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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Unique roles for the C3 gamma-protocadherin isoform in WNT signaling and dendrite arborization

Mah, Kar Men 01 December 2017 (has links)
A key component of neural circuit formation is the elaboration of complex dendritic arbors, the pattern of which constrains inputs to the neuron and thus, the information it processes. As such, many neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and Down, Rett, and Fragile X Syndromes are associated with reduced forebrain dendrite arborization. Identifying molecules involved in regulating dendrite arborization and neural circuitry formation therefore, is a start to understanding these disorders. Nearly 70 cadherin superfamily adhesion molecules are encoded by the Pcdha, Pcdhb, and Pcdhg gene clusters. These so-called clustered protocadherins (Pcdhs) are broadly expressed throughout the nervous system, with lower levels found in a few non-neuronal tissues. Each neuron expresses a limited repertoire of clustered Pcdh genes, a complicated process controlled by differential methylation and promoter choice. The clustered Pcdh proteins interact homophilically in trans as cis-multimers, which has the potential to generate a combinatorially explosive number of distinct adhesive interfaces that may give neurons unique molecular identities important for circuit formation. Functional studies of animals in which clustered Pcdhs have been deleted or disrupted demonstrate that these proteins play critical roles in neuronal survival, axon and dendrite arborization, and synaptogenesis. Additionally, they have been implicated in the progression of several cancers, suggesting that basic studies of their function and signaling pathways will have important future clinical applications. Recent work has shown that γ-Pcdhs can regulate the Wnt signaling pathway, a common tumorigenic pathway which also play roles in neurodevelopment, but the molecular mechanisms remain unknown. I determined that γ-Pcdhs differentially regulate Wnt signaling: the C3 isoform uniquely inhibits the pathway while 13 other isoforms upregulate Wnt signaling. Focusing on γ-Pcdh-C3, I show that the variable cytoplasmic domain (VCD) is critical for Wnt signaling inhibition. γ-Pcdh-C3, but not other isoforms, physically interacts with Axin1, a key component of the canonical Wnt pathway. The C3 VCD competes with Dishevelled for binding to the DIX domain of Axin1, which stabilizes Axin1 at the membrane and leads to reduced phosphorylation of Wnt co-receptor Lrp6. I also present evidence that the Wnt pathway can be modulated up (by γ-Pcdh-A1) or down (by γ-Pcdh-C3) in the cerebral cortex in vivo, using conditional transgenic alleles. Studies have implicated γ-Pcdhs as a whole, in many neurodevelopmental processes but little is known if distinct roles exists for individual isoforms. By using a specific C3-isoform knockout mouse line engineered in collaboration with Dr. Robert Burgess of The Jackson Laboratory, I was able to uncover a unique role for the C3-isoform in the regulation of dendrite arborization. Mice without γ-Pcdh-C3 exhibit significantly reduced dendrite complexity in cortical neurons. This phenotype was recapitulated in cultured cortical neurons in vitro, which can be rescued by reintroducing the C3-isoform. The ability of γ-Pcdh-C3 to promote dendrite arborization cell-autonomously was abrogated when Axin1 was depleted with an shRNA, indicating that this process by which γ-Pcdh-C3 regulates dendrite arborization is mediated by its interaction with Axin1, which I had previously demonstrated. Together, these data suggest that γ-Pcdh-C3 has unique roles distinct from other γ-Pcdhs, in the regulation of Wnt signaling and dendrite arborization, both of which are mediated by interaction with Axin1.
2

Heterophilic Cell Adhesion Molecule TgrC1 and its Binding Partners during Dictyostelium discoideum Development

