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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Lateralizing memory function in temporal lobe epilepsy : an investigation of the meaning and utility of the Wechsler Memory Scale, third edition

Wilde, Nancy Jean. 10 April 2008 (has links)
The Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) is the most extensively used battery for memory assessment of adults. The third edition of the WMS (WMS-111) represents a substantial revision of previous versions. Accordingly, issues of validity of the revised instrument need to be addressed. The purpose of these studies was to contribute to the validation of the scale in the assessment of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy WE). An important role of the neuropsychological evaluation in TLE is to aid in the localization and lateralization of dysfunction. This is based on the premise that the temporal lobes are specialized for the acquisition of material-specific information, with dysfunction in the left and right mesial temporal regions being associated with verbal and nonverbal memory impairment, respectively. Since the WMS is utilized by the vast majority of epilepsy centres, evaluation of its meaning and utility in this population is essential. In Study 1, the utility of the WMS-I11 in detecting lateralized impairment was examined in a sample of patients with left (n = 55) or right (n = 47) TLE. Methods of analysis included evaluation of group means on the various indexes and subtest scores, the use of ROC curves, and an examination of Auditory-Visual Index discrepancy scores. The Auditory- Visual Delayed Index difference score appeared most sensitive to side of temporal dysfunction, although patient classification rates were not within an acceptable range to have clinical utility. The ability to predict laterality based on statistically significant index score differences was particularly weak for those with left temporal dysfunction. The use of unusually large discrepancies led to improved prediction; however, the rarity of such scores limits their usefulness. ill In Study 2, five competing models specifying the factor structure underlying the WMS- 111 primarysubtest scores were evaluated in a large sample of patients with TLE (N = 254). Models specifying separate immediate and delayed constructs resulted in inadmissible parameter estimates and model specification error. There were negligible goodness-of-fit differences between a 3-factor model of working memory, auditory memory, and visual memory, and a nested- more parsimonious- 2-factor model of working memory and general memory. The results suggested that specifying a separate visual memory factor provided little advantage for this sample- an unexpected finding in a population with lateralized dysfunction, for which one might have predicted separate auditory and visual memory dimensions. These findings add to a growing literature which suggests that the WMS-I11 has little utility in detecting lateralized dysfunction in TLE. This has important implications for the preoperative assessment of epilepsy patients.
2

The development of a scoring system for an alternative form of the Visual Reproduction subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale - revised

Petrov, Daniela. January 2007 (has links)
Thesis (D. Psych.)--Victoria University (Melbourne, Vic.), 2007.
3

A task analysis and evaluation of the verbal paired associates subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised Edition and the Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition /

Keane, Shelley L. January 1900 (has links) (PDF)
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Queensland, 2003. / Copy missing chapter 1. Includes bibliographical references.
4

Exploration of the Wechsler Memory Scale Fourth Edition and Measures of Executive Function Combined Components Model

Tourgeman, Isaac 01 January 2015 (has links)
While memory is the faculty that affords us learning, adaptation and development, it is our executive function that oversees, manages and organizes these abilities. Still, there is limited research on the interaction between memory and executive function. The present study investigated this relationship through Principal Components Analysis. Performances on accepted measures of memory and executive function were evaluated in an adult clinical sample. Components were retained using three criteria: a predetermined four-component structure, eigenvalues exceeding a value of one, and parallel analysis. Results demonstrated that a four-component model most accurately represented the data. Analyses also revealed that measures of immediate and delayed memory did not uniquely assess memory but instead loaded onto components associated with visual and verbal processing. The findings were shown to be in support of the brain working in an integrated, systematic manner in which abilities hierarchically ascend from arousal to tertiary function. Consequently, several accepted measures of memory and executive function failed to measure cognitive capacity unique from visual and verbal processing, placing their construct validity and efficacy in question.
5

