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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

The development and testing of an automated building commissioning anlaysis tool (abcat)

Curtin, Jonathan M. 15 May 2009 (has links)
More than $18 billion of energy is wasted annually in the U.S. commercial building sector. Retro-Commissioning services have proven to be successful with relatively short payback times, but tools that support the commissioning effort in maintaining the optimal energy performance in a building are just not readily available. The current work in the field of fault detection and diagnostics of HVAC systems, its cost, complexity and reliance on improved sensor technology, will require years until it can become the mainstay in building energy management. In the meantime, a simplified system is needed today that can be robust and universal enough to use in most types of buildings, address the main concerns of building owners by focusing on consumption deviations that significantly affect the bottom line and provide them some assistance in the remediation of these problems. This thesis presents the results of the development and testing of an advanced prototype of the Automated Building Commissioning Analysis Tool (ABCAT), which has detected three significant energy consumption deviations through four live building implementations. The ABCAT has also demonstrated additional functional benefits of tracking the savings due to retro-commissioning efforts, verifying billed utility data in addition to its primary function of detecting significant consumption faults. Although similar attempts have been made in FDD at the whole building level, the simplification, flexibility, robustness and benefits of this new approach are expected to exhibit the characteristics that will be desired and desperately needed by industry professionals.
2

The development and testing of an automated building commissioning anlaysis tool (abcat)

Curtin, Jonathan M. 15 May 2009 (has links)
More than $18 billion of energy is wasted annually in the U.S. commercial building sector. Retro-Commissioning services have proven to be successful with relatively short payback times, but tools that support the commissioning effort in maintaining the optimal energy performance in a building are just not readily available. The current work in the field of fault detection and diagnostics of HVAC systems, its cost, complexity and reliance on improved sensor technology, will require years until it can become the mainstay in building energy management. In the meantime, a simplified system is needed today that can be robust and universal enough to use in most types of buildings, address the main concerns of building owners by focusing on consumption deviations that significantly affect the bottom line and provide them some assistance in the remediation of these problems. This thesis presents the results of the development and testing of an advanced prototype of the Automated Building Commissioning Analysis Tool (ABCAT), which has detected three significant energy consumption deviations through four live building implementations. The ABCAT has also demonstrated additional functional benefits of tracking the savings due to retro-commissioning efforts, verifying billed utility data in addition to its primary function of detecting significant consumption faults. Although similar attempts have been made in FDD at the whole building level, the simplification, flexibility, robustness and benefits of this new approach are expected to exhibit the characteristics that will be desired and desperately needed by industry professionals.
3

Energy Usage While Maintaining Thermal Comfort : A Case Study of a UNT Dormitory

Gambrell, Dusten 12 1900 (has links)
Campus dormitories for the University of North Texas house over 5500 students per year; each one of them requires certain comfortable living conditions while they live there. There is an inherit amount of money required in order to achieve minimal comfort levels; the cost is mostly natural gas for water and room heating and electricity for cooling, lighting and peripherals. The US Department of Energy has developed several programs to aid in performing energy simulations to help those interested design more cost effective building designs. Energy-10 is such a program that allows users to conduct whole house evaluations by reviewing and altering a few parameters such as building materials, solar heating, energy efficient windows etc. The idea of this project was to recreate a campus dormitory and try to emulate existent energy consumption then try to find ways of lowering that usage while maintaining a high level of personal comfort.
4

Development of New Whole Building Fault Detection and Diagnosis Techniques for Commissioning Persistence

Lin, Guanjing 14 March 2013 (has links)
Commercial building owners spent $167 billion for energy in 2006. Building commissioning services have proven to be successful in saving building energy consumption. However, the optimal energy performance obtained by commissioning may subsequently degrade. The persistence of savings is of significant interest. For commissioning persistence, two statistical approaches, Days Exceeding Threshold-Date (DET-Date) method and Days Exceeding Threshold-Outside Air Temperature (DET-Toa) method, are developed to detect abnormal whole building energy consumption, and two approaches called Cosine Similarity method and Euclidean Distance Similarity method are developed to isolate the possible fault reasons. The effectiveness of these approaches is demonstrated and compared through tests in simulation and real buildings. The impacts of the factors including calibrated simulation model accuracy, fault severity, the time of fault occurrence, reference control change magnitude setting, and fault period length are addressed in the sensitivity study. The study shows that the DET-Toa method and the Cosine Similarity method are superior and more useful for the whole building fault detection and diagnosis.
5