Chen, Gong 27 March 2014 (has links)
During development, Dictyostelium discoideum cells assume muticellularity via their collective aggregation. Cell-cell adhesion is required for morphogenesis, cell differentiation, cell sorting and gene expression during development. TgrC1 is a heterophilic cell adhesion molecule which is indispendable for complete development. TgrC1 can be considered as the most important cell adhesion molecule for D. discoideum development because deletion of the tgrC1 gene completely arrests development at the loose aggregate stage and inhibits fruiting body formation. In order to investigate the biological role of TgrC1 during development, I have chosen to identify and charactize the extracellular heterophilic partner and the cytoplasmic binding partner(s) of TgrC1. Using different biochemical approaches, we identified TgrB1 as the heterophilic binding partner of TgrC1 and demonstrated that their association is mediated through IPT/TIG domains in the extracellular region of both proteins. Both tgrB1 and tgrC1 share the same transcriptional promoter and their spatiotemporal expression pattern is identical during development. We also examined the assembly of TgrC1-TgrB1 complexes via the split green fluorescence protein complementation assay and the fluorescence resonance energy transfer approach. Whereas TgrC1 is capable of forming cis-homodimers spontaneously, cis-homodimerization of TgrB1 depends on its trans-interaction with TgrC1. A model of the assembly process has been proposed. To investigate signalling events initiated by the interaction between TgrB1 and TgrC1, pull-down assays were employed and led to the identification of myosin heavy chain kinase C as the cytoplamic partner of TgrC1. Mutational analysis showed that the basic residues in the short cytoplasmic domain of TgrC1 are critical to the binding with MHCK-C. Disruption of the interation between MHCK-C and TgrC1 results in an alteration of cell motility at the aggregation stage and aberrant cell sorting in slugs. These studies have highlighted the role of TgrB1-TgrC1 complexes in the regulation of morphogenesis during Dictyostelium development.
3

Heterophilic Cell Adhesion Molecule TgrC1 and its Binding Partners during Dictyostelium discoideum Development

Chen, Gong 27 March 2014 (has links)
During development, Dictyostelium discoideum cells assume muticellularity via their collective aggregation. Cell-cell adhesion is required for morphogenesis, cell differentiation, cell sorting and gene expression during development. TgrC1 is a heterophilic cell adhesion molecule which is indispendable for complete development. TgrC1 can be considered as the most important cell adhesion molecule for D. discoideum development because deletion of the tgrC1 gene completely arrests development at the loose aggregate stage and inhibits fruiting body formation. In order to investigate the biological role of TgrC1 during development, I have chosen to identify and charactize the extracellular heterophilic partner and the cytoplasmic binding partner(s) of TgrC1. Using different biochemical approaches, we identified TgrB1 as the heterophilic binding partner of TgrC1 and demonstrated that their association is mediated through IPT/TIG domains in the extracellular region of both proteins. Both tgrB1 and tgrC1 share the same transcriptional promoter and their spatiotemporal expression pattern is identical during development. We also examined the assembly of TgrC1-TgrB1 complexes via the split green fluorescence protein complementation assay and the fluorescence resonance energy transfer approach. Whereas TgrC1 is capable of forming cis-homodimers spontaneously, cis-homodimerization of TgrB1 depends on its trans-interaction with TgrC1. A model of the assembly process has been proposed. To investigate signalling events initiated by the interaction between TgrB1 and TgrC1, pull-down assays were employed and led to the identification of myosin heavy chain kinase C as the cytoplamic partner of TgrC1. Mutational analysis showed that the basic residues in the short cytoplasmic domain of TgrC1 are critical to the binding with MHCK-C. Disruption of the interation between MHCK-C and TgrC1 results in an alteration of cell motility at the aggregation stage and aberrant cell sorting in slugs. These studies have highlighted the role of TgrB1-TgrC1 complexes in the regulation of morphogenesis during Dictyostelium development.
4

