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Performance of dual hop relay systems with imperfect CSISoysa, Madushanka Dinesh Unknown Date
No description available.
On the Performance of Underlay Cognitive Radio Networks with Interference Constraints and RelayingKabiri, Charles January 2015 (has links)
Efficiently allocating the scarce and expensive radio resources is a key challenge for advanced radio communication systems. To this end, cognitive radio (CR) has emerged as a promising solution which can offer considerable improvements in spectrum utilization. Furthermore, cooperative communication is a concept proposed to obtain spatial diversity gains through relays without requiring multiple antennas. To benefit from both CR and cooperative communications, a combination of CR networks (CRNs) with cooperative relaying referred to as cognitive cooperative relay networks (CCRNs) has recently been proposed. CCRNs can better utilize the radio spectrum by allowing the secondary users (SUs) to opportunistically access spectrum, share spectrum with primary users (PUs), and provide performance gains offered by cooperative relaying. In this thesis, a performance analysis of underlay CRNs and CCRNs in different fading channels is provided based on analytical expressions, numerical results, and simulations. To allocate power in the CCRNs, power allocation policies are proposed which consider the peak transmit power limit of the SUs and the outage probability constraint of the primary network. Thus, the impact of multiuser diversity, peak transmit power, fading parameters, and modulation schemes on the performance of the CRNs and CCRNs can be analyzed. The thesis is divided into an introduction and five research parts based on peer-reviewed conference papers and journal articles. The introduction provides fundamental background on spectrum sharing systems, fading channels, and performance metrics. In the first part, a basic underlay CRN is analyzed where the outage probability and the ergodic capacity of the network over general fading channels is derived. In the second part, the outage probability and the ergodic capacity of an underlay CRN are assessed capturing the effect of multiuser diversity on the network subject to Nakagami-m fading. Considering the presence of a PU transmitter (PU-Tx), a power allocation policy is derived and utilized for CRN performance analysis under Rayleigh fading. In the third part, the impact of multiple PU-Txs and multiple PU receivers (PU-Rxs) on the outage probability of an underlay CCRN is studied. The outage constraint at the PU-Rx and the peak transmit power constraint of the SUs are taken into account to derive the power allocation policies for the SUs. In the fourth part, analytical expressions for the outage probability and symbol error probability for CCRNs are derived where signal combining schemes at the SU receiver (SU-Rx) are compared. Finally, the fifth part applies a sleep/wake-up strategy and the min(N; T) policy to an underlay CRN. The SUs of the network operate as wireless sensor nodes under Nakagami-m fading. A power consumption function of the CRN is derived. Further, the impact of M/G/1 queue and fading channel parameters on the power consumption is assessed.
Performance Analysis of Secondary Link with Cross-Layer Design and Cooperative Relay in Cognitive Radio NetworksMa, Hao 06 1900 (has links)
In this thesis, we investigate two different system infrastructures in underlay cognitive radio network, in which two popular techniques, cross-layer design and cooperative communication, are considered, respectively. In particular, we introduce the Aggressive Adaptive Modulation and Coding (A-AMC) into the cross-layer design and achieve the optimal boundary points in closed form to choose the AMC and A-AMC transmission modes by taking into account the Channel State Information (CSI) from the secondary transmitter to both the primary receiver and the secondary receiver. What’s more, for the cooperative communication design, we consider three different relay selection schemes: Partial Relay Selection, Opportunistic Relay Selection and Threshold Relay Selection. The Probability Density Functions (PDFs) of the Signal-to- Noise Ratio (SNR) in each hop for different selection schemes are provided, and then the exact closed-form expressions for the end-to-end packet loss rate in the secondary link considering the cooperation of the Decode-and-Forward (DF) relay for different relay selection schemes are derived.