The net zero-energy home: Precedent and catalyst for local performance-based architecture

January 2014 (has links)
abstract: The building sector is responsible for consuming the largest proportional share of global material and energy resources. Some observers assert that buildings are the problem and the solution to climate change. It appears that in the United States a coherent national energy policy to encourage rapid building performance improvements is not imminent. In this environment, where many climate and ecological scientists believe we are running out of time to reverse the effects of anthropogenic climate change, a local grass-roots effort to create demonstration net zero-energy buildings (ZEB) appears necessary. This paper documents the process of designing a ZEB in a community with no existing documented ZEB precedent. The project will establish a framework for collecting design, performance, and financial data for use by architects, building scientists, and the community at large. This type of information may prove critical in order to foster a near-term local demand for net zero-energy buildings. / Dissertation/Thesis / Appendix M - Simulation and Weather Data / M.S. Built Environment 2014
6

A Comparison of Energy Plus and eQUEST Whole Building Energy Simulation Results for a Medium Sized Office Building

January 2010 (has links)
abstract: With the increasing interest in energy efficient building design, whole building energy simulation programs are increasingly employed in the design process to help architects and engineers determine which design alternatives save energy and are cost effective. DOE-2 is one of the most popular programs used by the building energy simulation community. eQUEST is a powerful graphic user interface for the DOE-2 engine. EnergyPlus is the newest generation simulation program under development by the U.S. Department of Energy which adds new modeling features beyond the DOE-2's capability. The new modeling capabilities of EnergyPlus make it possible to model new and complex building technologies which cannot be modeled by other whole building energy simulation programs. On the other hand, EnergyPlus models, especially with a large number of zones, run much slower than those of eQUEST. Both eQUEST and EnergyPlus offer their own set of advantages and disadvantages. The choice of which building simulation program should be used might vary in each case. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the potential of both the programs to do the whole building energy analysis and compare the results with the actual building energy performance. For this purpose the energy simulation of a fully functional building is done in eQUEST and EnergyPlus and the results were compared with utility data of the building to identify the degree of closeness with which simulation results match with the actual heat and energy flows in building. It was observed in this study that eQUEST is easy to use and quick in producing results that would especially help in the taking critical decisions during the design phase. On the other hand EnergyPlus aids in modeling complex systems, producing more accurate results, but consumes more time. The choice of simulation program might change depending on the usability and applicability of the program to our need in different phases of a building's lifecycle. Therefore, it makes sense if a common front end is designed for both these simulation programs thereby allowing the user to select either the DOE-2.2 engine or the EnergyPlus engine based upon the need in each particular case. / Dissertation/Thesis / M.S. Architecture 2010
7

Study of the Effect of Light Emitting Diode (LED) on the Optimum Window-to-Wall Ratio and Whole-Building Energy Consumption in Open Offices

