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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

The Relationship between Retinal Vascular Reactivity and Arteriolar Diameter

Tayyari, Faryan 07 December 2006 (has links)
ABSTRACT Purpose: The primary aim of the study (i.e. Chapter 3) was to compare the magnitude of retinal vascular reactivity in arterioles of varying diameter in healthy, young subjects. The secondary aims were to determine: a) if there are any order effects in terms of provoking vasoconstriction or vasodilation first; and b) the repeatability of the vascular reactivity measurements. An additional aim (i.e. Chapter 4) was to determine the effect of healthy aging on the relationship between retinal vascular reactivity and vessel diameter. Method: The sample comprised 10 healthy, young subjects (mean age 26.5 years, SD 4.04) and 7 healthy, older subjects (mean age 55.43 years, SD 5.41). Each subject from the young age group attended for three sessions. The first session was used to determine eligibility and select hemodynamic measurement sites. At sessions 2 and 3, O2 and CO2 were sequentially administered to the subjects using a face mask and sequential re-breathing circuit (to maintain standardized hyperoxia and hypercapnia). The order of vasoconstriction and vasodilation was varied across sessions 2 and 3. The design of the protocol was simplified for the subjects from the older age group. Each subject from the older group attended for one visit. O2 and CO2 were administered to the subjects using a face mask and sequential re-breathing circuit. The order of gas provocation was varied among the subjects (i.e. hyperoxia or hypercapnia first). For both groups, measurements of vessel diameter, centerline blood velocity and derived blood flow were acquired at each condition (i.e. baseline, during stabilized vasoconstriction, vasodilation, and recovery) at two discrete measurement sites along the supero-temporal arteriole. Results: The results of the repeated measures ANOVA showed a significant difference between the narrow and wide measurement sites for the younger group for flow (p??? 0.0003) and a significant influence of inspired gas provocation on flow for both protocols (p<0.0001). In addition, the interaction of measurement site and inspired gas provocation was significant (p<0.0001). The magnitude of retinal vascular reactivity showed a significantly greater blood flow response for the wide measurement site (p<0.0001). O2 provocation resulted in vasoconstriction that was still present up to 10 minutes after cessation of the stimulus (order effect of O2; p???0.046). No such order effect was apparent for CO2 provocation (order effect of CO2; p=0.352). The group mean blood flow Coefficient of Repeatability (COR) for the narrow measurement site was 0.74 ??l/min (relative to group mean flow of 4.85 ??l/min ?? SD 1.31) and for the wide measurement site was 1.49 ??l/min (relative to group mean flow of 11.29 ??l/min ?? SD 3.55). There was no difference between the young and the older age groups in retinal vascular reactivity for both the narrow (two-tailed Student t-test, p=0.8692) and wide (two-tailed Student t-test, p=0.2795) measurement sites. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the magnitude of retinal vascular reactivity was greater for arteriolar measurement sites with wider baseline vessel diameters. In addition, it demonstrated that hyperoxic provocation resulted in a persistent vasoconstriction up to 10 minutes after cessation of the stimulus. The study demonstrated that the repeatability of retinal blood flow measurements in absolute terms is lower for smaller diameter vessels. Finally, this study also suggests that age does not affect the relationship between retinal vascular reactivity and vessel diameter.
2

Inhibition of nitric oxide by reactive oxygen species

Mian, Kousar Bashir January 1996 (has links)
No description available.
3

Vascular Reactivity Response Characteristics to Hypoxia

Cheng, Richard 17 March 2014 (has links)
Oxygen is a necessary part of our everyday lives and is important for normal eye function. Blood flow through the retinal vasculature supplies oxygen to the inner retina. The resistance of the retinal vessels can change, increasing and decreasing blood flow by dilation and constriction of the vessel. The response of retinal hemodynamics to vasoactive stimuli is termed vascular reactivity. To investigate vascular reactivity characteristics, a system that prospectively targets a certain level of oxygen is employed. We characterize how the retinal vessels respond over time to hypoxia as well as define vascular reactivity to different oxygen concentrations in healthy participants. We demonstrate that the vessels increase diameter fully after 6 minutes and flow after 10 minutes. The relationship between retinal hemodynamics and arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) is demonstrated in healthy humans. Future studies should investigate these changes in diseased models to better understand when the retinal vasculature response may be insufficient.
4