Physical Layer Security in Training-Based Single-Hop/Dual-Hop Massive MIMO SystemsTimilsina, Santosh 01 August 2018 (has links)
The broadcast nature of wireless medium has made information security as one of the most important and critical issues in wireless systems. Physical layer security, which is based on information-theoretic secrecy concepts, can be used to secure the wireless channels by exploiting the noisiness and imperfections of the channels. Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems, which are equipped with very large antenna arrays at the base stations, have a great potential to boost the physical layer security by generating the artificial noise (AN) with the exploitation of excess degrees-of-freedom available at the base stations. In this thesis, we investigate physical layer security provisions in the presence of passive/active eavesdroppers for single-hop massive MIMO, dual-hop relay-assisted massive MIMO and underlay spectrum-sharing massive MIMO systems. The performance of the proposed security provisions is investigated by deriving the achievable rates at the user nodes, the information rate leaked into the eavesdroppers, and the achievable secrecy rates. Moreover, the effects of active pilot contamination attacks, imperfect channel state information (CSI) acquisition at the base-stations, and the availability of statistical CSI at the user nodes are quantified. The secrecy rate/performance gap between two AN precoders, namely the random AN precoder and the null-space based AN precoder, is investigated. The performance of hybrid analog/digital precoding is compared with the full-dimensional digital precoding. Furthermore, the physical layer security breaches in underlay spectrum-sharing massive MIMO systems are investigated, and thereby, security provisions are designed/analyzed against active pilot contamination attacks during the channel estimation phase. A power-ratio based active pilot attack detection scheme is investigated, and thereby, the probability of detection is derived. Thereby, the vulnerability of uplink channel estimation based on the pilots transmitted by the user nodes in time division duplexing based massive MIMO systems is revealed, and the fundamental trade-offs among physical layer security provisions, implementation complexity and performance gains are discussed.
Analytical Frameworks of Cooperative and Cognitive Radio Systems with Practical ConsiderationsKhan, Fahd Ahmed 08 1900 (has links)
Cooperative and cognitive radio systems have been proposed as a solution to improve the quality-of-service (QoS) and spectrum efficiency of existing communication systems. The objective of this dissertation is to propose and analyze schemes for cooperative and cognitive radio systems considering real world scenarios and to make these technologies implementable. In most of the research on cooperative relaying, it has been assumed that the communicating nodes have perfect channel state information (CSI). However, in reality, this is not the case and the nodes may only have an estimate of the CSI or partial knowledge of the CSI. Thus, in this dissertation, depending on the amount of CSI available, novel receivers are proposed to improve the performance of amplify-and forward relaying. Specifically, new coherent receivers are derived which do not perform channel estimation at the destination by using the received pilot signals directly for decoding. The derived receivers are based on new metrics that use distribution of the channels and the noise to achieve improved symbol-error-rate (SER) performance. The SER performance of the derived receivers is further improved by utilizing the decision history in the receivers. In cases where receivers with low complexity are desired, novel non-coherent receiver which detects the signal without knowledge of CSI is proposed. In addition, new receivers are proposed for the situation when only partial CSI is available at the destination i.e. channel knowledge of either the source-relay link or the relay-destination link but not both, is available. These receivers are termed as `half-coherent receivers' since they have channel-state-information of only one of the two links in the system. In practical systems, the CSI at the communicating terminals becomes outdated due to the time varying nature of the channel and results in system performance degradation. In this dissertation, the impact of using outdated CSI for relay selection on the performance of a network where two sources communicate with each other via fixed-gain amplify-and-forward relays is studied and for a Rayleigh faded channel, closed-form expressions for the outage probability (OP), moment generating function (MGF) and SER are derived. Relay location is also taken into consideration and it is shown that the performance can be improved by placing the relay closer to the source whose channel is more outdated. Some practical issues encountered in cognitive radio systems (CRS) are also investigated. The QoS of CRS can be improved through spatial diversity which can be achieved by either using multiple antennas or exploiting the independent channels of each user in a multi-user network. In this dissertation, both approaches are examined and in multi-antenna CRS, transmit antenna selection (TAS) is proposed where as in a multi-user CRS, user selection is proposed to achieve performance gains. TAS reduces the implementation cost and complexity and thus makes CRS more feasible. Additionally, unlike previous works, in accordance with real world systems, the transmitter is assumed to have limited peak transmit power. For both these schemes, considering practical channel models, closed-form expression for the OP performance, SER performance and ergodic capacity (EC) are obtained and the performance in the asymptotic regimes is also studied. Furthermore, the OP performance is also analyzed taking into account the interference from the primary network on the cognitive network.
