• Refine Query
  • Source
  • Publication year
  • to
  • Language
  • 83
  • 14
  • 10
  • 3
  • 1
  • Tagged with
  • 128
  • 128
  • 44
  • 43
  • 33
  • 29
  • 28
  • 26
  • 20
  • 19
  • 18
  • 14
  • 14
  • 14
  • 14
  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
41

An assessment of perceptions of lean opportunities in hospital management

Labuschagne, Gertruida January 2013 (has links)
This is a quantitative study. The primary research objective is to investigate the importance of hospital management’s involvement when implementing lean elements in healthcare. In reality, incidents and quality problems are prime reasons why healthcare leaders are calling for redesign in healthcare delivery and systems. This paper presents a proposal for developing a lean culture in healthcare facilities equipped with managers who will be able to drive the implementation of lean elements from the top down, making use of multidisciplinary teams, including physicians, to deliver value-added services. This study ultimately endeavors to indicate the importance of management, multidisciplinary teams and physician involvement in implementing lean principles in healthcare successfully. “If we keep doing what we’re doing, we’re going to keep getting what we’re getting.” – Stephen Covey. The reasons why lean management is a particularly important strategy in healthcare currently, includes the following: •The need to reduce waste in healthcare cost; •The need to improve quality and on-time processes; •Fast-paced technological changes; •Ever-increasing patient expectations; and •The need to standardise processes and systems to get the high-quality results anticipated (Chalice, 2010).
42

Evaluation of effective barriers and initiatives to cleaner production with focus on light industrial SMEs

Vroom, Adrian January 2014 (has links)
For modern societies to continue to sustain themselves there needs to be a dissociation between economic growth and environmental degradation or else economic growth will decline consistently together with deteriorating environmental and social health. Various sustainability methodologies can be applied to mitigate against environmental and social degradation. This includes cleaner production which is a proven sustainability methodology that is supported by the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation and the United Nations Environmental Protection Agency in more than eighty countries worldwide. However application of cleaner production practices amongst SMEs has been below expectations where such practices should have become the norm. We have surveyed SMEs in South Africa, where assessments have been carried out by the local National Cleaner Production Centre, to assess SMEs’ perceptions of a range of barrier typologies. Further the barrier methodologies were evaluated to determine whether social responsibility in itself creates a barrier for successful implementation of sustainable practices. This research established that the barrier typologies are more equally balanced than findings in many developed regions. Furthermore, some barriers such as institutional challenges are not as prevalent compared to other developing regions. It was recognized that regulation can be used as an incentive that has an effect on two groupings or axis of barriers identified in this research. Lastly, it was reputed that structured and clear institutional support and strategies further provide enhanced frameworks that were more beneficial than solely focusing on economics for SMEs. / Dissertation (MBA)--University of Pretoria, 2014. / lmgibs2015 / Gordon Institute of Business Science (GIBS) / MBA / Unrestricted
43

Development of Alternative Crab Claw Processing Systems to Minimize Environmental Impact

Benning, Jennifer Lyn 14 March 1997 (has links)
In the recent years, environmental regulations enforced by federal,state, and local agencies have increasingly addressed water quality issues through progressively more stringent regulations. These regulations have raised concerns in the blue crab industry because processors are now subject to regulations under which new processors are unable to meet the effluent limitations with current processing techniques. This study focuses on the mechanized processing of crab claws. Currently, processors use a brine bath, referred to as the Harris Claw machine, to separate crab claw meat and shell, nd this process yields a waste water which is significantly high in pollutant strength, and is untreatable by biological methods due to the toxicity associated with the high chloride concentrations found in the waste stream. Several alternative crab claw processing systems were developed and evaluated in terms of the meat product yield, the meat product quality, and the wastewater characterization. Two alternatives involved the use of dense media, a 22.5% Staley 1300 corn syrup solution with 5.0% salt and a 30.0% Staley 1300 corn syrup solution, to separate the crab claw meat and shell. These methods, in full scale tests, produced meat yields comparable to that of the brine solution and improved the overall taste of the meat product. However, the effluents had significantly higher BOD5 concentrations. Another alternative to the Harris Claw machine, involved the design, characterization, and testing of a hydraulic separator system (HSS). The HSS was tested on a small scale, but was found to have a meat yield comparable to the Harris Claw machine. The HSS significantly improved the flavor of a final meat product, although the HSS meat product had a significantly lower shelf life than the Harris Claw machine meat product. The waste water quality was improved, because the HSS eliminates the problems associated with a high chloride ion concentration and potentially reduces overall water consumption. / Master of Science
44