Vascular Reactivity Response Characteristics to Hypoxia

Cheng, Richard 17 March 2014 (has links)
Oxygen is a necessary part of our everyday lives and is important for normal eye function. Blood flow through the retinal vasculature supplies oxygen to the inner retina. The resistance of the retinal vessels can change, increasing and decreasing blood flow by dilation and constriction of the vessel. The response of retinal hemodynamics to vasoactive stimuli is termed vascular reactivity. To investigate vascular reactivity characteristics, a system that prospectively targets a certain level of oxygen is employed. We characterize how the retinal vessels respond over time to hypoxia as well as define vascular reactivity to different oxygen concentrations in healthy participants. We demonstrate that the vessels increase diameter fully after 6 minutes and flow after 10 minutes. The relationship between retinal hemodynamics and arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) is demonstrated in healthy humans. Future studies should investigate these changes in diseased models to better understand when the retinal vasculature response may be insufficient.
5

The Relationship between Retinal Vascular Reactivity and Arteriolar Diameter

Tayyari, Faryan 07 December 2006 (has links)
ABSTRACT Purpose: The primary aim of the study (i.e. Chapter 3) was to compare the magnitude of retinal vascular reactivity in arterioles of varying diameter in healthy, young subjects. The secondary aims were to determine: a) if there are any order effects in terms of provoking vasoconstriction or vasodilation first; and b) the repeatability of the vascular reactivity measurements. An additional aim (i.e. Chapter 4) was to determine the effect of healthy aging on the relationship between retinal vascular reactivity and vessel diameter. Method: The sample comprised 10 healthy, young subjects (mean age 26.5 years, SD 4.04) and 7 healthy, older subjects (mean age 55.43 years, SD 5.41). Each subject from the young age group attended for three sessions. The first session was used to determine eligibility and select hemodynamic measurement sites. At sessions 2 and 3, O2 and CO2 were sequentially administered to the subjects using a face mask and sequential re-breathing circuit (to maintain standardized hyperoxia and hypercapnia). The order of vasoconstriction and vasodilation was varied across sessions 2 and 3. The design of the protocol was simplified for the subjects from the older age group. Each subject from the older group attended for one visit. O2 and CO2 were administered to the subjects using a face mask and sequential re-breathing circuit. The order of gas provocation was varied among the subjects (i.e. hyperoxia or hypercapnia first). For both groups, measurements of vessel diameter, centerline blood velocity and derived blood flow were acquired at each condition (i.e. baseline, during stabilized vasoconstriction, vasodilation, and recovery) at two discrete measurement sites along the supero-temporal arteriole. Results: The results of the repeated measures ANOVA showed a significant difference between the narrow and wide measurement sites for the younger group for flow (p≤ 0.0003) and a significant influence of inspired gas provocation on flow for both protocols (p<0.0001). In addition, the interaction of measurement site and inspired gas provocation was significant (p<0.0001). The magnitude of retinal vascular reactivity showed a significantly greater blood flow response for the wide measurement site (p<0.0001). O2 provocation resulted in vasoconstriction that was still present up to 10 minutes after cessation of the stimulus (order effect of O2; p≤0.046). No such order effect was apparent for CO2 provocation (order effect of CO2; p=0.352). The group mean blood flow Coefficient of Repeatability (COR) for the narrow measurement site was 0.74 µl/min (relative to group mean flow of 4.85 µl/min ± SD 1.31) and for the wide measurement site was 1.49 µl/min (relative to group mean flow of 11.29 µl/min ± SD 3.55). There was no difference between the young and the older age groups in retinal vascular reactivity for both the narrow (two-tailed Student t-test, p=0.8692) and wide (two-tailed Student t-test, p=0.2795) measurement sites. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the magnitude of retinal vascular reactivity was greater for arteriolar measurement sites with wider baseline vessel diameters. In addition, it demonstrated that hyperoxic provocation resulted in a persistent vasoconstriction up to 10 minutes after cessation of the stimulus. The study demonstrated that the repeatability of retinal blood flow measurements in absolute terms is lower for smaller diameter vessels. Finally, this study also suggests that age does not affect the relationship between retinal vascular reactivity and vessel diameter.
6

