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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Evaluating the Relationship Between Diabetes and Beverage Intake by Assessing Hemoglobin A1c

Kung, Diana, Patel, Dhara, Riedel, Caroline, Kennedy, Amy January 2016 (has links)
Class of 2016 Abstract / Objectives: The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is a correlation between diabetes control and beverage consumption. We hypothesize that diabetes control (as measured by A1C) is inversely related to consumption of sugary sweetened beverages (SSB) in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: This study will be a retrospective chart review evaluating the relationship between intake of sugary sweetened beverages and hemoglobin A1C values (HgA1C). Individuals will be eligible for inclusion in the study if they are current patients at El Rio Community Health Center with type 2 diabetes and were 18 years of age or older at the time of the study. Exclusion criteria are as follows: not seen by a clinical pharmacist for diabetes within the last year (Jan 2015 – Feb 2016), no beverage consumption information available in electronic chart and/or no A1C value listed in the patient’s profile. The anticipated study population will be comprised of 330 patients. The data will be analyzed using a t-test to determine the relationship between A1C and beverage consumption. Results: 150 patients were identified from the patient pool as meeting inclusion criteria. The mean fluid ounces of SSB consumption in the low SSB intake group and high SSB intake group were 7.2 (SD=2.441) and 30.269 (SD=21.197) respectively. The mean A1C in the low SSB intake group was 8.35 (SD=2.038) and in the high SSB intake group was 8.799 (SD=1.852). There was no statistically significant difference between the mean A1C in the low SSB intake group and the high SSB intake group (p=0.2451). Conclusions: The mean A1C between high SSB intake and low SSB intake appears similar.
2

Telehealth and Type 2 Diabetes Management

Ikpeama, Blessing Nneoma 01 January 2019 (has links)
The use of telehealth in healthcare has grown in recent years; however, little is known about the effectiveness of this delivery method in the management of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Guided by the chronic care model and telehealth in chronic disease model, the purpose of this systematic literature review was to explore evidence related to lowering hemoglobin A1c levels and managing T2DM using telehealth in the outpatient setting. The practice-focused questions explored telehealth interventions used in T2DM management and their effectiveness. The Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) method for conducting systematic literature reviews was the process, and data were compiled using the PRISMA evidence-based minimum set for reporting. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria for this project. Data were extracted, analyzed, and synthesized using JBI tools for data extraction and critical appraisal. Article appraisals revealed numerous telehealth interventions for management of T2DM including telephone, Internet-based, clinical video, remote monitoring, and smart phones/applications. Overall, telehealth interventions showed statistically significant improvement in the hemoglobin A1c levels of participants compared to traditional outpatient care. Success of the interventions is associated with components of evidenced-based diabetes management such as education, self-management, support, and feedback loop. The implications of this project for positive social change include the integration of telehealth interventions in the outpatient setting to manage T2DM with enhanced access to care, reduction in health disparities, and improved health outcomes for society.
3

The effects of elevated hemoglobin A1C on cognitive function in elderly type II diabetics in the Look Ahead study

Goldring, Anne E. 22 January 2016 (has links)
OBJECTIVE: Prolonged elevation of blood glucose levels in Type 2 Diabetes is related to a host of medical complications, most of which are mediated by micro and macro vascular damage. Importantly, diabetes is associated with accelerated cognitive decline and compromised brain health as the cerebral vasculature undergoes negative changes stemming from hyperglycemia. It is hypothesized that participants in the Look Ahead Brain study with higher HbA1c levels will exhibit worse performance on the cognitive measures, specifically on tasks assessing executive function. METHODS: Data on participants from the Look Ahead study who also participated in the Look Ahead Brain ancillary study (n = 113) were analyzed. This included HbA1c levels at year 10 (the year that participants were administered the cognitive assessment), mean HbA1c, and change in HbA1c from baseline to year. In order to assess executive function the results on two cognitive tests, the Modified Stroop Color and Word Test and the Trail Making Test, were analyzed. Then, relationships between HbA1c and performance on each of these cognitive tasks were analyzed using two approaches. First, the cohort was split into two group based on HbA1c (HbA1c ≤ 7% vs HbA1c > 7%). The latter of the two groups represented participants will poorer glycemic control. Second, linear correlations were assessed using the full range of HbA1c values as a continuous variable. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between HbA1c groups and performance on either of the cognitive tests. Interestingly, although not statistically significant, those with higher HbA1c levels performed slightly better on cognitive tasks. Correlation analyses revealed further trends in the direction opposite than expected, such that higher HbA1c levels were associated with better scores on both tests. CONCLUSION: The surprising results of this study are evidence of the fact that a great deal has yet to be learned about the effects of T2DM and cognitive decline. There are many potential future directions for the Look Ahead Brain data, and further analyses might provide clarifications to the results of this study.
4