Waste to worth: Exploring reuse strategies for a new primary school in Mariehäll

Ryd, Hanna January 2023 (has links)
The project explores alternative strategies to demolition, with the purpose of minimizing waste and optimizing resources in new building projects. The study focuses on the Stockholm suburb of Mariehäll, a former industrial area currently undergoing significant transformation to a mixed-use city. Due to this conversion, wasteful demolitions of large postwar building complexes are prevalent in the area, highlighting the need for sustainable architectural interventions. By examining a set of buildings that are at risk of demolition, the aim of the study was to find a potential host for a new primary school. Among these buildings, a former workshop and warehouse building from the 1950s was identified as the most viable candidate. Through an exploration of reuse and upcycling options, design strategies are proposed for transforming the building into a functional school. By showcasing and analyzing different approaches to the reuse of architectural elements, the study presents methodologies that may be generalized and employed in other projects.
45

Waste minimisation clubs in South Africa : towards a sustainable model.

Hurth, Alexander. January 2005 (has links)
Every time a good is produced, waste occurs as an unwanted by-product. Waste has become a real environmental issue across the world, contributing to the degradation of the environment and human health. As part of a local and international effort to lessen industrial pollution, a concept to reduce waste production at source was introduced to companies in the early 1990s. Pioneered in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom (UK), this concept has been termed 'waste minimisation'. Waste minimisation is achieved by implementing changes to business practices and processes, such as improved housekeeping (e.g. prevention of spills), and changes to equipment that is less wasteful. It is often undertaken by a group of organisations, including for example service providers, manufacturing companies and regulators that join a waste minimisation club (WMC). This provides an opportunity in which training can be received by, waste minimisation assessments made on, and information and ideas about waste reduction at source exchanged by member companies. WMCs have been used successfully in Europe to achieve waste minimisation in industry and residential communities. This study aims to contribute to the development of a sustainable WMC model in South Africa. It analyses the WMC support structures in South Africa and compares them to support structures offered in the UK. This offers a point of reference from which the impact of South African support structures on WMCs in general, and the Pietermaritzburg Waste Minimisation Club (PWMC) in particular, can be established. The PWMC consists of small and medium companies across sectors, each with less than 200 employees and with an annual turnover less than 40 million rand. The club was initiated by the Pollution Research Group of the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN). It was the first of its kind in South Africa, having been facilitated on a small budget by staff and students from the UKZN. The study found that the self-help approach adopted by the PWMC was only partially successful. The PWMC was successful in terms of raising awareness of its members to waste minimisation issues. The study also found that member companies, both from the PWMC and WMCs generally, need to be shown in practical terms that 2 waste minimisation can result in financial savings before management buy-in can be attained. If more University manpower had been allocated, in the form of students for instance, to identify and orchestrate implementation of sustainable waste minimisation solutions, the PWMC member adoption rate of waste minimisation may have been raised. The small PWMC budget may have made this impossible, however. Lack of funding may also have prevented facilitators putting together a large support team, as has been done for a similar and more successful project in England. This demonstrates that self-help WMCs need an initial funding boost to be successful. This funding should be invested in gaining buy-in from company personnel rather than to drive the waste minimisation process on behalf of member companies. Driving waste minimisation on behalf of companies or 'hand-holding' leads to a passive acceptance of waste minimisation as is currently the case in South Africa, as well as 'shirking' as has been observed in the UK. Such a facilitated self-help approach can then lay the basis for WMCs, which use the support infrastructure established by their predecessors. Studies of WMCs in England and Wales based on a self-help approach showed that they achieved financial savings that are comparable to those in demonstration clubs. The promotion of such sustainable WMCs in South Africa needs to be performed by a central support agency such as the British Envirowise. Envirowise was seen to successfully promote waste minimisation among those it reached. However, it reached only a small percentage of overall industry. A successful South African agency therefore needs to promote itself effectively and nation-wide. A successful South African Envirowise organisation should also facilitate the creation of WMCs by leading a forum of industry, service providers, higher education and waste minimisation champions of proven worth, to create an action plan for WMC development for each province. Each province would then allocate funds for a waste minimisation champion who, in conjunction with the local development agency, would create a provincial action plan for the development of facilitated self-help WMCs. The local support and expertise recruited to form and manage WMCs would decrease costs and leverage income. This kind of support agency needs to be upheld by waste management legislation based on the concept of sustainable development, recognising the need for environmental protection alongside that of economic growth. To date no such legislation is in place in South Africa. It is hoped that the White Paper on Integrated Pollution and Waste Management, which endorses the principle of sustainable development alongside with the necessity to reduce waste at source, will form the basis for a successful South African WMC culture. / Thesis (M.Env.Dev.)-University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, 2005.
46