HSP70, heparanase e HPRT participam da resposta inflamtória intestinal induzida por TNBS em ratos

Quaglio, Ana Elisa Valencise [UNESP] 25 February 2011 (has links) (PDF)
Made available in DSpace on 2014-06-11T19:25:26Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 0 Previous issue date: 2011-02-25Bitstream added on 2014-06-13T20:32:59Z : No. of bitstreams: 1 quaglio_aev_me_botib.pdf: 425313 bytes, checksum: 2483f9db556c10ebc5c1a2db7f971fa3 (MD5) / Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) / A Doença Inflamatória Intestinal (DII) engloba, fundamentalmente, duas doenças distintas: a Doença de Crohn (DC) e a Retocolite Ulcerativa (CU), ambas caracterizadas por uma inflamação crônica do intestino, com períodos de exacerbação seguidos de intervalos prolongados de remissão dos sintomas. Apesar da DII ser objeto de pesquisa há várias décadas, a sua etiologia ainda é desconhecida e a principal limitação no entendimento dos mecanismos fisiopatológicos desta doença é a disponibilidade de modelos experimentais adequados que mimetizem o caráter crônico e de recidiva da DII em humanos e que possam ser de baixo custo, reprodutível, fácil de induzir e que apresente características clínicas e histopatológicas, respostas terapêuticas e mediadores inflamatórios similares ao que ocorre com a doença em humanos. Dentre os vários modelos experimentais disponíveis, o modelo de colite induzida por ácido trinitrobenzenosulfônico (TNBS) em ratos tem sido considerado o mais adequado para a avaliação de novos fármacos, assim como aquele que melhor mimetiza esta doença em humanos. Assim sendo, a caracterização do papel de diferentes mediadores do processo inflamatório intestinal neste modelo permitiria a determinação de novos alvos terapêuticos, assim como geraria informações importantes da fisiopatologia desta doença. Neste sentido, o presente projeto teve como objetivo determinar a participação da HSP70, Heparanase e HPRT, mediadores do processo inflamatório intestinal em humanos, na fase aguda do processo inflamatório intestinal induzido TNBS em ratos, assim como estudar os efeitos de fármacos das três principais classes farmacológicas usadas no tratamento da DII em humanos, os aminossalicilatos (sulfassalazina), os glicocorticóides (prednisolona) e os imunomoduladores (azatioprina) sobre esses mediadores. Este estudo demonstrou que HSP70, Heparanase... / The idiopatic inflammatory bowel diseases comprise two types of chronic intestinal disorders: Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis that are characterized by a chronic inflammation of the intestine, with periods of remission and reactivation of the inflammatory process. Although IBD is the subject of research for several decades, its etiology remains unknown, and the major limitation to understanding the IBD pathophysiology is the availability of experimental models that mimic the chronic and relapse of human IBD. Is still important that experimental models can be inexpensive, reproducible, easy to induce and present clinical and histopathological features, therapeutic responses and inflammatory mediators similar to what occurs in humans. Among experimental models available, the model of colitis induced by trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS) in rats has been considered the most suitable for the evaluation of new drugs, as well as the one that best mimics the disease in humans. Therefore, the involvement of different IBD mediators in this experimental model would allow the determination of new therapeutic targets, as well as generate important information on the pathophysiology of this disease. In light of this, the aim of present study was to determine the participation of HSP70, Heparanase and HPRT, mediators of intestinal inflammatory process in humans, in acute phase of inflammatory process induced by TNBS in rats, as well as, to study the effects of drugs of the three main classes used in the treatment of human IBD, i.e., aminosalicylates (sulphasalazine), glucocorticoids (prednisolone) and immunomodulators (azathioprine) on these mediators. This study showed that HSP70, Heparanase and HPRT participate as mediators of intestinal inflammation induced by TNBS since these mediators are increased in colitic animals when compared to healthy animals... (Complete abstract click electronic access below)
7

