31 January 2008
In January 2007 the AMS approved an Environmental Sustainability Policy designed to make the AMS’s well-established environmental actions more effective and consistent. The Policy vision includes the responsibility the AMS has with respect to the current ecological crisis and strongly states our commitment to meeting this obligation: The AMS recognizes the ecological crisis humanity faces and the special responsibility universities, and university students, have in finding and implementing solutions. We acknowledge our obligations as global citizens and strive to create a sustainable and equitable future for all. The AMS will be a leader in reducing the university campus’ ecological footprint to sustainable levels and in fostering environmental justice in our own operations and through our relationships with the University community and the broader community. The AMS will be an engine for new ideas and innovation, and will be a model for the University and for other student organizations to follow. The purposes of the Strategy defined in the AMS Environmental Sustainability Policy include: • To guide the AMS’s work to areas where we can have the greatest effect. • To establish procedures for monitoring and reporting on progress. • To showcase the AMS’s leadership in order to distinguish the AMS and our businesses from the University as a whole.
Environmental and carbon footprints have recently come to the fore of the media’s, governmental and general public’s attention. They offer an excellent indication of humanity’s demands upon Nature and allow evaluation of ecological deficit by contrasting supply and demand. The ecological debt many nations find themselves in is unsustainable, globally inequitable and adds to the growing effects of climate change. These footprints need to be further investigated, looking at historic and future trends in order to better understand, not only the global overuse of natural capital, but also the imbalance between nation states of the world. The value and limitations of the footprint must be recognised; the footprint alone cannot represent the full anthropogenic impacts upon the Earth. This thesis focuses on developing the definitions of the ecological and carbon footprints, analysing the significant factors that affect their composition. The selected parameters are diverse, ranging from a host of economic, geographic and climatic factors. It is shown that both the carbon and ecological footprints are primarily driven by economic welfare, a result that reflects the consumptive nature and fundamental basis of the footprint. Analysis of the resultant correlating equations, for both the environmental and carbon footprints, highlights the differences between the developing and industrialised world in terms of their profligate or frugal use of Nature’s resources. This concludes the stark contrast between these regions of the globe in terms of their per capita and total footprint values. The disparity between the populous South and the prosperous North is further investigated to the year 2100, with the use of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s scenarios and adaptation of the correlating ecological footprint equation. Four separate scenarios are adopted, each having different underlying assumptions regarding economic development, demographic transition and environmental awareness for various regions of the world. For all scenarios the Southern regions rapidly increase their levels of total ecological footprint; in contrast the industrialised world maintains a relatively conservative evolution. Although different scenarios suggest contrasting future pathways, the hope of contraction and convergence among global footprint levels is not completely lost. The intensification of carbon emissions from both the affluent North and the majority South are considered with respect to population, economic and energy use trends from 1900 to the end of the twenty-first century. It is overwhelmingly shown that affluence will drive growth in carbon emissions across the world by the end of the century. Global inequality must be reduced; the footprint is utilised to demonstrate the trends in resource misuse and contrast between the ecological debtors and ecological creditors of the world.
In Tunisia, the National Agency for the Environment is encouraging the creation of a carbon footprint method specifically adapted to the Tunisian context. In cooperation with the French National Agency for the Environment, the adaptation of the French carbon footprint method is realised and has to go along with an adaptation of the emission factors. In this framework, this master thesis aims at presenting the emission factors adaptation process led to adapt the accounting tool. First, a literature review enables to present the main notions useful to understand the precise definition of emission factor. Then, a preliminary study of the main carbon footprint tools is presented so as to identify the main characteristics of a carbon footprint method. A comparison is then done to present the differences which can occur between the previous methods. Finally, for each category of emission factor, the adaptation process is presented showing three different ways to adapt emission factors: a replacing of the data in the calculations, an adaptation based on local studies and a more difficult adaptation requiring to develop a new method.