Industrial waste minimisation in South Africa : a case study in the textile and metal finishing sectors.

Reiner, Monika. January 2002 (has links)
Environmental legislation is becoming more stringent as people are realising the need for conservation and a reduction of environmental degradation in order to facilitate sustainable development. To ease legislative pressures, companies need to work together in symbiotic networks, whereby co-operation between companies results in far more innovative practices than if the companies acted individually. Success in an industrial network is largely dependent on cleaner production, where industries seek to redirect from waste treatment to waste minimisation. Cleaner production has already received international recognition and waste minimisation initiatives have been used as a tool of cleaner production. Two polluting industrial sectors within South Africa, the textile and metal finishing sectors, were chosen to investigate waste minimisation concepts. One company from each sector was used as a case study. The dissertation followed company network identification, potential to participate within an industrial symbiotic network, and waste minimisation opportunities. Suppliers and buyers, up and down the product line were identified. Relationships with these partners should be advanced such that environmental concerns are at the forefront of any decision-making. In light of developing industrial networks and maintaining symbiotic relationships, the company's potential was investigated by interviewing employees of various ranks. Both companies were partially suited to participate within an industrial symbiotic network and company-specific barriers were identified, such as ineffective internal communication. The waste minimisation investigation followed a four-phase approach of planning and organisation; pre-assessment; assessment; and feasibility study. In both the companies investigated, water savings were identified as the waste minimisation focus area with potential for improvement. In total, potential water savings of over R80 000 per annum were identified. In the textile company, the weaving department and bleach house were further investigated. Cloth weaving errors were attributed to machine stops, as each stop has the potential to result in a cloth fault. In the bleach house the potential existed to reduce the number of rinse tanks. Although a modem and automated process, the plating plant in the metal finishing company was identified as having potential waste minimisation opportunities. Of particular interest was the reduction of solution carry over from the plating tanks into subsequent tanks. Extended drip times were investigated. Additional waste minimisation opportunities included repairing pipe leaks, replacing the degreasing solvent, trichloroethylene, with a less harmful cleaning agent and establishing a symbiotic relationship with the oil supplier, Castrol. Over and above the main waste minimisation opportunities highlighted, other recommendations and potential savings were identified. Each case study emphasises that simple waste minimisation initiatives, without expending capital, reduce demands on natural resource, such as water, and benefit the company financially. Successful waste minimisation leads to further cleaner production initiatives, which may then initiate better network interactions with the further potential of promoting sustainable development. / Thesis (M.Sc.Eng.)-University of Natal, Durban, 2002.
47

An investigation of a waste minimisation club for the metal finishing industry.

