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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

Relative age dating of the Wahianoa moraines, Mount Ruapehu, New Zealand : thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the degree of Master of Science in Quaternary Science at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

Nolan, Erin Unknown Date (has links)
This study attempts to determine a relative age of the Wahianoa moraines, Mt Ruapehu using three relative age dating techniques: Lichenometry, Schmidt hammer and Boulder roundness. There were three study areas used, termed the Wahianoa ‘A’, ‘B’ and ‘C’ moraines. Upon determining a relative age for these moraines, their timing of their formation was placed within New Zealand’s glacial timescale. This is the first study of its kind conducted on Mt Ruapehu and has left the door open for more research in this field. The species of lichens measured on the Wahianoa moraines were Rhizocarpon subgenus, which the largest diameters were measured using callipers. A total of 606 lichens were measured in the Wahianoa Valley and were processed using the growth curve and size frequency methods. A lichenometric growth curve was constructed from lichens growing in the Ohakune cemetery. The dates derived from both methods placed the formation of the Wahianoa moraines during the Little Ice Age. An L-type Schmidt hammer was used on the boulders in the Wahianoa Valley. A total of 280 measurements were taken off the boulders on the Wahianoa moraines. The results of this method, when compared to Winkler’s (2005) study in the South Island placed the formation of the Wahianoa moraines pre-Little Ice Age. Although no definitive ages could be derived from this comparison due to differences in lithology between the two studies, it provided an idea as to where the formation of these moraines could belong. This is the first time that the Boulder roundness method has been used in New Zealand, having only been developed by Kirkbride (2005). This method was used to determine which of the ridges in the Wahianoa Valley were older. It was found that the Wahianoa ‘A’ moraines were the oldest in the valley followed by Wahianoa ‘B’ and ‘C’ respectively. A climate reconstruction was also conducted for the Wahianoa Valley to see what conditions may have been in existence during the formation of the Wahianoa moraines. The paleo-ELA for the Wahianoa Glacier was estimated using the Accumulation-Area Ratio (AAR), Terminus to Headwall Ratio (THAR), Maximum Elevation of the Lateral Moraines (MELM) and Extrapolation methods. The current ELA was estimated using the AAR, THAR and Extrapolation methods. The difference between these estimates was used to determine what temperature decrease would have caused the formation of the Wahianoa moraines. The average paleo-ELA was found to be c. 1715m, while the current ELA was found to be 2475m which lead to a 4.5°C decrease. This temperature decrease correlates well with that of the Last Glacial Maximum. This study found significant differences in relative age of the Wahianoa moraines. There are a number of factors that can affect the growth of lichens such as micro-environmentalconditions and the fact that a growth curve was constructed off site. Factors such aspetrography can affect the Schmidt hammer results and the Boulder roundness measurements. In addition, precipitation can affect the ELA values which can then cause the wrong placement within a glacial event. Further research lies in the use of the Schmidt hammer on a known age surface such as the Mangatepopo moraines which will aide in a better correlation of relative age. Also, further research using climate reconstructions on Mt Ruapehu and the effect of precipitation will also aide in a better correlation with a glacial event.

Reconstructing debris transport pathways on constructional ridges : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Quaternary Science at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

Mandolla, Stephanie Unknown Date (has links)
It is generally accepted that Mt Ruapehu, Tongariro National Park, New Zealand, was heavily glaciated during the Pleistocene. Eight small glaciers can still be found on the summit of this active volcano. However, the glaciers have been retreating at a fast rate during the last few centuries. The scientific community has placed its main focus on the volcanic aspects of the region. Although most authors refer to the landforms that appear to be of glacial origin as ‘moraines’, no actual glacial studies have been undertaken so far to provide the necessary evidence that is needed to support this hypothesis. The aim of this study is to use established field techniques in glacial geomorphology to (1) identify the extent of glacial deposits using diagnostic criteria and (2) to reconstruct the transport pathways of the Wahianoa Glacier. Four main diagnostic criteria have been used: clast morphology, macrofabrics, grain size distribution and the surface texture of grains. The Wahianoa valley has a very pronounced U-shape and is likely to be of glacial origin. The valley consists of two elongate debris ridges that are made out of unconsolidated, poorly sorted diamict of varying lithologies. This study has identified that the activity and the composition of the volcano has lead to complex glacial processes. Glacial ice has advanced over a deformable bed and the glacier itself was probably extensively covered by supraglacial debris. The area has been identified as a pre-historic pathway for lahars and the volcano erupts frequently to produce fresh volcanic deposits. As the active vent has changed its position during the eruptive history of the volcano, the quantity and the location of the source rock that fed the glacier has varied greatly. This study is an initial attempt at unfolding the glacial history of Mt Ruapehu. This is based on field analysis of glacigenic sediments, rather than topographic and aerial photo analysis. The results show great complexity and the potential for further studies of other moraine systems on Mt Ruapehu.