A Patient-Centered Approach to Diabetes Education in a Rural Clinic

Okpuzor, Paul 01 January 2018 (has links)
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a heterogeneous metabolic disease impacting more than 8.3% of adults in the United States. Diabetes-related care accounts for more than 11% of all patient care expenditures. The purpose of this project was to identify the primary concerns of members of the T2DM patient population in an underserved clinic in rural southcentral United States and to make recommendations for a staff diabetes education program to address these concerns. Orem's theory of self care outlined the importance of educating and supporting patients in their efforts to manage their own healthcare. Knowles's assumptions of how adult's learn guided the design and provided guidelines for the planning and implementation of the education program. The practice-focused question explored the major concerns of T2DM patients receiving care at the primary care clinic. Clinic providers completed the Diabetic Care Concern Assessment (DCCA) with all adult patients (n = 45) diagnosed with T2DM during primary care patient visits. DCCA responses were placed on an excel spreadsheet and analyzed for themes. Major themes from qualitative analysis of participant responses included fear of the disease, managing daily diabetes control, having additional education on diabetes, learning more about control strategies for diabetes, and helping with daily diabetes management. Findings will promote positive social change at the clinic as providers target specific concerns of their individual patients. T2DM patients may experience improved quality of life as they become empowered to manage their disease. The education program will also lead to the development and implementation of patient treatment plans that potentially decrease complications associated with diabetes.
5

Association Between Body Mass Index And Depression On Hbaic Control Among Veterans

Osei-Yeboah, Opokua 01 January 2018 (has links)
The study investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) and depression based upon glycated hemoglobin levels (HBA1C) among United States veterans. Based on Bandura's social cognitive theory, a cross-sectional analysis examined the association between BMI and depression on HBA1C regulation, and if the interaction between BMI and depression affects HBAIC regulation among veterans. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the multivariate associations between depression and BMI on the outcome variable of HBA1C. Linearity, normality, and homoscedasticity were assessed using normal probability plots and residual analysis. Durbin-Watson statistics were used to test for autocorrelations, and variance inflation factor was used to check for multicollinearity. There was not a statistically significant difference between those who were depressed (Mdn = 32.76, IQR = 7.8) and those who were not depressed (Mdn = 33.27, IQR = 5.0) in terms of BMI (U = 774.0, p = 0.47). When depression, BMI, an interaction term for depression*BMI, and other predictor variables were entered into the regression model, these variables did not account for a significant increase in shared variance in HBA1C (Î?R2 = 0.17, F (14, 74) = 0.17, p = 0.37). Social change implications generated from this study include better resource utilization, improved quality of care, increased veteran satisfaction and improved veteran experience across the healthcare system. The findings from the study can be used to expand access to specialized services for chronically ill veterans, coordinate resources, better outcomes and facilitate seamless care coordination between mental health and primary care providers
6

The Effect of Referral Source on Patient Participation in Diabetes Education Programs

Gallivan, Karyn Marie 01 January 2017 (has links)
The goal of diabetes education programs (DEPs) is to improve patients' pattern-management habits for those with type 2 diabetes (T2D), though participation in DEPs is lower than expected due to low physician referral rates. This retrospective study examined secondary data of 162 T2D patients who had been referred to a DEP in a community center in RI to determine whether the source of referral affected patient attendance, participation persistence, and outcomes. Self-referred (n = 62) and physician-referred (n = 100) groups were analyzed for possible associations among the aforementioned variables. Chi-square (p = .04) and logistic regression (p = .04) indicated that the referral source for a DEP does have an effect on participation rates, while logistic regression showed that odds for self-referred patients to participate were 1.97 times higher. Multiple linear regression found no difference between the referral source and the number of sessions patients completed, though covariate analysis showed that age (p = .02) contributes to the model. Multiple linear regression showed no difference between the number of sessions attended and changes in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels. It is important to note that those who completed the program and reported pre- and post-program HbA1c levels (n = 7) all reported improved outcomes. This highlights the limitation of the small sample size (n = 7), which increased the possibility of a Type II error. This community center DEP model can serve as a blueprint, highlighting the importance of diabetes education and leading to positive social change by improving referral and participation rates and resulting in fewer complications, a decreased disease burden, and an improved quality of life.
7