On the Improvement of the Capacity of the Heterogeneous Networks with Link-Level and System-Level ApproachesÇelebi, Mehmet Bahadır 05 November 2014 (has links)
Evolution of wireless services enabled the development of the advanced applications and shifted the paradigms of research in this field from voice to data centric. Such services are spreading like wildfire between users and hence, increasing the demand for large bandwidth. However, the frequency spectrum that is suitable for wireless mobile communications is already assigned to particular services from 400 MHz to several GHz. Also, allocating a large chunk of band continuously from the same part of the spectrum may not be possible due to spectral crowd. Therefore, meeting the demand for high data rate requiring wireless services within the accessible spectrum range becomes a challenging problem. The spectrum allocation policies are discussed by regulatory authorities and academia, and the idea of spectrum sharing systems are addressed as a solution. For instance, heterogeneous networks (HetNets) increase the number of available resources and improve the spectrum accessing capabilities of the wireless communication systems. To achieve this, HetNet nodes are deployed within the coverage of the macrocell regions. Thus, spectral efficiency is boosted via spatial reuse of the same spectral resources. On the contrary, HetNets preclude to fully exploit the resources because of serious interference problems between macrocell and HetNet nodes. Thus, wireless networks of the future will observe interference from even a larger number of sources. Due to co-channel HetNet deployment and denser frequency reuse, interference cancellation is expected to have significant importance for future wireless communication systems. The occupied resources can also be reused as a solution by conducting advanced signal processing algorithms at the receiver to increase the spectral efficiency. While doing so, the proposed approaches are expected to be easily integrated with the existing complementary approaches to improve the capacity further. Besides, new deployment strategies that allow spectrum access for non-licensed users to achieve larger bandwidth become important to increase the spectral efficiency of the HetNets. Within the scope of the dissertation, new solutions are developed for the aforementioned problems of the next-generation wireless communication systems. First, an interference cancellation receiver that exploits the unique characteristics of current waveforms is developed in Chapter 2. Also the unknown model of interference is converted to a known model and new algorithms are proposed to recover the desired signal. Then, another perspective is brought into the subject by transforming the interference problem to an interference advantage in Chapter 3. The idea of co-existence of different types of signals are analyzed to bring another degree of freedom as a solution. The proposed approaches are integrated to the existing complementary approaches, such as interference coordination and power control, to improve the capacity further. Finally, a cooperation mechanism is suggested to facilitate the transmission of signal which has a large bandwidth by integrating the idle bands in Chapter 4. By this way, geo-spatially idle bands within the coverage area are utilized and spectral efficiency is increased.
Novel transmission schemes for application in two-way cooperative relay wireless communication networksMannai, Usama N. January 2014 (has links)
Recently, cooperative relay networks have emerged as an attractive communications technique that can generate a new form of spatial diversity which is known as cooperative diversity, that can enhance system reliability without sacrificing the scarce bandwidth resource or consuming more transmit power. To achieve cooperative diversity single-antenna terminals in a wireless relay network typically share their antennas to form a virtual antenna array on the basis of their distributed locations. As such, the same diversity gains as in multi-input multi-output systems can be achieved without requiring multiple-antenna terminals. However, there remain technical challenges to maximize the benefit of cooperative communications, e.g. data rate, asynchronous transmission, interference and outage. Therefore, the focus of this thesis is to exploit cooperative relay networks within two-way transmission schemes. Such schemes have the potential to double the data rate as compared to one-way transmission schemes. Firstly, a new approach to two-way cooperative communications via extended distributed orthogonal space-time block coding (E-DOSTBC) based on phase rotation feedback is proposed with four relay nodes. This scheme can achieve full cooperative diversity and full transmission rate in addition to array gain. Then, distributed orthogonal space-time block coding (DOSTBC) is applied within an asynchronous two-way cooperative wireless relay network using two relay nodes. A parallel interference cancelation (PIC) detection scheme with low structural and computational complexity is applied at the terminal nodes in order to overcome the effect of imperfect synchronization among the cooperative relay nodes. Next, a DOSTBC scheme based on cooperative orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) type transmission is proposed for flat fading channels which can overcome imperfect synchronization in the network. As such, this technique can effectively cope with the effects of fading and timing errors. Moreover, to increase the end-to-end data rate, a closed-loop EDOSTBC approach using through a three-time slot framework is proposed. A full interference cancelation scheme with OFDM and cyclic prefix type transmission is used in a two-hop cooperative four relay network with asynchronism in the both hops to achieve full data rate and completely cancel the timing error. The topic of outage probability analysis in the context of multi-relay selection for one-way cooperative amplify and forward networks is then considered. Local measurements of the instantaneous channel conditions are used to select the best single and best two relays from a number of available relays. Asymptotical conventional polices are provided to select the best single and two relays from a number of available relays. Finally, the outage probability of a two-way amplify and forward relay network with best and Mth relay selection is analyzed. The relay selection is performed either on the basis of a max-min strategy or one based on maximizing exact end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio. MATLAB and Maple software based simulations are employed throughout the thesis to support the analytical results and assess the performance of new algorithms and methods.