Strain and structure of a temperate, maritime glacier : Te Moeka o Tuawe / Fox Glacier, South Westland, New Zealand : thesis submitted in fulfilment of the degree of Master of Science in Physical Geography, at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

Appleby, John Richard Unknown Date (has links)
The study of glaciers has an immense significance for understanding and predicting global environmental change. The Earth is a dynamic system, consisting of individual units such as the cryosphere, an understanding of which may provide the basis for predicting future environmental change on a global scale. The dynamics of a glacier, a major indicator of the climatic and environmental situation is often presented as supraglacial structures, which reflect glacier formation, deformation and flow. Although structural attributes such as folds, faults, crevasse traces and foliation are commonly described in glaciers, the origin and significance of many of these structures remains unclear. This research project mapped the surface structures of Fox Glacier, using remote sensing in the form of aerial photographs and field observations, to produce a structural glaciological interpretation of the glacier surface, structural field maps of individual structures, and a schematic structural evolution of Fox Glacier. In addition, cumulative strain, and strain rates were calculated for three different areas of the lower Fox Glacier. The relationship between the observed structures and the measured strain rates has also been considered. Fox Glacier is located in the South Westland region of the South Island of New Zealand. From the Main Divide of the Southern Alps up to 3000m altitude, Fox Glacier flows for 13 km, terminating at an altitude of 270 metres in temperate rainforest, 17 km from the present coastline. The steep gradient allows for relatively rapid ice flow. Despite being a very dynamic glacier, very little research has been carried out on Fox Glacier in recent years with most research in the area being concentrated on its neighbour the Franz Josef, and even more so on the glaciers of the Eastern side of the Main Divide (e.g. the Tasman and Mueller glaciers). There is a high level of spatial variability in structural types observed, and the cumulative strain and strain rates measured on the surface of the Fox Glacier, with the variations being linked to valley topography including long-profile gradient and valley width. Strain rates of 208.78 y-1 and -162.06 y-1 were recorded on Fox Glacier. A relationship can be determined between observed glaciological structural features and measured strain rates, suggesting strain rate has an influence on the type, magnitude, location and frequency of these features, however, the study is only a ‘snap-shot’ of the strain conditions experienced in the most dynamically active time, during the summer ablation season. Developing predictive models of the structural evolution of glaciers may help further understanding of how glaciers respond to a change in climatic input, especially climatic warming. This is particularly important for larger ice sheet outlet glaciers whose structure and flow appear to reflect and control dynamics of the ice sheet behind

Modeling and dating glacier fluctuations and their relation to Pacific Ocean climate /

Anslow, Faron S. January 1900 (has links)
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Oregon State University, 2008. / Printout. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 138-151). Also available on the World Wide Web.

Processes controlling the entrainment and disperal of debris in the basal ice of glaciers

Johnson, Paul H. January 1996 (has links)
No description available.

Dye tracer investigations of glacier hydrological systems

Nienow, Peter January 1993 (has links)
No description available.

Linking In-Situ Data with Remote Sensing to Analyze Tropical Glacier Stability and Retreat in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

Santos, Chandler H 01 July 2016 (has links)
Glaciers are a major source of freshwater around the world, but they are melting at an increased rate due to atmospheric warming resulting from anthropogenic climate change. In addition to temperature increases, light-absorbing particulates on glaciers also are contributing to glacial melt. This research examines how black carbon, released into the air through partial combustion of biofuels, is affecting the surface albedo of glaciers. I also delineate possible sources of black carbon in the Cordillera Blanca region of Peru. Ground data were collected each year from 2011 to 2013 during the local dry season. Effective black carbon (eBC) values were determined using the Light Absorption Heating Method and satellite-derived albedo values were retrieved from NASA’s MODIS MOD10A1 data. Effective black carbon (eBC) values and albedo levels were moderately correlated, showing that albedo decreases with an increase of black carbon, and that this impact can be measured using satellite instruments. Values of eBC did not correlate with spatial proximity to mines, but did correlate with proximity to Huaraz, which likely is the major source of light-absorbing particulates in the region. Further research would benefit from a more extensive source dataset and surface albedo measurements over different seasons.

Some aspects of the engineering properties of ice

Nixon, W. A. January 1984 (has links)
No description available.

The hydrological context and geomorphological significance of glacier motion : Midtdlsbreen, Norway

Willis, Ian Craig January 1991 (has links)
No description available.

The seasonal evolution of meltwater discharge, quality and routing at a high-Arctic glacier

Hodgkins, Richard January 1994 (has links)
No description available.

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