The energy water nexus : increasing water supply by desalination integrated with renewable power and reducing water demand by corporate water footprintingClayton, Mary Elizabeth 2013 (has links)
Growing populations and periodic drought conditions have exacerbated water stress in many areas worldwide. Consequently, it would be valuable to manage both supply and demand of water to fully address water sustainability. Additionally, the inextricable link of water and energy -- energy is required to pump, treat, and distribute water and water is often used in the production of energy -- creates the need to study the use of these resources together. In response to water stress, some municipalities have considered desalination of saline water as a freshwater supply. Unfortunately, desalination requires a sizeable energy investment and causes significant carbon emissions with conventional approaches. However, renewable energy technologies can be paired with desalination to mitigate concern over the environmental impacts of increased energy use. At the same time, desalination can be operated in an intermittent way to match the variable availability of renewable resources. Both wind and brackish groundwater resources are plentiful in the Panhandle region of West Texas, making an integrated wind-powered desalination facility an option for meeting increasing water demands. Integrating wind power and brackish groundwater desalination generates a high-value product (drinking water) from two low-value resources (saline water and wind power without storage). This thesis presents a thermoeconomic, geographic, and operational analysis of an integrated wind-powered reverse osmosis facility treating brackish groundwater in West Texas. The results demonstrate the favorability of the integrated facility under certain economic, geographic, and operating conditions. Also in response to water stress, corporations are becoming increasingly interested in identifying water vulnerabilities in their operational portfolios to minimize physical, reputational, regulatory, and financial risks associated with potential water shortages. The water footprint is one tool available to assess water use, identify vulnerabilities, and guide mitigation strategies. This thesis provides an accounting methodology for water reporting that includes direct water uses and indirect (embedded in energy, services, and products) water uses in the operations. Further, a case study is considered to illustrate the methodology by assessing the water impact of a mixed-use facility in Palo Alto, California. The results demonstrate the importance of considering the indirect water uses, which requires a more exhaustive analysis. text
Chalmers, Neil George
The emissions associated with food consumption make up approximately 20-30 percent of Scotland’s total greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). Reducing demand for high carbon footprint food products may provide an effective instrument for reducing GHG emissions. However, there is concern that using consumption based taxes may also have negative consequences on nutrition. Therefore, this thesis investigates the likely effect of carbon consumption taxes on GHG emissions and the resulting impact on nutrient consumption. The data used for the analysis are the Scottish part of Kantar Worldpanel data for the UK for the period 2006-2013 along with various sources of carbon footprint and nutrient data. This thesis models a carbon consumption tax which is based on the carbon footprint of the products of interest. The impact of the taxes on demand for food products were measured through the use of demand systems. Two forms of demand systems were used: Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) and an Exact Affine Stone Index (EASI) which allow for the estimation of price elasticities based on time series data. These Marshallian price elasticities were then used for estimating carbon footprint and nutrient elasticities which allow for the estimated change in GHG emissions (represented as carbon emissions) and nutrients. The price elasticities were particularly important for identifying the substitutes and complements of the different food products. This is useful as some food products such as poultry have a lower carbon footprint relative to beef products. The results suggest that applying carbon consumption taxes would likely reduce carbon emissions though the reduction is relatively small. The net effect of taxing all major food products would likely reduce emissions by 543,208.75 tCO2e/y which represents approximately five percent of the total emissions in Scotland attributed to food consumption (no land use change considered). However, taxing only meat and milk food products could reduce emissions by approximately 1.6 million tCO2e/y. While this reduction is much larger than when all food products are taxed, it is considered that modelling all the major food products offers a more realistic understanding of how households will change their demand for the different food products. The effect on nutrient consumption with regards to taxing all food products suggests that households with lower socioeconomic status would likely experience some favourable changes in terms of a reduction in sugar and energy. Though a negative distributional effect is likely to occur when considering the decreased consumption of vitamin D and the increased consumption of salt. Therefore, a carbon consumption tax is estimated to reduce food based GHG emissions by a relatively small amount. Despite the mainly positive effect on nutrient intake, policy makers are still likely to be cautious when considering this instrument because of the relatively small (compared to other studies) reduction in GHG emissions.