Neuropsychological Constructs Assessed by the Family Pictures Subtests

Harris, Kristen M. 01 January 2009 (has links)
Limited data are available regarding the clinical utility of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-III) Family Pictures (FP) subtest, yet it has received much criticism in the literature. Specific problems of the subtest that have been cited include the lack of clarity regarding the neuropsychological functions that significantly influence successful performance. The current study assesses the extent to which performance on the FP I and FP II subtests can be predicted by memory, visual ability, verbal ability, and executive functioning, in 454 outpatients from a neuropsychology clinic. Data from the Family Pictures I (FPI) and Family Pictures II (FPII) subtests, in addition to scores obtained from commonly used measures of memory, verbal, visual, and executive functioning were analyzed via hierarchical multiple regression analyses, co-varying for age and education. The current study also explores the extent to which the FP's individual components of character, location, and action load on factors of general verbal and visual-spatial abilities in a sample of 193 neuropsychology clinic outpatients. Results were obtained via three separate exploratory factor analyses (one for each FP component examined). Results of the multiple regression analyses indicated that FP I and FP II performance is best predicted by a mixed visual/verbal memory factor. Furthermore, the factor analyses revealed that all three components of location, action, and character load on a mixed general visual ability and general memory factor. These findings expand upon previous research by lending greater understanding of the skills needed for successful FP performance in neuropsychologically impaired populations.
6

The detection of biased responding on the Wechsler Memory Scale- III and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale- III

Brulot, Magali Marie-Pierre 16 August 2018 (has links)
Growing demand on the limited resources available to head-injured individuals, emphasizes the need for accurate diagnosis and proper allocation of funds. Consequently, neuropsychologists are increasingly asked to render opinions regarding the validity of cognitive deficits reported following head injury. Detection of biased responding has typically been approached through the use of symptom validity measures and/or evaluation of performance patterns on standardized neuropsychological tests. This dissertation examined patterns of malingered performance on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III), Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-III), and a self-report measure of physical and psychological symptoms. In addition, attempts were made to address several methodological concerns noted in previous analogue studies (e.g., allocation of preparation time). Malingered performance was compared to that of a normal control group (NC = 34) and a group of mildly head injured individuals (MHI = 22). Results revealed that the simulating group (SIM = 32) endorsed more subjective concerns than the NC group. On the cognitive measures, simulators showed a tendency towards general suppression of performance versus specific areas of deficit (e.g., attention). Specifically, the SIM group suppressed their performance on the WAIS-III, but not typically enough to differentiate them statistically from either the NC or MHI groups. The SIM group's performance on the WMS-III was more in keeping with the overall suppressed performance pattern reported in previous research. Although simulators often performed significantly worse than the NC group, they did not generally suppress their performance excessively when compared to the MHI group. Results obtained in this study may reflect the use of more detailed instructions or the preparation time allocated to the SIM group. Overall, these findings emphasize the importance of incorporating multiple detection measures to assure the accurate assessment and diagnosis of head injury. / Graduate
7

The Utility of the Spatial Span from the Wechsler Memory Scales in a Geriatric Population with Cognitive Impairments

Wiechmann, April 08 1900 (has links)
Performance on the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale has been viewed as an indicator of working memory and visuospatial processing. A number of factors including age and gender have been posited to effect performance on Spatial Span by older adults. The current study examined the impact of various forms of cognitive impairment and severity of impairment on Spatial Span performance. Five hundred thirty-eight individuals between the ages of 65 and 89 were evaluated in a university memory disorders clinic using a battery of neuropsychological tests that included Spatial Span. Participants were grouped by consensus diagnosis into type of cognitive impairment (Alzheimer's disease, vascular disease, amnestic mild cognitive impairment or non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment) or cognitively normal. As expected, an increase in severity of impairment results in a decrease in Spatial Span Total Score. Other findings included a weak relationship between age and Spatial Span Total Score. Gender, as well as age, did not fully account for the decline in Spatial Span Total Score. Spatial Span Forward score was not as good a predictor of severity in that reduction in score for Spatial Span Forward remains relatively stable regardless of level of impairment. Spatial Span Backward performance was found to be more sensitive to severity. No significant differences were found between performance of Alzheimer's disease and vascular disease suggesting they share similar deficit patterns with regard to the cognitive abilities measured by the Spatial Span subtest. A comparison between those diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment and individuals without such a diagnosis showed no significant difference suggesting that visuospatial processes are not affected early in the dementing process.
8