Retinal Vascular Reactivity to Incremental Hyperoxia During Isocapnia

Tong, Adrienne W. 16 June 2008 (has links)
PURPOSE: Systemic hyperoxia has been induced using inspired gases in many studies to investigate vascular reactivity in the retinal vasculature. Technical limitations in the past resulted in inadequate control of systemic partial pressures of O2 and CO2, the latter of which tended to decrease secondary to induced hyperoxia. Recent development of a computerized gas delivery instrument has enabled the specific control of end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2) and fractional expired O2 (FeO2), independent of each other and of minute ventilation. The specific aims of each chapter are as follows: Chapter 3: To compare the magnitude and variability of the retinal vascular reactivity response to an isocapnic hyperoxic stimulus delivered using a manually-operated method to the newly developed computer-controlled gas sequencer. Chapter 4: To investigate the retinal hemodynamic response to incremental changes in hyperoxic stimuli during isocapnia. METHODS: Chapter 3: Ten young, healthy adults inhaled gases in a sequence of normoxic baseline, isocapnic hyperoxia, and normoxic recovery, using both gas delivery systems in random order. Chapter 4: Twelve healthy, young adults participated in a gas protocol consisting of 4 phases at varying fractional expired oxygen levels (FeO2): baseline (15%), hyperoxia I (40%), hyperoxia II (65%), and recovery (15%). End-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) was maintained at an isocapnic level (~ 5%) throughout the experiment. In both Chapters 3 and 4, blood flow was derived from retinal arteriolar diameter and simultaneous blood velocity measurements of the superior temporal arteriole, acquired at 1-minute intervals during each of the phases of the gas protocol. RESULTS: Chapter 3: There was no interaction effect between the phases and gas delivery methods (p = 0.7718), but ETCO2 was significantly reduced during hyperoxia (p = 0.0002) for both methods. However, the magnitude of change in ETCO2 was physiologically insignificant i.e. <1%. The two systems differed in terms of FeO2 during hyperoxia, at a level of 85.27 ± 0.29% for the manual method, and 69.02 ± 2.84% for the computer method (p < 0.05). Despite this difference in oxygen concentrations, there was no difference in the vascular reactivity response for diameter (p = 0.7756), velocity (p = 0.1176), and flow (p = 0.1885) for equivalent gas phases between the two gas delivery systems. The inter-subject variability of retinal hemodynamic parameters was consistently lower using the computer-controlled gas sequencer. Chapter 4: Repeated measures ANOVA showed that there were significant influences of incremental changes in FeO2 on arteriolar diameter (p < 0.0001), blood velocity (p < 0.0001), and blood flow (p < 0.0001) in the retina. Paired t-tests of these retinal hemodynamic parameters during each phase in the gas sequence showed they were significantly different (p < 0.05) from each other, with the exception of baseline and recovery values. Incremental increases in FeO2 caused a linear decrease in group mean arteriolar diameter (R2 = 1, p = 0.002), group mean blood velocity (R2 = 0.9968, p = 0.04), and group mean blood flow (R2 = 0.9982, p= 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Chapter 3: Inter-subject variability for virtually all retinal hemodynamic parameters was reduced using the computer-controlled method, presumably due to a higher degree of gas control. However, care needs to be exercised in the interprtetation of these results due to the relatively small sample size. A similar retinal hemodynamic response to isocapnic hyperoxia was induced using the two gas delivery systems, despite different levels of maximal FeO2. Chapter 4: Isocapnic hyperoxia elicits vasoconstriction and the reduction of retinal arteriolar blood flow in a dose-dependent manner over the range of FeO2 explored in this study.
8