Cukrinio diabeto monitoravimo laboratorinių rodiklių metodologinė analizė / Methodological analysis of diabetes mellitus monitoring laboratory indicators

Žilytė, Diana 02 July 2014 (has links)
Daug pasaulinių organizacijų, kurios stengiasi pagerinti cukrinio diabeto diagnostiką ir sergančių pacientų glikemijos kontrolę, nes nepakankama ir vėlyva diagnostika skatina komplikacijų atsiradimą ir progresavimą. Šio darbo tikslas išanalizuoti cukriniu diabetu sergančių pacientų metodologinių ypatumų įtaką glikozilinto hemoglobino rezultatams. Išmatavus analitę HbA1c, 100 pacientų sergančių cukriniu diabetu, trimis skirtingos standartizacijos analizinėmis sistemomis Roche-Hitachi 917, Bayer-Advia1650 ir Dade Behring-Dimension RxL, gauta koreliacija su trijų mėnesių gliukozės koncentracijos vidurkiu. Lyginant HbA1c rezultatus, referentiniu metodu Roche-Hitachi 917 analizine sistema, standartizuota Tarptautinės klinikinės chemijos ir laboratorinės medicinos federacijos (IFCC) ir Diabeto kontrolės ir komplikacijų tyrimų (DCCT), gautas skirtumas. Bayer-Advia1650 analizinė sistema, kurios HbA1c metodas standartizuotas Nacionalinės glikohemoglobino standartizacijos programos (NGSP), lyginant su mūsų referentinio metodo rezultatais, kai IFCC standartizacija r = 1.017 [0.883 iki 1.188]; y = 3.068 [1.894 iki 4.142]; n = 52; p = 0.0000001, o kai standartizacija DCCT r = 1.132 [1.060 iki 1.209]; y = 0.282 [-0.476 iki 0.990]; n = 53; p = 0.001. Dade Behring-Dimension RxL analizinės sistemos metodas standartizuotas pagal Diabeto kontrolės ir komplikacijų tyrimus (DCCT) palyginus su IFCC standartizuotu metodu rezultatais: r = 0.886 [0.767 iki 1.021]; y = 2.422 [1.630 iki 3.413]; n = 52... [toliau žr. visą tekstą] / There are many organisations trying to improve Diabetes Mellitus diagnostics, enhance glycaemia management of diabetes patients, because insufficient and late diagnosis increases formation, and complications progress. The purpose of this work was evolution of influence, of different methodological approaches to of glycated hemoglobin results. Samples of 100 patients with Diabetes Mellitus was analyzed for glucose and HbA1c. There was shown correlation between average concentration glucose‘s during three months coefficient. HbA1c was analyzed using three analytical systems of Roche-Hitachi 917, Bayer-Advia1650 and Dade Behring-Dimension RxL standardized according different standardization recommendations: International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC), Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT), National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program (NGSP). Roche-Hitachi 917 results standardized according IFCC recommendations were chosen as reference. Correlation and differences between analytical systems were as follows. Roche-Hitachi 917 (IFCC) – Bayer-Advia1650 (NGSP): r = 1.017 [0.883 to 1.188]; y = 3.068 [1.894 to 4.142]; n = 52; p = 0.0000001. Roche-Hitachi 917 (DCCT) – Bayer-Advia1650 (NGSP): r = 1.132 [1.060 to 1.209]; y = 0.282 [-0.476 to 0.990]; n = 53; p = 0.001. Roche-Hitachi 917 (IFCC) – Dade Behring-Dimension RxL (DCCT): 0.886 [0.767 to 1.021]; y = 2.422 [1.630 to 3.413]; n = 52; p = 0.0000001. Roche-Hitachi 917 (DCCT) – Dade... [to full text]
8

The Effect of a Computerized Cognitive-Behavioral Stress Management Intervention On Psychological Factors and Diabetes Management