Cross-cultural normative indicators on the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) associate learning and visual reproduction subtests

Fike, Lauren January 2008 (has links)
A comprehensive battery of commonly used neuropsychological tests, including the WMS Associate Learning and Visual Reproduction subtests, forming the focus of this study, were administered to a southern African sample (n = 33, age range 18-40). This sample composed of black South African, IsiXhosa speakers with an educational level of Grade 11 and 12, derived through DET and former DET schooling. The gender demographics were as follows; females n = 21 and males n = 12. This sample was purposefully selected based on current cross-cultural research which suggests that individuals matching these above-mentioned demographics are significantly disadvantaged when compared to available neuropsychological norms. This is due to the fact that current norms have been created in contexts with socio-cultural influences; including culture, language and quantity and quality of education distinctly dissimilar to individuals like that composed in the sample. Hence the purpose of this study was fourfold namely; 1) Describe and consider socio-cultural factors and the influence on test performance 2) Provide descriptive and preliminary normative data on this neuropsychologically underrepresented population 3) Compare test performance between age and gender through stratification of the sample and finally to 4) Evaluate the current norms of the two WMS subtests and assess their validity for black South Africans with DET and former DET schooling with comparisons to the results found in the study. Information derived from the statistical analyses indicated that a higher performance in favour of the younger group over the older age range was consistently found for both WMS subtests. With regards to gender, some higher means were evident for the male population in the sample than was produced by the female group. Lastly, due to the fact that most scores derived from the sample were considerably lower when compared to the available norms, it is felt that socio-cultural factors prevalent to this population are a significant cause of lower test performance and thus warrant the development of appropriate normative indicators.
9

Adaptação transcultural e propriedades psicométricas do subteste Visual Reproduction (Reprodução Visual I e II) da Wechsler Memory Scale - Fourth Edition (WMS-IV), (Escalas de Memória de Wechsler) para uma população do Brasil / Transcultural Adaptation of the subtest Visual Reproduction I and II of the Wechsler Memory Scale - IV (WMS-IV) (Wechsler Memory Scale) to one culture from Brazil.