Retinal Blood Flow and Vascular Reactivity in Chronic Smokers

Rose, Kalpana January 2013 (has links)
Purpose To investigate the impact of cigarrete smoking in a group of otherwise healthy young individuals on: 1) Retinal blood flow using Doppler based SD-OCT, 2) Retinal vascular reactivity using a gas sequencer to provoke hypercapnia via constant changes in PETCO2 (end-tidal partial pressure of CO2) and in PETO2 (end-tidal partial pressure of O2). Methods An automated gas flow controller was used to achieve normoxic hypercapnia in ten non-smokers (mean age 28.9 yrs, SD 4.58) and nine smokers (mean age 27.55 yrs, SD 4.77). Retinal blood flow measurements were obtained using Doppler OCT and cannon laser blood flowmeter (CLBF) during baseline, normoxic hypercapnia (15% increase in PETCO2 relative to homeostatic baseline) and post-hypercapnia in both the groups. Exhaled carbon monoxide level was measured in all subjects. Results In non-smokers, retinal arteriolar diameter, blood velocity and flow increased by +4.1% (SD 2.8, p<0.0001), +16.7% (SD 14.6, p=0.0004) and +29.6% (SD 12.5, p<0.0001) respectively, during normoxic hypercapnia; Similarly, the venous area, venous velocity and total retinal blood flow increased by 7% (SD 8.6, p=0.0418), 18.1% (SD 20.8, p=0.0068) and 26% (SD 22.9, p<0.0001) respectively. In smokers, normoxic hypercapnia resulted in a significant increase in velocity by 12.0% (SD 6.2, p=0.0019) and flow by 14.6% (SD 9.5, p=0.0029); though arteriolar diameter increased by 1.7% (SD 1.7, p=0.2616), the result was not statistically significant. Total retinal blood flow increased significantly by 19.3% (SD 18.4, p=0.002) in response to normoxic hypercapnia. However, there was no significant difference in venous area (p=0.3322) and venous velocity measurements (p=0.1185) during hypercapnia compared to baseline and recovery. Comparing smokers and non-smokers, only the percentage change in arteriolar diameter (p=0.0379) and flow (p=0.0101) was significantly different among the groups. Group mean PETCO2 was increased by 15.9% in the non-smoking group and by 15.7% in the smoking group, with a concomitant increase in PETO2 by approximately 1.5 to 2% in both groups. There was no significant difference in baseline PETCO2 level between smokers and non-smokers. Conclusions Retinal vascular reactivity in response to normoxic hypercapnia is significantly reduced in young healthy individuals who smoke compared to non-smokers. Further studies are needed to elucidate the exact reason behind the impaired retinal autoregulation to provocative stimuli in smokers.
9