Bykowski, Cathy A 07 June 2016 (has links)
Diabetes is associated with increased psychological distress which, in turn, is associated with poorer diabetes outcomes. This study examined the impact of a nine-week Internet based cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention that targeted stress and mood in people with diabetes. It was hypothesized that the intervention would decrease psychological distress and improve diabetes outcomes and adherence to diabetes treatment regimens. Participants with type 1 and type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to the intervention (n = 103) or a waiting-list control group (n = 74). ANCOVAs demonstrated significant group effects for the reduction of perceived generalized stress (F (1, 105) = 7.06, p = .01; d = .84), diabetes-related distress (F (1, 105) = 13.45, p < .01; d = .54), depression (F (1, 90) = 7.06, p < .01; d = .40), anxiety (F (1, 89) = 6.78, p = .01; d = .41), and negative affect (F (1, 103) = 13.02, p < .01; d = .56). There were also significant group effects for the reduction of psychological fatigue (F (1, 98) = 7.34, p = .01; d = .40), cognitive symptoms (F (1,95) = 6.40, p = .01; d = .48), hyperglycemic symptoms (F(1, 95) = 11.16, p <.01; d = .41) and hypoglycemic symptom (F(1, 98) = 6.16, p= .02; d= .53). Further, there were significant indirect effects of the intervention on the above diabetes symptoms, through psychological distress. There was no effect of the intervention on hemoglobin A1c (F(1.43) = 0.28, p= .60), though this analysis was underpowered. The intervention also had no effect on adherence to diabetes treatment regimen. This study provides evidence of a convenient and effective way to reduce psychological distress and improve symptoms in those with diabetes. It also provides evidence of reduced psychological distress as a mechanism for improving diabetes outcomes.
9

Blood glucose and nocturnal blood pressure in African and Caucasian men : the SABPA study / L. Lammertyn

Lammertyn, Leandi January 2010 (has links)
Motivation Hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus are common in the black population of South Africa. The literature also shows that elevated blood glucose concentrations can lead to an increase in blood pressure and a blunted decline in nocturnal blood pressure. Therefore, the motivation for this study was to determine if blood glucose may play a role regarding the blunted nocturnal decline in blood pressure in African and Caucasian men. Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between a blunted nocturnal decline in blood pressure and blood glucose in African and Caucasian men. Methodology A comparative population study was preformed that consisted of 202 school teachers (101 African and 101 Caucasian) between the ages of 25–60 years from the North West Province, South Africa. Subjects were excluded if their body temperature was elevated, had a dependence or abuse of psychotropic substances, were regular blood donors and/or vaccinated in the previous three months. Ambulatory systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured. Blood samples from the antebrachial vein were collected in sodium fluoride tubes to determine the serum glucose level and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) percentage. Estimated average glucose (eAG) was determined from the percentage HbA1c by means of a regression formula. Means and proportions were compared by standard t–test and the chi–square test, respectively. Pearson correlations were used to determine unadjusted associations and multiple regression analysis to determine adjusted associations between variables. Results and Conclusion African men had an elevated HbA1c (p<0.001), eAG (p<0.001), nighttime SBP (p<0.001) and DBP (p<0.001). These results remained similar when non–dipping African and Caucasian men were compared. The Africans also smoked more (p=0.012), consumed more alcohol (p=0.049), had a higher percentage of non–dippers (p=0.054), HIV infected subjects (p<0.001) and a larger number of subjects that used anti–hypertensive medication (p=0.049). The unadjusted analysis showed positive correlations between all the blood pressure measurements and serum glucose, HbA1c and eAG in the African non–dipper men. While in the non–dipper Caucasian men, only daytime SBP and nighttime SBP (22:00–06:00) correlated positively with serum glucose, HbA1c and eAG. Furthermore, when viewing the relationship between carotid intima–media thickness (CIMT) and the blood pressure measurements in the African population, only nighttime (00:00– 04:00) SBP (r=0.581, p<0.001) and DBP (r=0.566, p<0.001) showed positive associations. After adjustments were made for age and body mass index the associations between the various blood pressure measurements and blood glucose disappeared in the non–dipper Caucasian men. However, in the non–dipper African men both nighttime (22:00–06:00) SBP and (00:00– 04:00) SBP showed positive correlations with serum glucose, HbA1c and eAG. After full adjustments (age, BMI, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, C–reactive protein and baroreceptor sensitivity) were made, nighttime (00:00–04:00) SBP was the only measure of blood pressure that correlated positively with HbA1c (p=0.069) and eAG (p<0.001) in the nondipper African men. No significant relationships were found for Caucasian men. Furthermore, to determine if the association between nighttime (00:00–04:00) SBP and eAG were independent of CIMT, we adjusted for CIMT. By doing so the positive association between SBP and eAG remained significant in the non–dipper African men (R2=0.617; =0.438; p=0.008) and nonsignificant in the non–dipper Caucasian men (R2=0.423; =0.169; p=0.33). However, the relationship between CIMT and eAG disappeared when we adjusted for SBP, suggesting that the SBP and eAG relationship drives CIMT. In conclusion, the association between the early morning SBP (00:00–04:00) and the blood glucose in non–dipping African men suggests that the blunted decline in nocturnal blood pressure during the early morning hours is associated with chronically elevated blood glucose. / Thesis (M.Sc. (Physiology))--North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, 2011.
10

