The Impact of a High Stakes Accountability System on Instructional Practices as Perceived by South Texas High School PrincipalsCruz, Gerardo G. 2009 December 1900 (has links)
The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of high school principals? regarding the impact of a high stakes accountability system on instructional practices. The study assessed the differences in perception and influencing factors about the impact of a high stakes accountability system between and among high school principals based on campus ratings and selected demographic variables. The data for this quantitative study were obtained from a 59-question survey instrument given to high school principals from 37 school districts selected from Region I of the Texas Education Service Center and 42 school districts selected from Region XX of the Texas Education Service Center. The researcher collected 92 completed surveys, or 72% of the sample. An analysis of the data found that high school principals did indicate perceived changes to some instructional practices. The data showed a perceived increase in the use of problem-solving activities, open response questions, writing assignments, creative/critical thinking questions, peer or cross-age tutoring, interdisciplinary instruction, facilitating/coaching, collaborative/team-teaching, modeling, cooperative learning/group work, computers/educational software, calculators, computers, internet and/or on-line research service, lab equipment, and manipulatives. Principals also indicated a perceived decrease in the use of work sheets, true-false questions; textbook based assignments, lecturing, and the use of textbooks. In addition, the data showed that high school principals' perceived changes to instructional practices were influenced most by two factors: an "interest in avoiding sanctions at my school," and an "interest in helping my students attain TAKS scores that will allow them to graduate." The information obtained from this study can be used by researchers, educators and all stakeholders to ensure implementation of instructional practices leading to student achievement on high-stakes tests.
Teachers' Perceptions of Principal Classroom Observational Feedback and its Impact on Instructional PracticesCioppa, Tracy Ann 10 April 2020 (has links)
The purpose of this study was to examine elementary teachers' perceptions of administrators' classroom observational feedback and its impact on their instructional practices. This study analyzed interviews of elementary teachers to determine their definition of effective feedback, the role of principal observational feedback, and the extent to which they utilize the principal's feedback to adjust their instructional practices. The research sought to answer the following questions: 1. What do teachers identify as timely, effective feedback? 2. What do teachers indicate is the role or purpose of administrative classroom observational feedback on a teacher's instructional practice? 3. What do teachers indicate is the potential impact of administrative classroom observational feedback on a teacher's instructional practice? 4. What do teachers indicate would compel them to change (or not to change) their instructional practice based on administrative feedback? The participants in this study included nine elementary teachers in one school district in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Data were collected to determine the teachers' perception of timely, effective feedback; the delivery or communication of the administrative observational feedback; and what factors determine if the teacher changes (or does not change) their instructional practice as a result of the feedback. The intended result of classroom observations is to understand what goes on in the classroom and the links to student achievement as well as to provide feedback for teacher improvement (Martinez, Taut, and Schaaf, 2016; Reform Support Network, 2015). Findings indicated that elementary teachers desired immediate feedback following an observation and dialogue from their administrator within one to two weeks of the observation in the form of a post observation conference to improve their instructional practices. Additionally, teachers desired clarity about the process for evaluations and observations, their feedback, and how to improve their instructional practices from administrators with strong instructional backgrounds and experiences. The participating teachers described the need for more administrators and therefor more administrative support, emphasized the importance of the relationship between the administrator and the teachers, and indicated that three observations, and observations alone, were not enough to adequately assess the quality of their instruction or their effectiveness. / Doctor of Education / The purpose of this study was to determine if the feedback that administrators provided elementary teachers following a classroom observation caused them to change the way they instruct their students. This researcher interviewed nine elementary teachers to obtain their definition of effective observation feedback, the role of the principal's observational feedback, and what prompts teachers to utilize the principal's feedback to adjust their instructional practices. The research sought to answer the following questions: 1. What do teachers identify as timely, effective feedback? 2. What do teachers indicate is the role or purpose of administrative classroom observational feedback on a teacher's instructional practice? 3. What do teachers indicate is the potential impact of administrative classroom observational feedback on a teacher's instructional practice? 4. What do teachers indicate would compel them to change (or not to change) their instructional practice based on administrative feedback? Nine elementary teachers from one school district in the Commonwealth of Virginia participated in interviews. The researcher collected the data to determine the teachers' perception of timely, effective feedback; their preferred delivery of the feedback following the observation from a principal; and what caused the teacher to change (or not change) their instructional delivery as a result of the feedback they received. The purpose of classroom observations is to understand what occurs in the classroom, how student achievement increases, and how the observation feedback helps teachers improve (Martinez et al., 2016; Reform Support Network, 2015). The research found that elementary teachers wanted feedback directly following an observation and the ability to participate in a post observation conference with their administrator within one to two weeks following the observation to improve their instruction. Additionally, teachers wanted to clearly understand the process for evaluations and observations, to obtain feedback, and to receive suggestions to improve the art of teaching from administrators. The teachers described the need for support from more administrators, emphasized the importance of their relationship with the administrators, and indicated that three observations, and observations alone, were not enough to adequately assess them.