Analys av blått och grönt vattenfotavtryck för nötkött från ICA:s sortiment Analysis of blue and green water footprint for two types of beef from ICAMagnusson, Simon 2010 (has links)
ICA vill utveckla sitt miljöarbete i vattenfrågor. Denna rapport syftar till att öka medvetenheten hos ICA om verksamhetens miljöpåverkan genom att analysera vattenfotavtrycket – vanligen kallat Water Footprint – för ett livsmedel. Vattenfotavtryck är ett verktyg inom miljösystemanalys som används för att kartlägga sambandet mellan produktion och konsumtion av produkter och vattenanvändning. Studien visade att vattenfotavtrycken är ungefär 14 500 liter/kg och 16 500 liter/kg för svensk respektive irländsk nötfärs. Ursprunget till fodret samt vilka sorters vatten som används visade sig vara avgörande för vilka konsekvenser vattenfotavtryck ger upphov till. Utvärdering av de negativa konsekvenserna är en genomgående svårighet med vattenfotavtryck, en lösning kan vara att relatera vattenfotavtryck till den lokala vattenstressen samt hushållens vattenkonsumtion. ICA is one of the leading companies in retail trade in northern Europe and is established in Sweden, Norway and the Baltic countries. ICA is interested in developing the business environmental management by taking into account water-related issues. The purpose of this study is to illuminate the link between company activities of ICA and water use, by applying the tool of water footprint. It is an environmental systems analysis tool that was developed by Professor Arjen Y. Hoekstra at University of Twente and the Water Footprint Network and it is mainly used to calculate the consumption of fresh water that is linked to the consumption of a product. The water footprint concept covers three different types of water; blue, green and grey water, where the green water is rain water, blue water is fresh water and groundwater, and grey water is a theoretical volume of water consumed as a consequence of emission of pollutants. In this study, the blue and green water footprint of Swedish and Irish minced beef has been analyzed. The results showed that the total water footprint of Swedish minced beef is about 14 500 liters per kg, of which about 14 200 liters is green water and 200 liters is blue water. About 98% of the water footprint is domestic since the majority of feed materials origins from Sweden. The total water footprint of Irish minced beef is about 16 500 liters per kg, of which about 15 000 liters is green water and 1 500 liters is blue water. Approximately 21 % of the total water footprint is external due to imports of water intense feed materials. Assessing the environmental and social impacts of the water footprint showed to be difficult because they are multidimensional. As an example, the consequences of a relatively small water footprint in countries with extremely scarce water may be severe, while a much larger water footprint in countries such as Sweden has a relatively small impact. In order to identify water footprints with the potential of causing major environmental and social impacts, data on regional water stress and water availability was used. For example, total household water consumption in water scarce Pakistan is about 58 liters per person and day, roughly 10 times lower compared to the U.S. This water is almost equivalent to the water footprint (52 liters per kg) in Pakistan caused by the production of Irish minced beef. The analysis section also showed that there are substantial difficulties in comparing water footprints of foods in order to identify products with minimum environmental impact. This has two main reasons: First, green water, i.e. evapotranspiration, is a part of the natural cycle of water which varies regionally. Secondly, foods are not always comparable, because different foods provide different nutrients. One solution would be to compare foods on the basis of a common denominator, e.g. animal based foods could be compared on the basis of protein content.
Energy consumption and the ecological footprint of tourism in an island destination : the case of Koh Samui, ThailandPongsakornrungsilp, Pimlapas 2011 (has links)
This thesis aims to apply the concept of the Ecological Footprint (EF) to examine the impact that the tourism industry has on the environment through energy consumption and also investigates patterns of energy-consuming behaviour among tourists and tourism businesses. EF is becoming an increasingly popular analytical tool in tourism studies. However, at present most attention has fallen on its value for studying tourism in international level. Moreover, very few studies have taken account of the influence of social factors when making EF calculations linked to tourism. As a consequence of these biases, there is currently a need for studies of tourism which take account of EFs at the destination level and how the behaviour of tourists and tourism businesses affects energy consumption at holiday destinations. This study addresses this gap by investigating the EF of energy-consuming behaviour linked to tourists and tourism businesses at a particular holiday destination, namely Koh Samui in Thailand, and also by exploring the factors which influence this kind of behaviour. The findings of this study show that most tourists rely on modes of transport which release high levels of CO2 (especially long haul flights). In the case of Thailand, a majority of tourists fly from Bangkok to Koh Samui and then use private cars to get around the island. Energy intensive electrical appliances such as air conditioning and tankless hot water heaters were widely used in accommodation, while beach activities, which generally have a low carbon footprint, attracted the largest numbers of tourists. It was also found that demographic factors, including travel behaviour and concern for the environment, influenced these kinds of behaviour in various ways. As regards different types of tourism business, in the accommodation sector hotels used the largest quantities of electricity while tour operators used more diesel and petrol than any other type of tourism business. Furthermore, it was also found that even though respondents who stayed in five-star hotels expressed the greatest level of concern for climate change, they still considered their own convenience and satisfaction to be their highest priorities. Tourism on Koh Samui consumed about 54.55 PJ of energy in 2007 and thus needed 3.41 gha of forest land to absorb the resulting CO2 emissions. Given that this figure exceeds the current world-average biocapacity of 1.8 gha, it can be stated that tourism on Koh Samui is currently unsustainable. This study highlights the relationship between the EF of tourism at a particular holiday destination and the energy-consuming behaviour of both tourists and tourism businesses. In this way, it is shown here that excessive energy consumption combined with a lack of effective energy management in the business sector can lead to the development of an unsustainable EF. In response to this finding, practitioners and policy-makers should consider ways of mitigating EFs linked to tourism.