Structure and function of CD31

Newton, Justin Philip January 1997 (has links)
The regulated interaction of leukocyte with endothelium is of key importance during normal immune surveillance and leukocyte infiltration to sites of infection in the inflammatory response. This thesis is concerned with the structure and function of CD31 (platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1), one of the adhesion molecules implicated in these processes. Previous work has shown both in vivo and in vitro that CD31 is involved in the final step of leukocyte recruitment, transmigration across the endothelial monolayer. CD31 mediated adhesion is complex, since it is capable of mediating multiple adhesive interactions, both to itself (homophilic adhesion) and to other ligands (heterophilic adhesion). In order to study homophilic adhesion, an heterologous cell-protein assay was used in combination with recombinant chimeric CD31Fc fusion proteins, ICAM-3/CD31 chimeras and chimeras between human and murine CD31. These reagents located the homophilic binding site to the NH<sub>2</sub>-terminal domains 1 and 2, but also define a non-binding accessory role for the membrane proximal domains. Using site-directed mutagenesis to target all of the exposed charged residues in domain 1 and a subset of charged residues in domain 2, five residues were identified, mutations in which resulted in inhibition of homophilic adhesion. These residues map to both faces of the domain 1 immunoglobulinlike fold, suggesting that each molecule of CD31 interacts with two others. A novel zipper model of homophilic adhesion involving CD31 lateral association analogous to that seen amongst cadherins is proposed on the basis of these results. Evidence for lateral association of CD31 to form dimers was obtained from biophysical, biochemical and molecular biology techniques. These show that Cd31 exists in an equilibrium between monomeric and dimeric forms both in solution as soluble recombinant protein, and at the cell surface. In solution the affinity of the interaction was calculated to lie in the range 12-14μM. A large panel of anti-CD31 monoclonal antibodies were generated and tested for their ability to effect homophilic adhesion. Inhibitory antibodies were identified, mapping throughout the extracellular domain, away from the ligand binding site. In addition possible stimulating antibodies mapping to the membrane proximal domains were also identified. This indicates that CDS 1 may be induced to undergo conformational changes which effect homophilic adhesion, and it is proposed that these conformational changes may be linked to the ability of CD31 to form laterally associated dimers. Using the reagents described above, a screen of haematopoietic cell lines identified a novel heterophilic interaction, which was shown to be mediated by the integrin αvβ3. Proteinprotein assays were used to confirm a direct physical association between CD31 and αvβ3, and to map the integrin binding site to the third immunoglobulin-like fold of CD31. The functional significance of this interaction was assessed in neutrophil transmigration assays, in which both anti-CD31 and anti-αvβ3 antibodies were found to partially inhibit neutrophil transmigration.
5

An investigation into the mechanism of TMIGD1-mediated signal transduction pathway in human epithelial cells

Engblom, Nels 11 July 2017 (has links)
Dysregulation of protein expression, in particular expression of proto-oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes whose function play key roles in cell growth, adhesion and migration, are hallmarks of human malignancies. Transmembrane and immunoglobulin-containing domain 1 (TMIGD1) was recently discovered as a cell adhesion molecule (CAM) that plays an important role in epithelial cell function by regulating epithelial cell polarity and adhesion. The extracellular domain of TMIGD1 contains two Ig domains that are involved in cell-cell interaction, followed by a transmembrane region and short cytoplasmic domain with potential to relay signal transduction. Our further investigation demonstrated TMIGD1 is downregulated in human colon cancer, suggesting a potentially important role for TMIGD1 in the regulation colorectal cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms of TMIGD1-mediated signal transduction, which could relay its function in epithelial cells, are not known. Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis, we have identified moesin as a possible TMIGD1 binding protein. Moesin, a member of the Ezrin/Radixin/Moesin (ERM) family of proteins, is upregulated in human tumors. Moesin stimulates cell migration, tumor invasion, adherence and modulates cytoskeletal actin assembly. Similar to other ERM family proteins, moesin contains an N-terminal FERM domain, which binds to transmembrane proteins, and a C-terminal C-ERMAD domain, which binds F-actin. The overall goal of this study was to determine the binding of moesin with TMIGD1 and the specific domain involved in mediating the binding of moesin with TMIGD1. Our study in vitro and in vivo binding assays demonstrate that moesin interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of TMIGD1 via its FERM domain. Moreover, we demonstrate TMIGD1 interaction with moesin inhibits phosphorylation of moesin, indicating that perhaps TMIGD1 inhibits tumor cell migration through inhibition of phosphorylation of moesin. Additionally, TMIGD1 alters cellular localization of moesin, suggesting that altered cellular localization by TMIGD1 could account for inhibition of phosphorylation of moesin. We propose that TMIGD1 sequesters moesin near the cell membrane, preventing its interaction with PIP2, which is required for its phosphorylation and hence inhibits moesin activation. Altogether, the data presented in this work identifies moesin as a key signaling component of TMIGD1. Moesin directly interacts with TMIGD1 via its FERM domain. Recruitment of moesin to TMIGD1 blocks phosphorylation of moesin, suggesting that TMIGD1 exerts its effect in tumor cells in part by inhibition of moesin activation. / 2018-07-11T00:00:00Z
6