Thambiran, Namo. January 2002 (has links)
Take care how you place your moccasins upon the earth, step with care, for the faces of the future generations are looking upfrom the earth waitingfor their turnfor life - Lyoru, 1988 Increasing levels of pollution and the increase in demand for water and other resources by industry led to a number of policies and regulations being developed and revised in South Africa. According to the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa (Act 108 of 1996), everyone has the right to an environment that is not harmful to health or wellbeing. In order to have the environment protected and sustained for future use, it became necessary to move away from the traditional fragmented approach to pollution and waste management and focus on an integrated strategy aimed at achieving a balance between ecological sustainability and socioeconomic development. In the Durban Metropolitan Area (DMA) , the Durban Metropolitan Council (Metro) incorporated pollution prevention in their bylaws, which contained stringent discharge limits for heavy metal concentrations. This posed a potential problem for metal fmishers who were concerned about complying with these discharge standards. In addition, the metal finishing industry was considered to be a significant contributor to the pollution load in the DMA, and therefore needed to find suitable solutions to dealing with environmental problems, especially waste management. Waste minimisation was believed to be a good tool for this industry to utilise in order to reduce its pollution load. It was seen from the literature and case studies from international initiatives that waste minimisation results in an improvement in process efficiency and reductions in production costs and environmental impacts, generally at minimal costs. A waste minimisation club was initiated for the metal finishing industry in the DMA in June 1998. The club consisted of twenty-nine members of which the majority were small and medium sized companies. The club was run over a period of thirty months. A core group of sixteen companies actively participated in the activities of the club. During the period of investigation, a total of 391 waste minimisation options were identified for club members and 147 of these options were implemented. This resulted in a total financial saving in excess of R 4 million for the duration of the club's existence. The saving represents combined savings in water, chemicals, metals, energy, effluent treatment, and waste disposal. Corresponding environmental benefits were achieved including a reduced demand for water, reduced toxicity of effluent from chemical and metal reduction, and a reduction in energy requirements. Four companies were investigated in detail and presented as case studies. These companies showed that the payback on implementing waste minimisation options was mostly immediate. The size of the companies was not critical in determining the level of success from running waste minimisation programmes. Success depended mainly on commitment from companies and motivation of project champions. It was found that the greatest barriers to implementing waste minimisation, as identified by companies, were a lack of time, resources, and commitment. Companies joined the club mainly for benefit of reducing costs and complying with legal standards. Aside from successfully raising awareness and promoting the concept of waste minimisation, the waste minimisation club also resulted in an improvement in the relationship between the metal finishing industry and the Metro, and among club members. Based on the results achieved by club members, and from managing the club, it was evident that the club was effective in promoting waste minimisation in industry. For the future running of clubs, it is recommended that waste minimisation assessment training be given to all employees of a company. It would also be more useful if companies reported savings on a more regular basis and more formally. In addition it is recommended that club membership should be limited to between ten and fifteen companies to facilitate improved management of the club. / Thesis (M.Sc.Eng.)-University of Natal,Durban, 2002.
48

Waste management towards sustainability: a criticial review of the existing policy and way forward

黃偉圓, Wong, Wai-yuen. January 2002 (has links)
published_or_final_version / Public Administration / Master / Master of Public Administration
49

Development of a hybrid fuzzy-mathematical cleaner production evaluation tool for surface finishing