Impact of the Kindergarten Teacher Reading Academy on the Instructional Practices of Kindergarten TeachersGrant, Mary Lynnette 07 May 2005 (has links)
The research question for this study was: Did the Kindergarten Teacher Reading Academy (KTRA) Professional Development Model impact the kindergarten teachers¡¯ instructional practices? Moat (2004) indicated that professional development should be job-embedded with substantive and sustaining power. This research employed a qualitative method. The Participant Knowledge Survey (pre-and posttest), was administered to all kindergarten participants at the KTRA. Six kindergarten teachers were then selected to participate in follow-up. This follow-up included a classroom observation and teacher interview at each teacher¡¯s school. All participants are certified kindergarten teachers that teach in public schools in Mississippi. The results of the interview revealed that these teachers¡¯ instructional practices were very different. Teachers that received on going support and guidance throughout the academic year provided more instruction in kindergarten. These teachers have been trained on all professional development models held in the state. After the initial trainings, participants attend Peer Coaching Study Teams weekly (2 hours per week). These teachers are given time to reflect on their practices, and are provided moral support from their peers and administrator. Teachers that participated in this study indicated that they valued the activities and strategies from the KTRA. They have implemented the topics from the KTRA Professional Development Model. The results of the study indicate that attending a professional development session is not enough. Teachers need direct support and guidance if they want to improve their instructional practices. The KTRA did have an instructional impact on all of the kindergarten teachers that attended the session.
Inclusion of English Language Learners in a Mainstream Classroom: A Case Study of the Beliefs and Practices of One Elementary TeacherFox, Carol 16 December 2009 (has links)
The purpose of this study was to describe the ways in which one elementary teacher included English language learners (ELLs) in her mainstream classroom. A case study design was chosen to obtain an in-depth understanding of this teacher’s beliefs and practices about ELLs and their inclusion. Descriptive data were collected from teacher interviews, classroom observations, and various artefacts. Data from these three sources were found to be highly consistent, indicating a close relationship between the teacher’s beliefs and practices. Two main themes emerged relating to the teacher’s ways of supporting and including young ELLs. The first theme was concerned with the teacher’s beliefs in and employment of broad-based instructional strategies such as differentiating instruction and assessment; emphasizing engagement through the use of a variety of meaningful activities and materials; focusing on oral language; stressing problem solving and cooperative learning; and encouraging students to take the lead. While the literature endorsed these general practices, it also stressed the need for teachers to address ELLs’ distinct language and cultural needs. Appreciating and incorporating diversity to facilitate ELLs’ inclusion was the second theme. Here, the data primarily came from interviews with the teacher who reported the value of exposing children to diversity and examining one’s and others’ biases, as well as utilizing practices that integrate the cultural knowledge of various groups and involve parents of diverse linguistic/cultural backgrounds. An analysis of these data found that many of the teacher’s approaches to incorporating diversity were integral to her program and addressed diversity from a critical standpoint. It was in this way that the findings connected to Dei et al.’s (2000) work–a key component of the study’s theoretical framework. Upon examining the data through the lenses of various theoretical constructs, one main concern regarding this teacher’s views and practices was raised throughout. Although the teacher appeared to recognize the value of students maintaining their home languages, there was little evidence of her promoting first language usage in the classroom. Ramifications of this omission were discussed, pointing to the need for further research to uncover some of the concerns educators may have about supporting ELLs’ first languages in the classroom. / Thesis (Master, Education) -- Queen's University, 2009-12-16 12:45:04.765
Ward, Natalia, Thomason, Betty, Mooneyham, John, Brown, Clara Lee
01 July 2019
No description available.