IGCR1 is a novel cell-surface molecule

Moore, Victoria Ann 12 July 2017 (has links)
Tumor angiogenesis, the ability of tumor cells to stimulate blood vessel growth, is one the most critical steps of tumor progression. To support the growth of the expanding tumor, the “angiogenic switch” is turned on, which is often triggered by hypoxia (i.e., low oxygen)-mediated events such as expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), causing normally quiescent endothelial cells to proliferate and sprout. An emerging picture of angiogenesis suggests that while governed by complex mechanisms, cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of angiogenesis. Our laboratory recently identified multiple previously unknown proteins including, transmembrane and immunoglobulin domain containing 1 (TMIGD1) and immunoglobulin-containing and proline-rich receptor 1 (IGPR1). Immunoglobulin-containing and cysteine-rich receptor 1 (IGCR1) represents the third remember of IGPR-1 family proteins. To investigate the expression and function of IGCR1, we have developed a rabbit polyclonal anti-IGCR1 antibody and demonstrated that IGCR1 is expressed in the endothelial cells of human blood vessels. To examine possible function of IGCR1, we have generated porcine aortic endothelial (PAE) cells over-expressing IGCR1. We demonstrate that IGCR1 expression in PAE cells inhibited cell proliferation and capillary tube formation as measured by colorimetric MTT and matrigel tube formation assays, respectively. In contrast, over-expression of IGCR1 in PAE cells inhibited cell migration as measured by wounding assay. Taken together, this study identifies IGCR1 as a novel regulator of angiogenesis. Given, angiogenesis is a highly coordinated cellular processes controlled spatially and temporally by a myriad of cell surface receptors and ligands, IGCR1 by modulating the rate of endothelial cell proliferation and migration, plays a significant role in the formation of blood vessels. / 2018-07-11T00:00:00Z
7

Exploring Developmental Mechanisms and Function of Drosophila Motoneuron Dendrites with Targeted Genetic Manipulation of Dscam

January 2013 (has links)
abstract: Specific dendritic morphologies are a hallmark of neuronal identity, circuit assembly, and behaviorally relevant function. Despite the importance of dendrites in brain health and disease, the functional consequences of dendritic shape remain largely unknown. This dissertation addresses two fundamental and interrelated aspects of dendrite neurobiology. First, by utilizing the genetic power of Drosophila melanogaster, these studies assess the developmental mechanisms underlying single neuron morphology, and subsequently investigate the functional and behavioral consequences resulting from developmental irregularity. Significant insights into the molecular mechanisms that contribute to dendrite development come from studies of Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam). While these findings have been garnered primarily from sensory neurons whose arbors innervate a two-dimensional plane, it is likely that the principles apply in three-dimensional central neurons that provide the structural substrate for synaptic input and neural circuit formation. As such, this dissertation supports the hypothesis that neuron type impacts the realization of Dscam function. In fact, in Drosophila motoneurons, Dscam serves a previously unknown cell-autonomous function in dendrite growth. Dscam manipulations produced a range of dendritic phenotypes with alteration in branch number and length. Subsequent experiments exploited the dendritic alterations produced by Dscam manipulations in order to correlate dendritic structure with the suggested function of these neurons. These data indicate that basic motoneuron function and behavior are maintained even in the absence of all adult dendrites within the same neuron. By contrast, dendrites are required for adjusting motoneuron responses to specific challenging behavioral requirements. Here, I establish a direct link between dendritic structure and neuronal function at the level of the single cell, thus defining the structural substrates necessary for conferring various aspects of functional motor output. Taken together, information gathered from these studies can inform the quest in deciphering how complex cell morphologies and networks form and are precisely linked to their function. / Dissertation/Thesis / Ph.D. Neuroscience 2013
8