Spedo, Carina Tellaroli 27 April 2012 (has links)
Instrumentos de avaliação da memória episódica não verbal são escassos. Além disto, consideramos a crescente necessidade de esforços para a adaptação transcultural de instrumentos de memória para nosso contexto. O subteste Visual Reproduction I e II (Reprodução Visual I e II) faz parte da Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) e se trata de uma escala mundialmente utilizada e adaptada a diversas culturas, sendo considerada padrão ouro dentre as medidas de avaliação da memória. No presente estudo, utilizamos o subteste Reprodução Visual, da WMS na sua quarta edição (WMS-IV). O Reprodução Visual (RV) é subdividido em três domínios de investigação da memória visual (evocação imediata, evocação tardia e reconhecimento) e uma tarefa opcional para avaliação da percepção visual, habilidades construtivas e atenção aos detalhes (cópia). Além disto, o escore de cada um dos três domínios avaliados podem ser contrastados, de modo que se obtenham informações sobre a retenção, o quanto a memória é melhor ou pior do que as habilidades construtivas e, por último, o quão o sujeito evoca livremente ou precisa de pistas para evocar a informação aprendida. Esta versão da WMS-IV é uma revisão da WMS-III, cujos estudos resultaram em algumas alterações metodológicas e de conteúdo, no sentido de facilitar a análise dos resultados, diminuir os vieses de aplicação e correção. Desta forma, para atingir os propósitos desta pesquisa foram realizados dois estudos: o Estudo 1 teve como objetivo realizar a adaptação transcultural do subteste Visual Reproduction I and II - Wechsler Memory Scale IV (WMS-IV) e apresentar uma versão para uso preliminar no Brasil. O estudo 2 consistiu na avaliação das suas propriedades psicométricas. Participaram do estudo 1 três tradutores com fluência no inglês, que realizaram traduções independentes, dois tradutores profissionais e dois juízes especialistas (um neurologista e uma neuropsicóloga). Os juízes especialistas e um tradutor profissional investigaram a equivalência conceitual, semântica e operacional dos itens. Uma amostra de 24 sujeitos saudáveis responderam ao pré-teste, que consistiu na investigação da compreensão e dificuldade da versão adaptada do Reprodução Visual I e II. No estudo dois, participaram 62 adultos saudáveis e 29 adultos com Acidente vascular cerebral em hemisfério direito, no território da Artéria cerebral média (AVC-ACMHD). Os sujeitos tinham idade entre 20 e 59 anos e as respostas foram consideradas para análises de confiabilidade e validade baseadas em análises estatísticas da teoria clássica (ANOVA, ANCOVA, coeficiente alfa de Cronbach, e correlação de Pearson) e da teoria moderna de testagem (Teoria de Resposta ao Item (TRI) através do modelo de um parâmetro ou método de Rasch). O processo de análise das propriedades psicométricas utilizou a metodologia recomendada pelo American Educational Research Association [AERA], American Psychological Association [APA] e o National council on measure in education [NCME], 2008 indicada pela editora responsável pelos direitos autorais do WMS-IV. Na confiabilidade, foi investigada a consistência interna (coeficiente alfa de Cronbach) e a estabilidade temporal (correlação de Pearson). Na investigação da validade, foram investigados: os processos de resposta, a estrutura interna (correlação de Pearson, Teoria de resposta ao Item pelo método de Rash), a relação com outros instrumentos (Mini Exame do Estado Mental - MEEM e Figuras Complexas de Rey) e a relação com variáveis externas (AVC-ACMHD comparados a controles saudáveis). O índice de consistência interna do subteste foi de 0,92 e a estabilidade teste-reteste mostrou correlação significativa, exceto com a tarefa de evocação tardia. Esses resultados são similares aos do estudo original, sendo, portanto caracterizada a sua equivalência. Os resultados do estudo de validade mostraram que há equivalência em termos de conteúdo.A investigação da estrutura interna pelo coeficiente de correlação de Pearson evidenciou que todas as figuras obtiveram correlação significativa (p<0,001). Ainda mais: correlacionaram-se congruentemente durante toda a tarefa. Na investigação da estrutura interna pelo método de Rasch foi evidenciado que o teste é unidimensional, que a progressão de theta ao longo das categorias de resposta foram como o esperado pelo modelo. A TRI mostrou que a figura mais fácil é a figura 1 da tarefa de evocação imediata e a mais difícil é a figura 5 de evocação tardia. Os índices de correlação theta foram superiores a 0,5, mostrando correlação. No mapa de pessoas-itens as variáveis tenderam a avaliar o constructo em níveis inferiores ao de habilidade dos sujeitos, sugerindo a necessidade de itens avaliando níveis mais altos do constructo. Na análise de validade considerando outras medidas a tarefa de evocação imediata o escore total e evocação tardia apresentaram correlação com o total da tarefa de memória das figuras complexas de Rey. As tarefas de cópia correlacionaram-se com o total de cópia do teste das figuras complexas de Rey. A tarefa de evocação imediata o escore total e evocação tardia apresentaram correlação com o total do MEEM. A análise de covariância mostrou que a escolaridade exerce influência nos escores do RV. Assim, depois de controlada a escolaridade foi evidenciado que os controles tiveram melhor desempenho em todas as tarefas do RV, quando comparados aos pacientes com AVC-ACMHD. Na análise qualitativa, através do escalonamento e contraste dos escores, foi observado que o baixo desempenho dos pacientes com AVC se deve ao fato de que esses pacientes percebem muito mal o item, com pior controle motor, habilidade visuo-construtiva e capacidade de prestar atenção a detalhes. O resultado é uma menor aquisição da informações e as conseqüências são dificuldades na memória episódica não verbal . Os nossos resultados foram demonstrativos de que o RV da WMS- IV, além de culturalmente equivalente em termos de confiabilidade e validade, é adequado para a cultura dos sujeitos e pacientes