Retinal Blood Flow and Vascular Reactivity in Chronic Smokers

Rose, Kalpana January 2013 (has links)
Purpose To investigate the impact of cigarrete smoking in a group of otherwise healthy young individuals on: 1) Retinal blood flow using Doppler based SD-OCT, 2) Retinal vascular reactivity using a gas sequencer to provoke hypercapnia via constant changes in PETCO2 (end-tidal partial pressure of CO2) and in PETO2 (end-tidal partial pressure of O2). Methods An automated gas flow controller was used to achieve normoxic hypercapnia in ten non-smokers (mean age 28.9 yrs, SD 4.58) and nine smokers (mean age 27.55 yrs, SD 4.77). Retinal blood flow measurements were obtained using Doppler OCT and cannon laser blood flowmeter (CLBF) during baseline, normoxic hypercapnia (15% increase in PETCO2 relative to homeostatic baseline) and post-hypercapnia in both the groups. Exhaled carbon monoxide level was measured in all subjects. Results In non-smokers, retinal arteriolar diameter, blood velocity and flow increased by +4.1% (SD 2.8, p<0.0001), +16.7% (SD 14.6, p=0.0004) and +29.6% (SD 12.5, p<0.0001) respectively, during normoxic hypercapnia; Similarly, the venous area, venous velocity and total retinal blood flow increased by 7% (SD 8.6, p=0.0418), 18.1% (SD 20.8, p=0.0068) and 26% (SD 22.9, p<0.0001) respectively. In smokers, normoxic hypercapnia resulted in a significant increase in velocity by 12.0% (SD 6.2, p=0.0019) and flow by 14.6% (SD 9.5, p=0.0029); though arteriolar diameter increased by 1.7% (SD 1.7, p=0.2616), the result was not statistically significant. Total retinal blood flow increased significantly by 19.3% (SD 18.4, p=0.002) in response to normoxic hypercapnia. However, there was no significant difference in venous area (p=0.3322) and venous velocity measurements (p=0.1185) during hypercapnia compared to baseline and recovery. Comparing smokers and non-smokers, only the percentage change in arteriolar diameter (p=0.0379) and flow (p=0.0101) was significantly different among the groups. Group mean PETCO2 was increased by 15.9% in the non-smoking group and by 15.7% in the smoking group, with a concomitant increase in PETO2 by approximately 1.5 to 2% in both groups. There was no significant difference in baseline PETCO2 level between smokers and non-smokers. Conclusions Retinal vascular reactivity in response to normoxic hypercapnia is significantly reduced in young healthy individuals who smoke compared to non-smokers. Further studies are needed to elucidate the exact reason behind the impaired retinal autoregulation to provocative stimuli in smokers.
10