Low-complexity and power-efficient wireless cooperative relay networks with enhanced reliabilityChoi, Gi Wan 09 January 2013 (has links)
In recent years, global mobile data traffic has been increasing exponentially as mobile devices pervade our daily lives. To cope with the ever growing demands for higher data rates and seamless connectivity, one solution is to drastically increase the number of macro base stations in the conventional cellular architecture. However, this results in high deployment costs. Deploying low-power nodes such as relays that do not require a wired backhaul connection within a macrocell is one of cost-effective ways to extend high data rate coverage range. Relays are typically deployed to increase signal strength in poor coverage areas or to eliminate dead spots. But more importantly, relays provide a natural diversity, called cooperative diversity. In addition to a direct signal from a base station, extra copies of the same signal are forwarded from relays. Utilizing this diversity at the destination can yield significant performance enhancements. Thus, cooperative relay strategies need to be considered to enable high data rate coverage in a cost-effective manner. In this dissertation, we consider a simple single-relay network and present low-complexity and power-efficient cooperative relay designs that can achieve low error rate. We first study decode-and-forward (DF) relay networks with a single antenna at each node, where the relay decodes the received signal and forwards the re-encoded information to the destination. In DF relay scheme, decoding at the relay is not perfect and the error-propagation phenomenon is a detrimental problem, preventing the destination from collecting the cooperative diversity. To enable cooperative diversity in DF relay networks, we adopt link-adaptive power-scaling relay strategies where the relay scales the transmission power of the re-encoded signal based on the reliability of the source-relay link. We generalize power-profile designs and analyze the diversity order enabled by the general power-profile designs. We provide necessary and sufficient conditions for the designs to enable full cooperative diversity at the destination. In the second part of this dissertation, we extend the power-scaling relay strategy to DF multi-input multi-output (MIMO) relay networks, where multiple antennas are adopted at each node, and show that full cooperative diversity can also be achieved here. To collect spatial diversity provided by multiple antennas without using maximum-likelihood equalizers (MLEs) or near-ML detectors which exhibit high complexity, channel-controlled automatic repeat request (CC-ARQ) scheme is developed for DF MIMO relay networks to enable spatial diversity with linear equalizers (LEs) maintaining low-complexity. We also show that joint cooperative and spatial diversity can be achieved at the destination when the power-scaling strategy and the CC-ARQ with LEs are combined. Finally, amplify-and-forward (AF) MIMO relay designs, where the relay simply amplifies the received signal and forwards it to the destination, are studied with consideration of peak-power constraints at the relay. One practical concern for AF relaying is that the output signal at the relay may suffer from large peak-to-average power ratio (PAR), which may cause nonlinear distortion and/or saturation in the transmitted signal due to the limited linear range of power amplifiers. Thus, we first investigate peak-power constrained power-scaling strategies and find a sufficient condition to enable joint cooperative and spatial diversity at the destination. Based on this study, we propose simple and practical AF MIMO relay designs with peak-power constraint at the relay. CC-ARQ is also applied to AF MIMO relay networks to reduce the decoding complexity.