Telukdarie, Arnesh January 2007 (has links)
Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Technology: Department of Chemical Engineering, Durban University of Technology, 2007. / The metal finishing industry has been rated among the most polluting industries worldwide. This industry has traditionally been responsible for the release of heavy metals such as chrome, nickel, tin, copper etc into the environment. The application of cleaner production systems to a range of industries, including the metal finishing industry has provided significant financial and environmental benefits. An example of a successful application cleaner production in the metal finishing industry is the reduction in the typical water consumption from 400 1/m² to less than 10 1/m² of plated product. The successful application of cleaner production to the mental finishing industry has encountered many barriers. These barriers include the need for a highly skilled cleaner production auditor and the need for rigorous plant data to effectively quantify the cleaner production potential of the company under consideration. This study focuses on providing an alternate user-friendly audit system for the implementation of cleaner production in the mental finishing industry. The audit system proposed eliminates the need for the need for both a technical auditor and rigid plant data. The proposed system functions solely on plant operator inputs. The operator’s knowledge is harnessed and used to conduct an efficient and effective cleaner production audit. The research is based on expert knowledge, which was gained by conducting audits on some 25 companies using traditional auditing tools. This company audits were used to construct a database of data that was used in the verification of the models developed in this study. The audit is separated into different focus components. The first system developed was based on fuzzy logic multi variable decision-making. For this system the plant was categorized into different sections and appropriate fuzzy ratings were allocated based on experience. Once the allocations were completed multi variable decision analysis was used to determine the individual variable impact. The output was compared and regressed to the database equivalent. Operator inputs can then be used to determine the individual category outputs for the cleaner for the production rating for the company under consideration. The second part of this study entails the development of mathematical models for the quantification of chemical and water consumptions. This was based on the present and ideal (cleaner production) plant configuration. Cleaner production operations are compared to present operations and potential savings quantified. Mathematical models were developed based on pilot scale experiments for the acid, degreaser and zinc plating process. The pilot experiments were carried out on a PLC controlled pilot plant. These models were developed form factorial experimentation on the variables of each of the plating processes. The models developed aid in the prediction of the relevant optimum consumptions. The key challenge in traditional evaluation systems has been the quantification of the plant production. The most effective measure of production is by means of the surface area plated. In this study a novel approach using the modeled acid consumption is proposed. It was assumed that the operator inputs for the above models would not be precise. The models developed allowed for input variations. These variations were incorporated into the model using the Monte Carlo technique. The entire cleaner production evaluation system proposed is based on an operator questionnaire, which is completed in visual basic. The mathematical model was incorporated into the visual basic model. For the purpose of model verification the mathematical models were programmed and tested using the engineering mathematical software, Mat Lab. The combined fuzzy logic and mathematical models prove to be a highly effective means of completing the cleaner production evaluation in minimal time and with minimal resources. A comparative case study was conducted at a local metal finishing company. The case study compares the input requirements and outputs from the traditional systems with the system proposed in this study. The traditional model requires 245 inputs whilst the model proposed in this study is based on 56 inputs. The data requirements for the model proposed in this study is obtained from a plant operator in less than one hour whilst previous models required high level expertise over a period of up to two weeks. The quality of outputs from the model proposed is found to be very comparable to previous models. The model is actually found to be superior to previous models with regards predicting operational variations, water usages, chemical usages and bath chemical evolution. The research has highlighted the potential to apply fuzzy-mathematical hybrid systems for cleaner production evaluation. The two limitations of the research were found to be the usage of a linear experimental design for model development and the availability of Mat Lab software for future application. These issues can be addressed as future work. It is recommended that a non-linear model be developed for the individual processes so as to obtain more detailed process models. / National Research Foundation, Water Research Commission and Durban University of Technology
50

Anaerobic digestion application in the treatment of gelatin-manufacturing effluent