Expression of IGPR-1 in endothelial cells regulates cell survival

Shafran, Jordan 03 November 2015 (has links)
Angiogenesis is a physiological process by which new blood vessels develop from preexisting vasculature. The process of converting endothelial cells into fully developed blood vessels involves multiple coordinated cellular events that occur through the collaboration that exists between a variety of growth factors, receptors and adhesion molecules. The immunoglobulin-containing and proline rich receptor-1 (IGPR-1) is an IgSF containing adhesion molecule that has been recently identified as a novel regulator of angiogenesis in vitro. In this study, we provide evidence that IGPR-1 promotes cell survival in porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAE) and plays a role in the inhibition of p38 MAPK in vitro. Deletion of the extracellular domain of IGPR-1 abolished IGPR-1’s ability to inhibit phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and promote the survival of endothelial cells. Likewise, mutation of serines 186 (A186-IGPR-1) and 220 (A220-IGPR-1) on the cytoplasmic domain of IGPR-1 was also found to reduce both the promotion of cell survival and inhibition of p38 MAPK. These findings suggest that both domains of IGPR-1 are important for endothelial cell survival and the activation p38 MAPK.
9

Development of Novel Therapeutic and Diagnostic Approaches for Atherosclerosis

Deosarkar, Sudhir P. 16 April 2010 (has links)
No description available.
10

Role of the Cell Adhesion Molecule L1 during Early Neural Development in Zebrafish

Xiang, Wanyi 01 August 2008 (has links)
The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily and it mediates many adhesive interactions during brain development. Mutations in the L1 gene are associated with a spectrum of X-linked neurological disorders known as CRASH or L1 syndrome. The objective of this thesis was to use the zebrafish model to investigate the molecular mechanisms of L1 functions and the pathological effects of its mutations. Zebrafish has two L1 homologs, L1.1 and L1.2. Inhibition of L1.1 expression by antisense morpholino oligonucleotides resulted in phenotypes that showed resemblances to L1 patients. However, knockdown of L1.2 expression did not result in notable neural defects. Furthermore, analysis of the expression pattern of L1.1 has led to the discovery of a novel soluble L1.1 isoform, L1.1s. L1.1s is an alternatively spliced form of L1.1, consisting of the first four Ig-like domains and thus a soluble secreted protein. L1.1 morphants exhibited disorganized brain structures with many having an enlarged fourth/hindbrain ventricle. Further characterization revealed aberrations in ventricular polarity, cell patterning and proliferation and helped differentiate the functions of L1.1 and L1.1s. While L1.1 plays a pivotal role in axonal outgrowth and guidance, L1.1s is crucial to brain ventricle formation. Significantly, L1.1s mRNA rescued many anomalies in the morphant brain, but not the trunk phenotypes. Receptor analysis confirmed that L1.1 undergoes heterophilic interactions with neuropilin-1a (Nrp1a). Peptide inhibition studies demonstrated further the involvement of L1.1s in neuroepithelial cell migration during ventricle formation. In the spinal cord, spinal primary motoneurons expressed exclusively the full-length L1.1, and abnormalities in axonal projections of morphants could be rescued only by L1.1 mRNA. Further studies showed that a novel interaction between the Ig3 domain of L1.1 and Unplugged, the zebrafish muscle specific kinase (MuSK), is crucial to motor axonal growth. Together, these results demonstrate that the different parts of L1.1 contribute to the diverse functions of L1.1 in neural development.

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