Thesis advisor: Lillie R. Albert / Why do mathematics teachers’ beliefs and instructional practices differ, and why are some teachers’ beliefs aligned or misaligned with their instructional practices? This qualitative case study investigated how eight Korean elementary teachers’ sociocultural life stories shaped their mathematical beliefs and practices. The specific aim was to explore through mathematics-related life stories the relationship between the elementary teachers’ mathematical beliefs and instructional practices. The overarching research question was: “How does a theoretical model based on sociocultural theory (Albert, 2012; Vygotsky, 1978) explain the relationship among the Korean elementary teachers’ life stories, the development of their beliefs, and their instructional practices?” The findings of this study indicate that the teachers’ attribution of their unsuccessful teaching experiences contributed to their perception about the value of continuing their own learning and development, which, sequentially, influenced the construction of their current beliefs about mathematics teaching and learning. Their pedagogical beliefs for teaching mathematics were likely to have an impact on their attitude toward implementing student-centered or teacher-centered instructional practices. Additionally, the teachers’ knowledge and self-efficacy beliefs about teaching mathematics influenced this relationship, resulting in different levels of alignment and even misalignment. Thus, teachers used their past mathematics learning and teaching experiences to justify their current beliefs and practices and to explain their classroom culture. These findings resonate with scholarship pertaining to mathematics teachers’ knowledge, beliefs, and instructional practices and contribute further to their developing theory about teachers’ life stories by illustrating how teachers’ life stories play out in a complex mathematics classroom environment. / Thesis (PhD) — Boston College, 2019. / Submitted to: Boston College. Lynch School of Education. / Discipline: Teacher Education, Special Education, Curriculum and Instruction.
Rickman-Rogers, Tonya Patrice
05 May 2009
Throughout the last 30 years, there has been a movement to use computer technology in schools to enhance teaching and learning. In recent years, the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 has mandated that states have a long range strategic educational technology plan that describes the many facets of their technology integration efforts (2002). However, at this time research indicates that technology integration in classrooms is still low tech and infrequent (Cuban, 2001; NCES, 2005a). The purpose of this quantitative study was to gain insight into a teacher's use of computer technology with students in K-5 general education public school classrooms across the state of Virginia. Eleven independent variables (e.g., teaching philosophy, professional development, hardware proficiency, software proficiency) and 2 dependent variables (i.e., frequency and application of technology integration) were selected based on a review of literature and input from educators. A questionnaire, designed to measure variables, was field tested for validity and reliability then administrated to teachers. The population of the study was approximately 16,500 K-5 general education public school teachers from the state of Virginia with active e-mail addresses in the Market Data Retrieval (MDR) database. A systematic sample of 1,400 K-5 teachers was selected from the MDR database. Teachers' responses rendered 313 usable questionnaires. Analysis of the data revealed that the majority of independent variables (8), with the exception of 3 independent variables (i.e., technical support, student to computer ratio, technology integration support), yielded significant correlations with the dependent variable frequency of technology integration. Whereas, all independent variables (10), with the exception of technical support, yielded significant correlations with the dependent variable application of technology integration. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to determine whether the 11 independent variables were significant predictors of variation in the dependent variables (frequency and application of integration). The results of both regression analyses rendered significant models for the prediction of variation in frequency and application of integration (R2= .16, R2=.39), respectively. The researcher concluded that the predicted variance (R2= .16) of regression model 1 was too small to be considered a viable model for the predication of variation in frequency. Whereas, regression model 2 predicted a greater level of variance (R2=.39), thus it was considered a good predictor of variation in the application of technology integration. Three of the 11 independent variables (i.e., software availability, teaching philosophy, and software proficiency) were among the variables that were significant predictors of variance in the application of technology integration. The strongest predictor was software availability followed by teaching philosophy and software proficiency. Teachers who reported moderate to low variety in the application of technology integration also reported moderate access to software, moderately low software proficiency, and use of instructional practices that were consistent with constructivism. / Ph. D.
The Influence of the Instructional Leadership of Principals on Change in Teachers' Instructional PracticesLineburg, Paul Norman 06 May 2010 (has links)
Since the 1980s, researchers have suggested that principals are an integral part of school effectiveness through their actions as instructional leaders. Standardized testing and strict accountability, which heavily influence today's public schools, make principals responsible for student achievement. They fulfill this responsibility by influencing and guiding the quality of teaching and learning in their schools. The purpose of this study was to measure how high school principals influenced change in teachers' instructional practices; however, other factors influencing classroom instruction surfaced. A two-step methodology was used. The first step was a qualitative study in which interviews with 9 principals and 9 teachers from high schools across the country were conducted. The purpose of this step was to collect data that helped develop a questionnaire that was used in a quantitative study. The constant-comparative method was used to analyze data collected from the interviews. The influence of principals on change in teachers' instructional practices was limited. Several other factors emerged as influences on teachers. The original theory was modified and the new theory guided the development of the questionnaire. Step two of the methodology was a quantitative study in which a questionnaire was distributed to a national sample of teachers. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyze data collected from the questionnaire. Two of the five predictor variables were significantly related to change in teachers' instructional practices. The strongest predictor of change in teachers' instructional practices was pressure influences. External growth influences was the other variable significantly related to change in teachers' instructional practices. The remaining variables, administrative influence, peer influence, and self/family/student influence, were not predictors of change in teachers' instructional practices. Issuing directives, one of the pressure influences, was the only principal influence significantly related to change in teachers' instructional practices. Results indicated that teachers were influenced by many variables, many of which are outside of the principal's control. / Ed. D.
