adaptam à geometria. Os componentes contravariantes da velocidade foram empregadas como variáveis independentes nas equações de conservação de quantidade de movimento e o acoplamento velocidade pressão foi resolvido pelo algoritmo SIMPLEC. Dentre os modelos testados, nenhum conseguiu reproduzir exatamente todos os dados experimentais, porém concluiu-se que o modelo LSH, proposto por Launder e Sharma (1974) com a modificação proposta por Hanjalic e Launder (1980) apresentou o melhor desempenho, o qual pode ser considerado como satisfatório. / [en] In the present work an analysis of the performance of three different turbulence models in the prediction of flows that present separation and reattachment. The turbulent flow was investigated through ducts with curvilinear obstructions. The selected models belong to the class of models with two differential equations k-e for low numbers of Reynolds. The objective of the analysis is to verify if these models are capable of capturing the recirculation areas and pressure recovery after the obstruction, fundamentals for the evaluation of the distribution of tensions. The fields of velocity, turbulent kinetic energy, dissipation rate obtained by the different models are compared with numeric and experiments data found in the literature, seeking to identify which is the model more adapted for those type of flows. The numeric determination of the fluid flows in the geometry with a curvilinear obstruction, described by a sine curve, was accomplished by a finite volume method with non orthogonal curvilinear coordinates which adapt to the geometry. The countervariants velocity components was employed as independent variables in the momentum conservation equation and the velocity-pressure coupling was solved by the SIMPLEC algorithm . Among all the tested models, none was able to reproduce exactly the experimental data. However, the LSH model, proposed by Launder and Sharma (1974) with the modification proposal for Hanjalic and Launder (1980) presented the best performance, which can be considered satisfactory. / [es] En el presente trabajo se analiza el desempeño de tres modelos de turbulencia diferentes para la previsión de flujos con separación y readherencia. Se investigó el flujo turbulento a través de conductos con obstrucciones curvilíneas. Los modelos seleccionados pertenecen a la clase de modelos de dos ecuaciones diferenciales k-y para bajos números de Reynolds. El análisis tiene como objetivo verificar si estos modelos son capaces de captar regiones de recirculación y recuperación de presión después de la obstrucción, cantidades fundamentales para la evaluación de la distribución de tensiones. Se comparan los campos de velocidad, energía cinética turbulenta, tasa de disipación obtenidos por los diferentes modelos con los datos numéricos y experimentales en la literatura, identificando cuál es el modelo más adecuado para ese tipo de flujo. Para la determinación numérica del flujo en la geometría con una obstrucción curvilínea, del tipo cosenoidal, se utilizó el método de volúmenes finitos con coordenadas curvilíneas no ortogonales que se adaptan a la geometría. Los componentes contravariantes de la velocidad fueron utilizados como variables independentes en las ecuaciones de conservación de movimiento y el acoplamiento velocidad-presión fue resuelto a través del algoritmo SIMPLEC. Ninguno de modelos provados consiguió reproducir exactamente todos los datos experimentales, mas se puede concluir que el modelo LSH, propuesto por Launder y Sharma (1974) con la modificación propuesta por Hanjalic y Launder (1980) presentó el mejor desempeño, que puede ser considerado como satisfactorio.
10

[en] TURBULENT COMPLEX FLOW SIMULATION WITH CLASSICAL MODELING AND LARGE EDDY SIMULATION / [pt] SIMULAÇÃO DE ESCOAMENTO TURBULENTO COMPLEXO COM MODELAGEM CLÁSSICA E DE GRANDES ESCALAS

JOSE DINIZ MESQUITA ABRUNHOSA 06 January 2004 (has links)
[pt] Uma investigação da capacidade de previsão de modelos de turbulência baseados na modelagem estatística clássica e de grandes escalas é apresentada. A modelagem estatística clássica de turbulência (média de Reynolds) foi analisada, através da solução de escoamentos complexos, como, por exemplo, o escoamento turbulento em degrau (backstep). Especial atenção foi dada aos modelos kapa-epsilon de baixo Reynolds e as variantes renormalizadas (RNG). O comportamento dos vários termos da equação da energia cinética turbulenta na região da parede foram analisados em detalhes, especialmente o termo de difusão de pressão. Avaliou-se a importância da correta modelagem do termo de difusão de pressão sobre as predições dos modelos de baixo número de Reynolds, nas regiões de recirculação. Alguns modelos, propostos na literatura para o termo de difusão de pressão, foram também avaliados teórica e numericamente. A capacidade de previsão da metodologia de simulação de grandes escalas (LES por Large Eddy Simulation) também foi realizada. O desempenho do modelo de Smagorinsky para prever escoamentos limitados por fronteiras sólidas foi avaliado do ponto de vista computacional. Utilizou-se o método de volumes finitos para integrar tanto as equações médias de Reynolds quanto as equações LES. O escoamento turbulento em canal foi resolvido de modo bidimensional e tridimensional. Já o escoamento em degrau (backstep) foi resolvido exclusivamente de modo bidimensional, enquanto o escoamento em um duto de seção quadrada foi simulado de modo tridimensional. Os resultados foram comparados com aqueles obtidos pelos modelos de baixo Reynolds, analisando-se a relação custo-benefício. / [en] An investigation of turbulence models prediction capacity based on classical statistical modeling and large eddy simulation (LES) is presented. The classical statistical modeling (average of Reynolds) was analyzed, by investigating the solution of complex flows, as, for example, the turbulent flow past a backwardfacing- step (backstep). Special attention was given to low Reynolds number k-e models and models derived by renormalization group theory (RNG). The behavior of the different terms in the turbulent kinetic energy equation in the near wall region was examined in details, specially the pressure diffusion term. It was evaluated the importance of the correct modeling of the pressure diffusion term on the predictions of the low Reynolds number models, in recirculating flows. A few models, proposed in the literature for the pressure diffusion term, were also evaluated theoretically and numerically. The prediction capacity of large eddy simulation (LES) technique was also investigated. The ability of Smagorinsky model to predict complex limited wall flows was analyzed from a computational standpoint. The finite-volume method was employed to integrate both the Reynolds average and LES equations. The fully developed turbulent channel flow was solved in two- dimensional and three-dimensional numerical simulations. The turbulent flow over a backward-facing-step was computed exclusively in a twodimensional manner, while the fully developed turbulent flow in a straight square duct was simulated in a three-dimensional manner. The results were compared with those obtained by the low Reynolds models, analyzing the cost-benefit relation.

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