Cooperative Communication In Store And Forward Wireless Networks Using Rateless CodesBansal, Gaurav 05 1900 (has links) (PDF)
In this thesis, we consider a cooperative relay-assisted communication system that uses rateless codes. When multiple relays are present, the relay with the highest channel gain to the source is the first to successfully decode a message from the source and forward it to the destination. Thus, the unique properties of rateless codes ensure that both rate adaptation and relay selection occur without the transmitting source or relays acquiring instantaneous channel knowledge. We show that in such cooperative systems, buffering messages at relays significantly increases throughput. We develop a novel analysis of these systems that combines the communication-theoretic aspects of cooperation over fading channels with the queuing-theoretic aspects associated with buffering. Closed-form expressions are derived for the throughput and end-to-end delay for the general case in which the channels between various nodes are not statistically identical. Results are also shown for the benchmark system that does not buffer messages. Though relay selection combined with buffering of messages at the relays substantially increases the throughput of a cooperative network, it also increases the end-to-end delays due to the additional queuing delays at the relay nodes. In order to overcome this, we propose a novel method that exploits a unique property of rateless codes that enables a receiver to decode a message from non-contiguous and unordered portions of the received signal. In it, each relay, depending on its queue length, ignores its received coded bits with a given probability. We show that this substantially reduces the end-to-end delays while retaining almost all of the throughput gain achieved by buffering. In effect, the method increases the odds that the message is first decoded by a relay with a smaller queue. Thus, the queuing load is balanced across the relays and traded off with transmission times. We derive conditions for the stability of this system when the various channels undergo fading. Despite encountering analytically intractable G/GI/1 queues in our system, we also gain insights about the method by analyzing a similar system with a simpler model for the relay-to-destination transmission times. Next we combine the single relay selection scheme at the source with physical layer power control at the relays (due to the diversity provided by the rateless codes, power control at the source is not needed). We derive an optimal power control policy that minimizes the relay to destination transmission time. Due to its computational and implementation complexity, we develop another heuristic easily implementable near optimal policy. In this policy, power allocated turns out to be inversely proportional to the square root of channel gain. We also see that this policy performs better than the channel inversion policy. Our power control solution substantially decreases the mean end-to-end delays with a marginal increase in throughput also. Finally, we combine bit dropping with power control at the relays which further improves the system performance.
Diversity-Mutiplexing Tradeoff Of Asynchronous Cooperative Relay Networks And Diversity Embedded Coding SchemesNaveen, N 07 1900 (has links)
This thesis consists of two parts addressing two different problems in fading channels. The first part deals with asynchronous cooperative relay communication. The assumption of nodes in a cooperative communication relay network operating in synchronous fashion is often unrealistic. In this work we consider two different models of asynchronous operation in cooperative-diversity networks experiencing slow fading and examine the corresponding Diversity-Multiplexing Tradeoffs (DMT). For both models, we propose protocols and distributed space-time codes that asymptotically achieve the transmit diversity bound on DMT for all multiplexing gains and for number of relays N ≥ 2. The distributed space-time codes for all the protocols considered are based on Cyclic Division Algebras (CDA). The second part of the work addresses the DMT analysis of diversity embedded codes for MIMO channels. Diversity embedded codes are high rate codes that are designed so that they have a high diversity code embedded within them. This allows a form of opportunistic communication depending on the channel conditions. The high diversity code ensures that at least a part of the information is received reliably, whereas the embedded high rate code allows additional information to be transferred if the channel is good. This can be thought of coding the data into two streams: high priority and low priority streams so that the high priority stream gets a better reliability than the lower priority stream. We show that superposition based diversity embedded codes in conjunction with naive single stream decoding is sub-optimal in terms of the DM tradeoff. We then construct explicit diversity embedded codes by the superposition of approximately universal space-time codes from CDAs. The relationship between broadcast channels and the diversity embedded setting is then utilized to provide some achievable Diversity Gain Region (DGR) for MIMO broadcast Channels.
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