avaliados em Ribeirão Preto, preciso e válido para o uso no Brasil. Saliente-se a necessidade de estudos normativos com esse subteste. / Tools for evaluation of non-verbal episodic memory are scarce. Furthermore, we consider the increasing need for efforts to cross-cultural adaptation of instruments of memory for our context. The subtest Visual Reproduction I and II is part of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS), and it is used worldwide scale and adapted to different cultures, and is considered the gold standard among assessment measures of memory. In the present study, we use the Visual Reproduction subtest of WMS in its fourth edition (WMS-IV). The Visual Reproduction (VR) is subdivided into three fields of research in visual memory (immediate recall, delayed recall and recognition) and an optional task to assess visual perception, constructive abilities and attention to detail (copy). Moreover, the score of each of the three domains can be contrasted evaluated in order to obtain information on retention, and the memory is better or worse than the constructive abilities, and finally, how the subject refers freely or need tracks to evoke the information learned. This version of the WMS-IV is a review of the WMS-III, whose studies have resulted in some changes in methodology and content, to facilitate the analysis of results, lower camest application and correction. Thus, to obtain the purposes of this research were carried out two studies: Study 1 was aimed at making cross-cultural adaptation of the subtest \"Visual Reproduction I and II - Wechsler Memory Scale - IV (WMS-IV)\" and present a version for use preliminary in Brazil and the second study consisted of an evaluation of its psychometric properties. The study included a three translators fluent in English, which made independent translations, translators two professional judges and two experts (a neurologist and a neuropsychologist) who performed the conceptual and item equivalence, semantic, and operational. 24 healthy subjects responded to the pretest, which consisted in the investigation of understanding and difficulty of the adapted version of the Visual Reproduction I and II. In the second study, participated in 62 healthy adults and 29 adults with stroke in the right hemisphere in the territory of the middle cerebral artery. All subjects were aged between 20 and 59 years and the responses were considered for analysis of reliability and validity based on statistical analysis of the classical theory (ANOVA, ANCOVA, Cronbach\'s alpha, and Pearsons correlation) and the modern theory testing (Item Theory Response IRT, the model of one parameter or Rasch method). The process of analyzing the psychometric properties following the methodology recommended by the American Educational Research Association [AERA], American Psychological Association [APA] and the National council on education measure in [NCME], 2008 - indicated by the publisher responsible for the copyright of the WMS-IV. In the reliability analysis, we investigated the internal consistency (Cronbach\'s alpha) and temporal stability (Pearsons correlation). To investigate the validity, were considered: the processes of response, the internal structure (Pearsons correlation and IRT), the relationship with other tools (Mini Mental State Exam- MMSE and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCF).) and the relationship with external variables (stroke in the right hemisphere in the territory of the middle cerebral artery, compared to healthy controls). The index of internal consistency overall subtest was 0.92 and test-retest stability showed significant correlation, except with the task of delayed recall. These results are similar to the original study, showing thus their equivalence. The results of the validity study showed that there is equivalence in terms of investigating the internal structure and content. Pearson\'s correlation coefficient showed that all the figures obtained significant correlation (p <0.001) and further correlated with each moment congruently the task. In investigating the internal structure by the Rasch method has been shown that the test is one-dimensional that the progression of theta over the response categories was as expected by the model, and show that the figure is the easier task of Figure 1 - immediate recall, and is harder to figure 5- for delayed recall. The theta correlation coefficients were greater than 0.5, showing good correlation. On the map of people-items showed that the variables tended to evaluate the construct at levels below the skill of the subjects, suggesting the need for items assessing higher levels of the construct. In the analysis of validity considering other measures, the total score of immediate recall and delayed recall correlated with the total of memory task of the Rey complex figure copy. The copy of the Visual Reproduction correlated with copy of Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCF). The task of ROCF immediate recall of the total score and delayed recall correlated with total MMSE. Covariance analysis showed that education exercises influences on scores of the RV. So, after controlled the variable schooling, was evident that the controls performed better than patients with stroke on all Visual Reproduction subtest. The qualitative analysis via scaling contrast scores, shown that low performance of patients with stroke is due the fact they recognize the item very badly, the motor control, visuo-constructive ability and ability to pay attention to details is lowered. Its can occur, may be due apraxia, resulting in lower acquisition of the information, resulting in difficulties in non-verbal episodic memory. Our results showing that the Visual Reproduction subtest of the WMS-IV was considered culturally equivalent in terms of reliability and validity and is appropriate for culture of the subjects and patients evaluated in Ribeirão Preto, valid and reliable for use in Brazil. We emphasize the need of studies regarding to normative data for this subtest.
10