Is There a Relationship Among Overall Nutritional Quality Index, Carbon Footprint and the Price of Food?Lin, Qiumei 14 December 2012 (has links)
This study explores the relationship among the overall nutritional quality index (ONQI), the carbon footprint and price of 90 different foods. The ONQI and carbon footprint measure the healthiness and environmental impact of a food, respectively. Two models are estimated. The first is a hedonic model of the food price and two characteristics: ONQI and carbon footprint. A positive relationship between price and carbon footprint is found, implying higher priced foods have a larger environmental impact. The second model is a regression of ONQI on price and carbon footprint. A negative, non-linear relationship between ONQI and carbon footprint is found. This implies there is a complementary relationship between the healthiness of food and its environmental impact. Both models show that healthier food is also higher priced. This could explain why poorer consumers are less healthy than richer consumers, and why taxing food would disproportionately impact the health of the poor.
Modeling the per capita ecological footprint for Dallas County, Texas: Examining demographic, environmental value, land-use, and spatial influencesRyu, Hyung Cheal 29 August 2005 (has links)
This study addresses factors driving the variation in the per capita Ecological Footprint (EF) in Dallas County, Texas. A main hypothesis was that scientifically estimated demography, environmental values, spatial attributes, and land-use patterns surrounding an individual are significant factors in the size of per capita EF. This study was based on the survey method and GIS routines. Additionally, a multiple regression method was employed to address the study question. The survey measured respondents?? EF using an ??Ecological Footprint Quiz?? consisting of sixteen questions regarding individual food, mobility, housing, and goods/services consumption. GIS technologies were used to objectively measure spatial attributes. The environmental values were measured by selected questions regarding ecological crises. This study found from the descriptive analysis that Dallas County??s average personal EF was 26.4 acres: food (5.1), mobility (3.3), shelter (8.3), and goods and services (9.8). The study indicates that the residents need ecologically productive land more than 105 times the area of the county. Based on the explanatory analysis, the following summary points can be made about the factors driving of the variance, not only in the per capita composite footprint but also in each of the personal footprint components: First, a highly educated, non-married, older male living in a high income household located in a low population density area is more likely to have a larger personal composite footprint. Second, a person with a weak environmental awareness living where the ratio of employment opportunities (places to work) is worse, and living far from freeways and major lakes but close to major malls, is more likely to have a larger personal food footprint. Third, a younger person living in a high income household located close to major malls but far from Dallas/Fort Worth Airport is more likely to have a larger mobility footprint. Fourth, a highly educated non-married older male living in a highly developed area is more likely to have a larger shelter footprint. Fifth, a highly educated non-married older male living in a high income household located in a low population density area is more likely to have a larger goods and services footprint.
Lusk, Kenneth P.
International Telemetering Conference Proceedings / October 25-28, 1993 / Riviera Hotel and Convention Center, Las Vegas, Nevada A very restrictive down-range flight area for a small ground-to-air missile required the interruption of the flight after the missile had flown past a specialized target and telemetry data had been transmitted to a receiving station. Explosive bolts separated the missile into two sections and cables loosely attaching the two sections caused the system to tumble and therefore interrupt the flight. Because of the high dynamic forces exerted on the attaching cables, soft material "shock absorbers" were used to assure the integrity of the cables.
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