Zolfaghari, Zahra 21 October 2020 (has links)
Daylight harvesting is an essential strategy that is often used to enhance both the design and performance of an architectural project. Windows, as crucial architectural elements, not only admit natural light into spaces but also provide the occupants with visual connections. However, the excessive usage of windows brings an uncontrolled amount of solar energy to the spaces and negatively affect the building's energy performance. When utilizing passive design strategies such as daylight harvesting, several parameters, including the electrical lighting system, can impact the outcome. The current study investigates the role of lighting systems on daylight harvesting's effectiveness and their impact on window dimension and total energy consumption. In this study, the optimum window-to-wall ratio of an open office in the presence of two different light sources (LED and fluorescent) is explored through a computer simulation method. A combination of tools including AGi32, ElumTools, OpenStudio, EnergyPlus, Radiance, and MATLAB helps to conduct the simulation and deliver optimal results. In the results and conclusion chapter, the study provides guidelines to specify optimal window percentages considering two lighting systems in each cardinal direction. Importantly, the guideline focuses only on energy performance and not on the spatial quality of the design. / Master of Architecture / Harnessing daylight with the use of windows helps to offset parts of the electric lighting needs, and decrease the total building energy consumption. This is accomplished by using glazed materials to admit daylight and lighting control systems, which can respond to the dynamic light level. However, improper implementation of a passive daylighting strategy may cause increased energy consumption. Sunlight is accompanied by solar heat radiation which can increase the HVAC load of a space and compromise the energy savings achieved by daylighting. Therefore, a balance between solar heat and light gain is required to fully take advantage of solar energy without reverse impacts. Concerning the mentioned balance, recent advancements in lighting technology question the effectiveness of natural light in reducing whole-building energy consumption. Due to the high energy efficiency of LED luminaires, lighting power consumption is rather low, even when the lighting system operates at full capacity. Therefore, it is unclear whether the solar energy coming through glazed materials works to the advantage or disadvantage of total building energy consumption. This study hypothesized that the total energy consumption of an open office with LED luminaires would be less in absence of solar energy compared to a scenario which utilizes the solar energy. A simulation-based methodology, using a combination of photometric computation and building energy simulation tools, was utilized to examine the hypothesis and explore the impacts of lighting systems on the optimum window-to-wall ratio. The results provide a helpful guideline which highlights the impact of lighting systems on window dimensions and their mutual effect on whole-building energy consumption. Although the optimum window-to-wall ratios suggested by this study only concern energy consumption, integration of them with occupants' preferences can propose an acceptable window-to-wall ratio that satisfies both design quality and performance of a building.
8

Estudo de cogeração em hotéis

Brofman, Eduardo Gus January 2014 (has links)
Este trabalho é um estudo da aplicação de um sistema que utiliza a cogeração para hotéis localizados na cidade de Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil. Foi analisada a implantação desse tipo de sistema, também chamado de CHP (Combined Heat and Power), de um ponto de vista econômico e energético. A questão econômica foi determinada pela viabilidade através de métodos de análise quantitativa, neste caso, dando enfoque ao tempo de retorno do investimento. Para a análise energética foi realizado o estudo dos consumos e demandas anuais da operação do prédio através da ferramenta de simulação térmo-energética de edificações. O software escolhido foi o EnergyPlus. Essas análises, energéticas e econômicas, foram realizadas através de uma comparação entre o hotel sem o sistema de CHP e o hotel com o sistema de CHP. O hotel hipotético simulado foi definido através de um levantamento de informações a respeito do desempenho energético de hotéis que funcionam em Porto Alegre. Além dos estudos energéticos e econômicos, foram realizadas variações em parâmetros do hotel para tentar abranger uma série de possíveis cenários e verificar suas viabilidades econômicas. Foi visto que a cogeração pode trazer redução de custo operacional mesmo não tendo um menor consumo energético anual. Em alguns cenários o tempo de retorno do investimento apresentou valor abaixo dos seis anos, sendo considerado como uma boa opção de investimento. / This work is a study of the application of a CHP (Combined Heat and Power) system in hotels built in the city of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. This system was analyzed from an economic and energetic point of view. The economic matter on its viability perspective was determined through quantitative methods, in this case, with the focus on the time frame for the investment's return. For the energetic analysis, a annual energy consumption and demand study was performed utilizing a whole-building energy model with computer simulation. The chosen software was EnergyPlus. The analyses, energetic and economic, were performed through a comparison between the hotel without the CHP system and with the CHP system. The hypothetic simulated hotel was determined by a data survey on the energetic performance of hotels build in Porto Alegre. In addition to the energetic and economic studies, some parametric variations to the hotel were made to include a series of possible scenarios and check their economic viability. It was observed that the CHP can provide some operational cost reductions even without presenting a lower annual energetic consumption. In some scenarios, the time to return the investment showed figures lower than six years, being considered a good investment option.
9