Blood glucose and nocturnal blood pressure in African and Caucasian men : the SABPA study / L. Lammertyn

Lammertyn, Leandi January 2010 (has links)
Motivation Hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus are common in the black population of South Africa. The literature also shows that elevated blood glucose concentrations can lead to an increase in blood pressure and a blunted decline in nocturnal blood pressure. Therefore, the motivation for this study was to determine if blood glucose may play a role regarding the blunted nocturnal decline in blood pressure in African and Caucasian men. Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between a blunted nocturnal decline in blood pressure and blood glucose in African and Caucasian men. Methodology A comparative population study was preformed that consisted of 202 school teachers (101 African and 101 Caucasian) between the ages of 25–60 years from the North West Province, South Africa. Subjects were excluded if their body temperature was elevated, had a dependence or abuse of psychotropic substances, were regular blood donors and/or vaccinated in the previous three months. Ambulatory systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured. Blood samples from the antebrachial vein were collected in sodium fluoride tubes to determine the serum glucose level and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) percentage. Estimated average glucose (eAG) was determined from the percentage HbA1c by means of a regression formula. Means and proportions were compared by standard t–test and the chi–square test, respectively. Pearson correlations were used to determine unadjusted associations and multiple regression analysis to determine adjusted associations between variables. Results and Conclusion African men had an elevated HbA1c (p<0.001), eAG (p<0.001), nighttime SBP (p<0.001) and DBP (p<0.001). These results remained similar when non–dipping African and Caucasian men were compared. The Africans also smoked more (p=0.012), consumed more alcohol (p=0.049), had a higher percentage of non–dippers (p=0.054), HIV infected subjects (p<0.001) and a larger number of subjects that used anti–hypertensive medication (p=0.049). The unadjusted analysis showed positive correlations between all the blood pressure measurements and serum glucose, HbA1c and eAG in the African non–dipper men. While in the non–dipper Caucasian men, only daytime SBP and nighttime SBP (22:00–06:00) correlated positively with serum glucose, HbA1c and eAG. Furthermore, when viewing the relationship between carotid intima–media thickness (CIMT) and the blood pressure measurements in the African population, only nighttime (00:00– 04:00) SBP (r=0.581, p<0.001) and DBP (r=0.566, p<0.001) showed positive associations. After adjustments were made for age and body mass index the associations between the various blood pressure measurements and blood glucose disappeared in the non–dipper Caucasian men. However, in the non–dipper African men both nighttime (22:00–06:00) SBP and (00:00– 04:00) SBP showed positive correlations with serum glucose, HbA1c and eAG. After full adjustments (age, BMI, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, C–reactive protein and baroreceptor sensitivity) were made, nighttime (00:00–04:00) SBP was the only measure of blood pressure that correlated positively with HbA1c (p=0.069) and eAG (p<0.001) in the nondipper African men. No significant relationships were found for Caucasian men. Furthermore, to determine if the association between nighttime (00:00–04:00) SBP and eAG were independent of CIMT, we adjusted for CIMT. By doing so the positive association between SBP and eAG remained significant in the non–dipper African men (R2=0.617; =0.438; p=0.008) and nonsignificant in the non–dipper Caucasian men (R2=0.423; =0.169; p=0.33). However, the relationship between CIMT and eAG disappeared when we adjusted for SBP, suggesting that the SBP and eAG relationship drives CIMT. In conclusion, the association between the early morning SBP (00:00–04:00) and the blood glucose in non–dipping African men suggests that the blunted decline in nocturnal blood pressure during the early morning hours is associated with chronically elevated blood glucose. / Thesis (M.Sc. (Physiology))--North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, 2011.

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