Lloyd, Magaretha Hester 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2000. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A severely polluted industrial effluent is generated by the local gelatinmanufacturing industry. Due to increasingly stringent restrictions on discharge qualities enforced by the National Water Act of 1998 and National Environmental Management Act of 1998, as well as increasing trade-effluent charges implemented via the Local Municipal Bylaws, the industry is compelled to consider a system to pre-treat the polluted effluent. A study was undertaken to examine the viability of anaerobic treatment of the gelatin-manufacturing effluent, since the anaerobic digestion technology is well recognised for the high success rate in the treatment of high-strength, complex wastewaters. Various laboratory and pilot-scale studies were done, using different hybrid Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) and contact designs. Two mesophilic laboratory-scale hybrid UASB digester designs, fitted with polyethylene (AD-1) and polyurethane (AD-2), performed well at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1.0 d. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies of up to 90% (avg. 53%) for AD-1 and 83% (avg. 60%) for AD-2 at organic loading rates (OLR) of 9.56 and 4.62 kg COD.m-3.d-1, respectively, were obtained. High sulphate (S04) removal efficiencies of up to 96% (avg. 86%) for AD-1 and 98% (avg. 82%) for AD-2 were also achieved, respectively. A maximum total solid (TS) removal of 65% (avg. 25%) for AD-1 and 62% (avg. 28%) for AD-2 was reported. An average methane content of 80% (AD-1) and 79% (AD-2) with average methane yields per COD removed of 2.19 and 1.86 m3. kg CODremoved.df-o1r AD-1 and AD-2 were found, respectively. When the same digesters (AD-1 and AD-2) were combined in a muItiphase series configuration, a total COD removal efficiency of up to 97% (avg. 80%) at an OLR of 8.32 kg COD.m-3.d-1,was achieved. Excellent total S04 removals of 96% (avg. 69%) were accomplished. Up to 82% TS (avg. 29%) was also removed during this study and the biogas consisted of 89% methane (avg. 79%). For this multi-phase combination up to 92% volatile fatty acids (VFA) (avg. 48%) were removed, indicating possible selective phase separation of the respective fatty acid producing/utilising bacterial populations. The use of a laboratory-scale UASB bioreactor with recirculation, resulted in COD removal efficiencies of up to 96% (avg. 51%) at an HRT of 3.0 d, and 95% (avg. 54%) at a HRT of 1.0 d. Low performances were generally found, with average S04 and TS removals of 59% (max. 97%) and 26% (max. 67%), respectively at an HRT of 1.0 d. The biogas production was very low throughout the study (0.05 - 0.63 I,d-1 ). A pilot-scale UASB reactor (300 I) was constructed and performed satisfactory with a 58% average COD removal and maximum of 96%. S04 and TS removals up to 96% (avg. 44%) and 93% (avg. 63%), respectively, were obtained. The methane content of the biogas was 85%. The pilot-scale studies were conducted under actual field conditions, where various shock and organic loads had to be absorbed by the system. The pilot-scale contact configuration (300 I) did not perform satisfactory as a result of continuous blockages experienced in the feed and recirculation lines. Maximum COD, S04, VFA and TS removal efficiencies of 41% (avg. 27%), 62% (avg. 41%), 64% (avg. 27%) and 39% (avg. 21%), respectively, were obtained. The results of all the studies indicated acceptable COD removals with increasing OLR's. Indications of the presence of active methanogenic and sulphate-reducing bacterial populations were apparent throughout the studies. One possibility for the successful start-up and commissioning of the anaerobic reactors was the use of a well-adjusted biomass, which consisted of highly selected and adapted microbial consortium for the specific gelatinmanufacturing effluent. It was clear from this study that gelatin-manufacturing effluent can be treated successfully, especially with the use of the UASB design. A welldefined data base was constructed which could be of great value for further upscaling to a full-scale digester. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: 'n Hoogs besoedelde industriele uitvloeisel word gegenereer deur die plaaslike gelatien-vervaardigings industrie. As gevolg van toenemende streng beperkings op die kwaliteit van uitvloeisels wat bepaal word deur die Nasionale Water Wet van 1998 en Nasionale Omgewings Bestuurs Wet van 1998, asook toenemende munisipale heffings wat geimplementeer word via Plaaslike Munisipale Wette, word die industrie verplig om die uitvloeisel vooraf te behandel. 'n Studie is onderneem om die lewensvatbaarheid van anaërobe behandeling van gelatien-vervaardigings uitvloeisel te ondersoek, aangesien anaërobe verterings tegnologie alombekend is vir die goeie sukses behaal in die behandeling van hoë-sterkte, komplekse uitvloeisels. Verskeie laboratorium- en loods-skaal studies is gedoen, met verskillende hibried Opvloei Anaërobe Slykkombers (OAS) en kontak ontwerpe. Goeie werksverrigting was verkry by 'n hidroliese retensie tyd (HRT) van 1.0 d met twee mesofiliese laboratorium-skaal hibried OAS verteerder ontwerpe wat uitgevoer was met poli-etileen (AD-1) en poli-uretaan (AD-2) materiaal. Chemiese suurstof behoefte (CSB) verwyderings van so hoog as 90% (gem. 53%) vir AD-1 en 83% (gem. 60%) vir AD-2 by organiese ladingstempo's (OLT) van 9.56 en 4.62 kg CSB.m-3.d-1,was onderskeidelik verkry. Hoë sulfaat (S04) verwyderings van tot 96% (gem. 86%) vir AD-1 en 98% (gem. 82%) vir AD-2 was ook onderskeidelik verkry. 'n Maksimum totale vaste stof (TVS) verwydering van 65% (gem. 25%) vir AD-1 en 62% (gem. 28%) vir AD-2 is gerapporteer. 'n Gemiddelde metaan inhoud van 80% (AD-1) en 79% (AD-2) met 'n gemiddelde metaan opbrengs per CSB verwyder van 2.19 en 1.86 m3.kg CSBverwyder.dv-i1r AD-1 en AD-2, was onderskeidelik gevind. Met die aanwending van dieselfde twee verteerders (AD-1 en AD-2) in 'n series gekoppelde multi-fase konfigurasie, is 'n totale CSB verwydering so hoog as 97% (gem. 80%) verkry by 'n OLT van 8.32 kg CSB.m-3.d-1. Uitstekende totale S04 verwydering van 96% (gem. 69%) is behaal. Tot 82% TVS (gem. 29%) was vewyder gedurende die studie en die biogas het uit 89% metaan (gem. 79%) bestaan. Vir die multi-fase kombinasie is 'n maksimum van 92% vlugtige vetsure (WS) (gem. 48%) verwyder, wat dui op die moontlike skeiding van selektiewe fases van die onderskeie vetsuur produserende/verbruiker bakteriële populasies. CSB verwydering van tot 96% (gem. 51%) by 'n HRT van 3.0 d en 95% (gem. 54%) met 'n HRT van 1.0 d was verkry, tydens die gebruik van In laboratorium-skaal OAS bioreaktor met hersirkulasie. Lae werksverrigting was oor die algemeen waargeneem, met gemiddelde S04 en TVS verwyderings van 59% (maks. 97%) en 26% (maks. 67%) by In HRT van 1.0 d. Die biogas produksie was baie laag gedurende die studie (0.05 - 0.63 I,d-\ In Loods-skaal OAS verteerder was opgerig en bevredigende resultate was verkry met In gemiddeld van 58% CSB verwydering en maksimum van 96%. S04 en TVS verwyderings so hoog as 96% (gem. 44%) en 93% (gem. 63%) is onderskeidelik verkry. Die metaan inhoud van die biogas was 85%. Die loods-skaal studie was uitgevoer gedurende ware veld kondisies, waartydens verskeie skok en organiese ladings deur die sisteem geabsorbeer is. Die loods-skaal kontak konfigurasie (300 I) het nie bevredigende resultate getoon nie, as gevolg van voortdurende blokkasies wat ondervind is in die toevoer en hersirkulasie pype. Maksimum CSB, S04, WS en TVS verwyderings van 41% (gem. 27%), 62% (gem. 41%), 64% (gem. 27%) en 39% (gem. 21%) was onderskeidelik verkry. Die resultate van al die studies het aanvaarbare CSB verwydering aangedui by toenemende OLT's. Indikasies van aktiewe metanogene en sulfaat-reduserende bakteriële populasies was ook teenwoordig gedurende die studies. Die suksesvolle aansit-prosedure en begin van die anaërobe verteerders kan toegeskryf word aan die gebruik van In goed aangepaste biomassa, wat uit hoogs selektiewe en aangepaste mikrobiese populasies vir die spesifieke uitvloeisel bestaan. Hierdie studie het getoon dat gelatien-vervaardigings uitvloeisel suksesvol met die OAS ontwerp behandel kan word. In Goed gedefinieerde data basis kan voorsien word, wat van groot waarde sal wees vir verdere opgradering na In volskaalse verteerder.

Page generated in 0.2003 seconds