Adaptação transcultural e propriedades psicométricas do subteste Visual Reproduction (Reprodução Visual I e II) da Wechsler Memory Scale - Fourth Edition (WMS-IV), (Escalas de Memória de Wechsler) para uma população do Brasil / Transcultural Adaptation of the subtest Visual Reproduction I and II of the Wechsler Memory Scale - IV (WMS-IV) (Wechsler Memory Scale) to one culture from Brazil.

Carina Tellaroli Spedo 27 April 2012 (has links)
Instrumentos de avaliação da memória episódica não verbal são escassos. Além disto, consideramos a crescente necessidade de esforços para a adaptação transcultural de instrumentos de memória para nosso contexto. O subteste Visual Reproduction I e II (Reprodução Visual I e II) faz parte da Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) e se trata de uma escala mundialmente utilizada e adaptada a diversas culturas, sendo considerada padrão ouro dentre as medidas de avaliação da memória. No presente estudo, utilizamos o subteste Reprodução Visual, da WMS na sua quarta edição (WMS-IV). O Reprodução Visual (RV) é subdividido em três domínios de investigação da memória visual (evocação imediata, evocação tardia e reconhecimento) e uma tarefa opcional para avaliação da percepção visual, habilidades construtivas e atenção aos detalhes (cópia). Além disto, o escore de cada um dos três domínios avaliados podem ser contrastados, de modo que se obtenham informações sobre a retenção, o quanto a memória é melhor ou pior do que as habilidades construtivas e, por último, o quão o sujeito evoca livremente ou precisa de pistas para evocar a informação aprendida. Esta versão da WMS-IV é uma revisão da WMS-III, cujos estudos resultaram em algumas alterações metodológicas e de conteúdo, no sentido de facilitar a análise dos resultados, diminuir os vieses de aplicação e correção. Desta forma, para atingir os propósitos desta pesquisa foram realizados dois estudos: o Estudo 1 teve como objetivo realizar a adaptação transcultural do subteste Visual Reproduction I and II - Wechsler Memory Scale IV (WMS-IV) e apresentar uma versão para uso preliminar no Brasil. O estudo 2 consistiu na avaliação das suas propriedades psicométricas. Participaram do estudo 1 três tradutores com fluência no inglês, que realizaram traduções independentes, dois tradutores profissionais e dois juízes especialistas (um neurologista e uma neuropsicóloga). Os juízes especialistas e um tradutor profissional investigaram a equivalência conceitual, semântica e operacional dos itens. Uma amostra de 24 sujeitos saudáveis responderam ao pré-teste, que consistiu na investigação da compreensão e dificuldade da versão adaptada do Reprodução Visual I e II. No estudo dois, participaram 62 adultos saudáveis e 29 adultos com Acidente vascular cerebral em hemisfério direito, no território da Artéria cerebral média (AVC-ACMHD). Os sujeitos tinham idade entre 20 e 59 anos e as respostas foram consideradas para análises de confiabilidade e validade baseadas em análises estatísticas da teoria clássica (ANOVA, ANCOVA, coeficiente alfa de Cronbach, e correlação de Pearson) e da teoria moderna de testagem (Teoria de Resposta ao Item (TRI) através do modelo de um parâmetro ou método de Rasch). O processo de análise das propriedades psicométricas utilizou a metodologia recomendada pelo American Educational Research Association [AERA], American Psychological Association [APA] e o National council on measure in education [NCME], 2008 indicada pela editora responsável pelos direitos autorais do WMS-IV. Na confiabilidade, foi investigada a consistência interna (coeficiente alfa de Cronbach) e a estabilidade temporal (correlação de Pearson). Na investigação da validade, foram investigados: os processos de resposta, a estrutura interna (correlação de Pearson, Teoria de resposta ao Item pelo método de Rash), a relação com outros instrumentos (Mini Exame do Estado Mental - MEEM e Figuras Complexas de Rey) e a relação com variáveis externas (AVC-ACMHD comparados a controles saudáveis). O índice de consistência interna do subteste foi de 0,92 e a estabilidade teste-reteste mostrou correlação significativa, exceto com a tarefa de evocação tardia. Esses resultados são similares