Estudo de cogeração em hotéis

Brofman, Eduardo Gus January 2014 (has links)
Este trabalho é um estudo da aplicação de um sistema que utiliza a cogeração para hotéis localizados na cidade de Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil. Foi analisada a implantação desse tipo de sistema, também chamado de CHP (Combined Heat and Power), de um ponto de vista econômico e energético. A questão econômica foi determinada pela viabilidade através de métodos de análise quantitativa, neste caso, dando enfoque ao tempo de retorno do investimento. Para a análise energética foi realizado o estudo dos consumos e demandas anuais da operação do prédio através da ferramenta de simulação térmo-energética de edificações. O software escolhido foi o EnergyPlus. Essas análises, energéticas e econômicas, foram realizadas através de uma comparação entre o hotel sem o sistema de CHP e o hotel com o sistema de CHP. O hotel hipotético simulado foi definido através de um levantamento de informações a respeito do desempenho energético de hotéis que funcionam em Porto Alegre. Além dos estudos energéticos e econômicos, foram realizadas variações em parâmetros do hotel para tentar abranger uma série de possíveis cenários e verificar suas viabilidades econômicas. Foi visto que a cogeração pode trazer redução de custo operacional mesmo não tendo um menor consumo energético anual. Em alguns cenários o tempo de retorno do investimento apresentou valor abaixo dos seis anos, sendo considerado como uma boa opção de investimento. / This work is a study of the application of a CHP (Combined Heat and Power) system in hotels built in the city of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. This system was analyzed from an economic and energetic point of view. The economic matter on its viability perspective was determined through quantitative methods, in this case, with the focus on the time frame for the investment's return. For the energetic analysis, a annual energy consumption and demand study was performed utilizing a whole-building energy model with computer simulation. The chosen software was EnergyPlus. The analyses, energetic and economic, were performed through a comparison between the hotel without the CHP system and with the CHP system. The hypothetic simulated hotel was determined by a data survey on the energetic performance of hotels build in Porto Alegre. In addition to the energetic and economic studies, some parametric variations to the hotel were made to include a series of possible scenarios and check their economic viability. It was observed that the CHP can provide some operational cost reductions even without presenting a lower annual energetic consumption. In some scenarios, the time to return the investment showed figures lower than six years, being considered a good investment option.
10

Contribution à la modélisation hygrothermique des bâtiments : application des méthodes de réduction de modèle / Contribution to heat and moisture modelling for buildings : applying model reduction techniques