The Influence of Teaching Methods on Student Achievement on Virginia's End of Course Standards of Learning Test for Algebra IHaas, Matthew Steven 10 October 2002 (has links)
Given Virginia's Standards of Learning (SOL)(1995) mandates, Virginia's Algebra I teachers and school leaders should utilize research for teaching methods; further, the relationship between teaching methods and student achievement on Virginia's End of Course SOL Test for Algebra I deserves investigation, since Virginia's students must pass this test to earn verified credit toward high school graduation. Replicating Marcucci's (1980) methodology for meta-analysis, the present study focuses on research with methods for teaching secondary level algebra from 1980 to 2001. From a sample of 34 studies with 62 effect sizes, six categories for teaching methods and corresponding effect sizes were derived for "good" studies: direct instruction (.67), problem-based learning (.44), technology aided instruction (.41), cooperative learning (.26), manipulatives, models, and multiple representations (.23), and communication and study skills (.16). Using results from the meta-analysis and review of literature and extensive content validation, a 51-item questionnaire with a reliability coefficient of .89 was developed. The questionnaire was posted as a web-site to survey selected Algebra I teachers in Region VII to ascertain how frequently they use research-based teaching methods and to determine the influence of teaching methods on their students' achievement on the spring, 2002, Algebra I SOL Test. Ninety-eight percent of teachers surveyed responded. The 53 participating Algebra I teachers, representing 1,538 students, produced a passing mean scale score of 438.01 (SD = 32.67). Teachers indicated they used all teaching method categories more than half the time with mean usage frequencies ranging from 2.56 to 3.75 times out of five class sessions. Teaching method categories were then entered into a blockwise multiple regression analysis, ranked according to the strength of their correlations to teachers' mean scale SOL test scores. Teaching method usage shared 9.7% of variance with participating teachers' scores. Meta- and regression analysis results suggest that Algebra I teachers should emphasize direct instruction, technology aided instruction, and problem-based learning. These three teaching method categories ranked highest in both analyses. The questionnaire developed here could be used with a larger sample for research into the influence of teaching methods on individual reporting categories on the Algebra I SOL test. / Ed. D.
Lai, Emily Rose
01 December 2009
In response to test-based accountability (No Child Left Behind, 2001), schools and districts across the country are adopting a variety of supplemental assessments aimed at improving student performance. These interim assessments are administered more than once during the school year for the following purposes: 1) predicting student performance on summative accountability tests, 2) identifying student strengths and weaknesses, 3) tracking student progress toward "proficiency," or 4) identifying students for remedial instruction. Vendors claim these assessments can improve teaching and learning, although critics contend they do not possess a number of attributes theorized to facilitate formative use of results, including particular assessment features, instructional practices, and school-level supports. To date, empirical evidence on interim assessments is scarce. Thus, this study collected the first empirical evidence on the use of interim assessments in reading and math in Iowa elementary schools. Elementary school administrators completed a survey regarding their school or district's use of interim assessments. Respondents provided basic descriptive information and also indicated how teachers use assessment results to modify teaching and learning and the types of professional development opportunities available. A companion teacher survey designed to capture teachers' use of assessment information to improve teaching and learning was constructed. This draft teacher survey was pilot-tested with a small sample of teachers in order to improve its clarity by identifying areas of ambiguity. Feedback generated from these interviews was used to revise the teacher survey. Study results suggest widespread use of interim assessments among respondents, particularly for the improvement of reading skills and primarily for instructional and remediation purposes. These reading assessments appeared to exhibit many of the characteristics deemed essential for formative use of assessment results. However, both survey and interview results suggested teachers have little autonomy for deciding when assessments will be administered. Results also suggest there is much room for improvement in teachers' formative use of assessment results, as one of the most important aspects of formative use (responding to results by modifying instruction and identifying alternative pedagogies) may also be the least used by classroom teachers and the most neglected with respect to professional development.
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