aos do estudo original, sendo, portanto caracterizada a sua equivalência. Os resultados do estudo de validade mostraram que há equivalência em termos de conteúdo.A investigação da estrutura interna pelo coeficiente de correlação de Pearson evidenciou que todas as figuras obtiveram correlação significativa (p<0,001). Ainda mais: correlacionaram-se congruentemente durante toda a tarefa. Na investigação da estrutura interna pelo método de Rasch foi evidenciado que o teste é unidimensional, que a progressão de theta ao longo das categorias de resposta foram como o esperado pelo modelo. A TRI mostrou que a figura mais fácil é a figura 1 da tarefa de evocação imediata e a mais difícil é a figura 5 de evocação tardia. Os índices de correlação theta foram superiores a 0,5, mostrando correlação. No mapa de pessoas-itens as variáveis tenderam a avaliar o constructo em níveis inferiores ao de habilidade dos sujeitos, sugerindo a necessidade de itens avaliando níveis mais altos do constructo. Na análise de validade considerando outras medidas a tarefa de evocação imediata o escore total e evocação tardia apresentaram correlação com o total da tarefa de memória das figuras complexas de Rey. As tarefas de cópia correlacionaram-se com o total de cópia do teste das figuras complexas de Rey. A tarefa de evocação imediata o escore total e evocação tardia apresentaram correlação com o total do MEEM. A análise de covariância mostrou que a escolaridade exerce influência nos escores do RV. Assim, depois de controlada a escolaridade foi evidenciado que os controles tiveram melhor desempenho em todas as tarefas do RV, quando comparados aos pacientes com AVC-ACMHD. Na análise qualitativa, através do escalonamento e contraste dos escores, foi observado que o baixo desempenho dos pacientes com AVC se deve ao fato de que esses pacientes percebem muito mal o item, com pior controle motor, habilidade visuo-construtiva e capacidade de prestar atenção a detalhes. O resultado é uma menor aquisição da informações e as conseqüências são dificuldades na memória episódica não verbal . Os nossos resultados foram demonstrativos de que o RV da WMS- IV, além de culturalmente equivalente em termos de confiabilidade e validade, é adequado para a cultura dos sujeitos e pacientes avaliados em Ribeirão Preto, preciso e válido para o uso no Brasil. Saliente-se a necessidade de estudos normativos com esse subteste. / Tools for evaluation of non-verbal episodic memory are scarce. Furthermore, we consider the increasing need for efforts to cross-cultural adaptation of instruments of memory for our context. The subtest Visual Reproduction I and II is part of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS), and it is used worldwide scale and adapted to different cultures, and is considered the gold standard among assessment measures of memory. In the present study, we use the Visual Reproduction subtest of WMS in its fourth edition (WMS-IV). The Visual Reproduction (VR) is subdivided into three fields of research in visual memory (immediate recall, delayed recall and recognition) and an optional task to assess visual perception, constructive abilities and attention to detail (copy). Moreover, the score of each of the three domains can be contrasted evaluated in order to obtain information on retention, and the memory is better or worse than the constructive abilities, and finally, how the subject refers freely or need tracks to evoke the information learned. This version of the WMS-IV is a review of the WMS-III, whose studies have resulted in some changes in methodology and content, to facilitate the analysis of results, lower camest application and correction. Thus, to obtain the purposes of this research were carried out two studies: Study 1 was aimed at making cross-cultural adaptation of the subtest \"Visual Reproduction I and II - Wechsler Memory Scale - IV (WMS-IV)\" and present a version for use preliminary in Brazil and the second study consisted of an evaluation of its psychometric properties. The study included a three translators fluent in English, which made independent translations, translators two professional judges and two experts (a neurologist and a neuropsychologist) who performed the conceptual and item equivalence, semantic, and operational. 