Cardiovascular dysfunction and specific coping mechanisms in Africans / L. Malan

Malan, Leoné January 2005 (has links)
Motivation: Cardiovascular dysfunction and hypertension are some of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the African population. According to the World Health Organisation the increases in these diseases are escalating in developing countries. Apart from the contributory role of genetics towards the incidence of hypertension, evidence regarding lifestyle as a determinant or marker of cardiovascular diseases in this group is not well known. The interaction of psychological and physiological mechanisms can contribute towards a broader scope of behavioural physiology in the higher prevalence of hypertension in Africans. Objectives: The main objective of the research in this thesis was to compare specific coping mechanisms of Africans with regard to cardiovascular dysfunction. Methodology: Manuscripts presented in Chapters 3, 4, and 5 made use of the cross-sectional comparative epidemiological "Transition and Health during Urbanisation in South Africa" (THUSA) project. The subjects included apparently healthy African men and women, which were recruited as a convenience sample from the North West Province, South Africa. Anthropometric measurements were taken and demographic questionnaires completed. An adapted Setswana COPE questionnaire was used to classify men and women as predominantly active (AC) or passive (PC) in coping style. Subjects were further subdivided into rural and urban groups (Manuscript Two), as well as younger (≤ 40) and older (≥ 45) age groups (Manuscript Three). The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) was used to measure subjective perception of health in all three manuscripts. Blood pressure was recorded continuously before and during application of the handgrip test using the Finapres apparatus. Subjects were classified as normotensive and hypertensive after blood pressure measurement by the Finapres and the Riva-Rocci/Korotkoff method. The emphasis in this study was on the cardiovascular reactivity values. Fasting, resting serum renin activity, cortisol, prolactin, testosterone, high density lipoprotein, triglycerides, glucose and plasma fibrinogen values were correlated with cardiovascular and psychological variables. Significant differences between variables were determined by means of variance analyses (Manuscript One and Two adjusted for age; Manuscripts One, Two and Three adjusted for resting cardiovascular data). A logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the most significant determinants of urbanisation. All THUSA subjects and parents of under-aged adolescents gave informed consent and the study - was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education. The reader is referred to the abstracts at the beginning of each separate manuscript in Chapters 3 - 5 for a description of the subjects, study design and analytical methods used in each paper. Results and conclusions of the individual manuscripts: Results from the THUSA study showed that PC men and women reported more symptoms typical of an abnormal psychological and physiological profile than AC men and women. The PC men, compared to AC men, exhibited a larger vascular reactivity response as well as larger plasma renin activity. In contrast, the AC women showed a larger non-significant vascular reactivity response than PC women. All subjects though reacted with increased vascular reactivity on the stressor. Men with a PC strategy showed enhanced vascular reactivity, a perception of poorer health and larger stressor plasma renin activity. PC women reported more depressive symptoms and younger PC women indicated a higher prevalence of hypertension than younger AC women. As a follow-up on the first manuscript, the aim was focused mainly on including the environmental effect, namely urbanisation, as possible explanatory factor for the atypical physiological AC women’s' coping style. The rural AC subjects indicated more typical active coping central cardiac responses than rural PC subjects whereas urbanised AC and PC subjects indicated greater peripheral responses and hypertension prevalence rates. In addition, the urbanised AC men and women and PC women as opposed to their rural counterparts indicated symptoms more of a distress situation with increased values of prolactin and decreased values of testosterone. This was also accompanied by a perception of poorer health in women. Results of the AC style suggests that the typical physiological AC stimulation pattern of urbanised subjects and especially the women is dissociated from the "normal" physiological AC reaction and is now exhibited as a typical PC physiological stimulation pattern. The greater vascular reactivity, hypertension prevalence, perception of poorer health and endocrine distressed profile are associated with a PC and dissociated physiological AC style in an urban context in African men and women. No differences with regard to resting blood pressure or endocrine values were obtained when the AC and PC urbanised groups were compared. Africans develop cardiovascular dysfunction/hypertension during chronic stress or urbanisation. This implies a dissociation/habituation of physiological systems of African men and women despite having an active coping strategy. Active coping is, therefore, not necessarily "successful". Results of the first two manuscripts direct further investigation concerning the effects of ageing and urbanisation on the development of cardiovascular dysfunction and metabolic syndrome indicators in gender groups. The second manuscript showed that all rural AC subjects exhibit a more typical active coping central cardiac response and that rural PC and all urbanised subjects (AC and PC) exhibit enhanced peripheral vascular responses on the - handgrip test. Where peripheral vascular responses were more expected from older individuals in Manuscript Three, the occurrence of this pattern is strengthened in the younger subjects. The greater fibrinogen values in all younger urbanised women (AC and PC) compared to rural women further strengthen the risk for the development of cardiovascular disease. Increased vascular reactivity, abdominal obesity and increased levels of triglycerides as well as perception of poorer health were apparent in the urbanised AC women, PC men and women in comparison to their rural counterparts. The typical physiological AC stimulation pattern of urbanised women is dissociated from the "normal" physiological AC responses and is now exhibited as a typical PC physiological stimulation pattern. A typical PC style in older urbanised subjects is implicated in the greater hypertension prevalence. To conclude, it seems as if young urbanised Africans, and especially women, exhibit an AC style behaviourally with a dissociated physiological AC reaction pattern. Physiologically these women resemble a typical PC physiological cardiovascular and endocrine profile. This typical PC cardiovascular stimulation pattern is strengthened by a distressed endocrine profile, significant metabolic syndrome indicators and a 'perception of poorer health. Older PC style subjects also presented a greater hypertension prevalence. In this study it seems that cardiovascular changes that appear at a younger age might be influenced by other factors including urbanisation as a lifestyle factor as well as specific coping styles. Finally, a careful suggestion is made that specific coping mechanisms could be seen as a possible risk marker in the development of the metabolic syndrome. / Thesis (Ph.D. (Physiology))--North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, 2005.

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