Berger, Julien 10 December 2014 (has links)
Les bâtiments existants reposent sur un équilibre stable qui assure leur durabilité. Toute exécution de travaux de réhabilitation qui déplace cet équilibre peut être à l'origine de désordres. En ce sens, les travaux peuvent être qualifiés de pathogènes. Dans le cadre de rénovations énergétiques, la problématique de l'humidité dans les bâtiments existants nécessite donc une attention particulière. Il convient donc de fournir aux acteurs de la construction des modèles de simulation du comportement hygrothemique global des bâtiments et d'évaluer les risques de pathologies liées à l'humidité. L'élaboration de ces modèles passent par la résolution de problèmes non-linéaires, de grande échelles spatiales et temporelles, et parfois paramétrique. Ils sont donc complexes à résoudre et les méthodes de réduction de modèle permettent de répondre à cette problématique. Deux techniques de réduction de modèles ont été explorées: la Décomposition Orthogonale Propre (POD) et la Décomposition Générale Propre (PGD). Elles ont été appliquées sur des problèmes de diffusion non-linéaire, couplée chaleur et humidité, dans les matériaux poreux. Ces deux méthodes ont été évaluées et comparées sur les critères de réduction du coût numérique de résolution du problème et sur la précision de calcul de la solution. Sur la base de ces analyses, la PGD a été retenue pour la suite des travaux. Grâce à ses caractéristiques, la méthode PGD présente plusieurs avantages d'ordre structurel, recensés dans la littérature. Au chapitre 3, nous avons utilisé ces prérogatives pour répondre aux problématiques de complexité des modèles de simulation des bâtiments. Notre intérêt s'est concentré sur la réduction de la complexité numérique de problèmes multi-dimensionnels, sur la globalisation de problèmes locaux et sur la création de méta-modèle ou solution PGD paramétrique. Plusieurs cas académiques ont été considérés pour illustrer ces propos. Nous avons traité des problèmes de transferts non-linéaires dans les matériaux poreux et des problèmes de transferts multizone dans un bâtiment. Enfin, la dernière partie des travaux est axée sur la construction d'un modèle global articulant des modèles réduits PGD. Deux modèles sont construits. Le premier couple un modèle réduit enveloppe PGD avec un modèle complet multizone. Ces travaux ont été réalisés dans le cadre d'une collaboration avec le laboratoire LST de l'université PUCPR de Curitiba, Brésil. Ce partenariat a permis de bénéficier du modèle reconnu et validé Domus pour la simulation des transferts multizones. Les nombreuses possibilités du logiciel ont pu être exploitées. Deux cas d'études sont abordés. Le premier concerne la résolution d'un problème paramétrique pour l'étude de scénarios de réhabilitation en fonction de la perméabilité à la vapeur de l'isolant. Le second porte sur la modélisation globale d'un bâtiment bi-zone intégrant une simulation bi-dimensionnelle d'un pont thermique. Il est possible d'élaborer un modèle global présentant une plus grande réduction de la complexité du problème que celui réalisé avec Domus. Le deuxième modèle couple donc un modèle réduit PGD pour le problème enveloppe et une solution PGD paramétrique pour le problème multizone. Les performances de ce modèle ont été discutées en terme de précision de calcul de la solution et d'économie numérique de résolution du problème. La pertinence des méthodes de réduction de modèle pour la simulation du comportement des bâtiments a été montrée. En particulier, la méthode PGD permet d'apporter une nouvelle approche de résolution ces problèmes. / Excessive levels of moisture in buildings may damage the construction quality. Moisture also has an effect on indoor air quality and thermal comfort of the occupants. Thus moisture is a possible source of disorders in buildings. It is therefore important to continue developing numerical models to simulate the global hygrothermal behaviour of buildings. To achieve this aim, it is necessary to solve non-linear problems, with high space and time scales, with fine discretisation and sometimes parametric. This mathematical problems are complex to solve. Thus model reduction techniques and efficient ways of numerical simulation are worth investigations. Two techniques were assessed : the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) and the Proper Generalised Decomposition (PGD). They were first applied on non-liner coupled heat and mass transfers in porous materials. Both were compared and evaluated carrying about the reduction of the cost of resolution and the precision of the solution computed. Following this analysis, the PGD was selected for our next investigations. Due to it representation, the PGD method has several interesting features, already reviewed in literature.Thus, chapter 3 proposed to illustrate this advantages on different issues of modelling buildings hygrothermal behaviours. We focused on the reduction of the complexity of multi-dimensional problems, on the globalisation of local problems and on building PGD parametric solution or meta-model. Several academic case study were considered to illustrate these points. We analysed non-linear heat and mass transfers in porous materials and multizone air building transfers. In last part, we elaborated a PGD reduced order model to perform whole building energy simulation. Two different models were built. The first one associates a PGD model for envelope problem and a large original model for multizone problem. This work was done during a collaboration with the LST laboratory, at PUCPR University, Curitiba, Brazil. The main interest was the benefits of using their validated and admitted model Domus for solving multizone problem. Two case study were analysed. The first one analyse a parametric problem for the study of the retrofitting a building in function of the vapour permeability of the insulating material. The second one focused on the whole building energy simulation of a two-zone building with 2-dimension transfers in the wall assembly. A second global PGD reduced order model was elaborated, with a higher reduction of the numerical complexity of the problem. This model associates a PGD model for solving envelope problem and a PGD parametric solution for the multizone problem. The performance of this model was analysed investigating the numerical gain and the precision of the solution computed. In conclusion, the relevance of reduction model techniques for performing whole building energy simulation was revealed. The PGD method contributes to a new approach for solving this problems.

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