24 healthy subjects responded to the pretest, which consisted in the investigation of understanding and difficulty of the adapted version of the Visual Reproduction I and II. In the second study, participated in 62 healthy adults and 29 adults with stroke in the right hemisphere in the territory of the middle cerebral artery. All subjects were aged between 20 and 59 years and the responses were considered for analysis of reliability and validity based on statistical analysis of the classical theory (ANOVA, ANCOVA, Cronbach\'s alpha, and Pearsons correlation) and the modern theory testing (Item Theory Response IRT, the model of one parameter or Rasch method). The process of analyzing the psychometric properties following the methodology recommended by the American Educational Research Association [AERA], American Psychological Association [APA] and the National council on education measure in [NCME], 2008 - indicated by the publisher responsible for the copyright of the WMS-IV. In the reliability analysis, we investigated the internal consistency (Cronbach\'s alpha) and temporal stability (Pearsons correlation). To investigate the validity, were considered: the processes of response, the internal structure (Pearsons correlation and IRT), the relationship with other tools (Mini Mental State Exam- MMSE and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCF).) and the relationship with external variables (stroke in the right hemisphere in the territory of the middle cerebral artery, compared to healthy controls). The index of internal consistency overall subtest was 0.92 and test-retest stability showed significant correlation, except with the task of delayed recall. These results are similar to the original study, showing thus their equivalence. The results of the validity study showed that there is equivalence in terms of investigating the internal structure and content. Pearson\'s correlation coefficient showed that all the figures obtained significant correlation (p <0.001) and further correlated with each moment congruently the task. In investigating the internal structure by the Rasch method has been shown that the test is one-dimensional that the progression of theta over the response categories was as expected by the model, and show that the figure is the easier task of Figure 1 - immediate recall, and is harder to figure 5- for delayed recall. The theta correlation coefficients were greater than 0.5, showing good correlation. On the map of people-items showed that the variables tended to evaluate the construct at levels below the skill of the subjects, suggesting the need for items assessing higher levels of the construct. In the analysis of validity considering other measures, the total score of immediate recall and delayed recall correlated with the total of memory task of the Rey complex figure copy. The copy of the Visual Reproduction correlated with copy of Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCF). The task of ROCF immediate recall of the total score and delayed recall correlated with total MMSE. Covariance analysis showed that education exercises influences on scores of the RV. So, after controlled the variable schooling, was evident that the controls performed better than patients with stroke on all Visual Reproduction subtest. The qualitative analysis via scaling contrast scores, shown that low performance of patients with stroke is due the fact they recognize the item very badly, the motor control, visuo-constructive ability and ability to pay attention to details is lowered. Its can occur, may be due apraxia, resulting in lower acquisition of the information, resulting in difficulties in non-verbal episodic memory. Our results showing that the Visual Reproduction subtest of the WMS-IV was considered culturally equivalent in terms of reliability and validity and is appropriate for culture of the subjects and patients evaluated in Ribeirão Preto, valid and reliable for use in Brazil. We emphasize the need of studies regarding to normative data for this subtest.

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