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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
31

KOMA-Script - \LaTeX für Europa

Pönisch, Jens 18 May 2000 (has links) (PDF)
- Europäischer Ersatz für die LaTeX-Grundklassen - neues Seitenlayout - erweiterte Briefklasse - Adreßdatei - Serienbriefe
32

Farben in LaTeX

Pönisch, Jens 11 February 2002 (has links) (PDF)
Verwendung von Farbe in LaTeX-Dokumenten. Text, Boxen, Tabellen, Listings. Besonderheiten bei der Verarbeitung.
33

Hybrid composite latexes /

Jeong, Pilmoon, January 2000 (has links)
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Lehigh University, 2000. / Includes bibliographical references and vita.
34

Effects of dissolved polymer on the transport of colloidal particles in a microcapillary /

Amnuaypanich, Sittipong, January 2003 (has links)
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Lehigh University, 2003. / Includes vita. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 164-170).
35

Electrofluid bed coagulation of latex particles

DiRaddo, Robert. January 1984 (has links)
No description available.
36

Comparison of shear stability of mini and macroemulsion latexes with respect to particle size and number distribution

Rodrigues, Jeffrey Collin 05 1900 (has links)
No description available.
37

Swelling and polymerization of latex particles

Jansson, Lars Henning 05 1900 (has links)
No description available.
38

Polymerization in non-uniform latex particles

Chern, Chorng-Shyan 08 1900 (has links)
No description available.
39

Versatile Routes for Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber Latex Hydrogenation

Liu, Yin 06 November 2014 (has links)
The direct catalytic hydrogenation of acrylonitrile-butadiene-rubber in latex form was studied for the development of a simple process for the modification of unsaturated diene-based polymers. Acrylonitrile-butadiene-rubber, known as NBR, is a rubber synthesized from acrylonitrile and butadiene (monomers) via copolymerization. It has been widely utilized as oil resistant rubber components in industry. Selective hydrogenation of the residual carbon-carbon double bonds (C=Cs) in the NBR backbone could improve its physical and chemical properties which greatly extend its range of application and lifetime. However, the current hydrogenation procedure involves a number of cumbersome steps which substantially increase the production cost. Hence, it is worthwhile developing new technology which HNBR could be synthesized in a cheaper and environmentally friendly way. Considerable efforts have been undertaken to realize this goal. Among them, hydrogenation of commercial NBR latex becomes especially attractive and promising. Direct hydrogenation of NBR in the latex not only avoids using large amounts of organic solvent which is required in polymer solution hydrogenation but also produces hydrogenated-NBR (HNBR) in the latex form which can be utilized for painting or coating. It has been reported that the commercial NBR latex could successfully be hydrogenated using RhCl(PPh3)3 with added triphenylphosphine (PPh3). High quality HNBR latex was obtained after the reaction. However, the hydrophobicity of RhCl(PPh3)3 and PPh3 greatly restrict their separation and diffusion in the NBR latex, resulting in a very low activity in the heterogeneous NBR latex system. In order to improve the process of NBR latex hydrogenation using the RhCl(PPh3)3/PPh3 catalytic system, an in-situ hydrogenation process was developed where RhCl(PPh3)3 was directly synthesized from the water-soluble catalyst precursor RhCl3 and PPh3 in the NBR latex. The catalyst precursor RhCl3 is soluble in the aqueous phase of the NBR latex and PPh3 was well dispersed in the aqueous NBR latex after adding small amounts of alcohol. Compared with using pre-made solid catalyst, the in-situ synthesized catalyst in the NBR latex could quickly be transported into the polymer particles and faster hydrogenation reaction was observed. In addition, the influence of various operational conditions on the hydrogenation rate; such as catalyst concentration, latex system composition, reaction temperature and hydrogen pressure have been studied. With the success of NBR latex hydrogenation using RhCl(PPh3)3 catalyst, two water-soluble analogs of RhCl(PPh3)3, RhCl(TPPMS)3 (TPPMS = Monosulfonated Triphenylphosphane) and RhCl(TPPTS)3, (TPPTS = Trisulfonated Triphenylphosphane) were then used for NBR latex hydrogenation. It was found that the difference of their solubility in water greatly affected their activities in NBR latex hydrogenation. Successful hydrogenation was achieved using the RhCl(TPPMS)3 catalyst while only low conversion was observed when using the RhCl(TPPTS)3 catalyst. The catalysts retention in the polymer is also in agreement with the reaction results. High conversion could only be achieved when the catalyst diffused into the polymer particles in the latex. Using the RhCl(TPPMS)3, the reaction could be carried out in a temperature range of 70??C to 120??C. And no co-catalyst ligand (i.e. TPPMS) was required for catalyst diffusion or reaction. In addition, the effects of the particle size of the NBR latex and the molecular weight of NBR (gel fraction) on hydrogenation were also investigated using lab made ???in-house??? NBR latices. It was found that the hydrogenation reaction was much faster with smaller particle size. It was also observed that the gel fraction in the latex particles greatly influenced the mobility of the polymer chains within the particles. In addition to the rhodium based catalysts, ruthenium based catalysts have also been investigated for NBR latex hydrogenation. With the recent findings of the hydrogenation activity of the Grubbs type metathesis catalyst, the hydrogenation of NBR latex was studied first using the second generation of Grubbs catalyst (G2). It was found using the G2 catalyst with small addition of organic solvent such as mono-chlorobenzene (MCB) to dissolve the catalyst resulted in a successful hydrogenation in NBR latex. Meanwhile, the metathesis activity of the G2 catalyst was also measured during the hydrogenation reaction. Comparing with conventional ruthenium catalysts, the multifunctional G2 catalyst benefited the NBR latex hydrogenation process by controlling its molecular weight change. The increase of molecular weight within hydrogenation reaction was partially offset by a synchronous metathesis reaction between NBR and the added of chain transfer agent (CTA). As a result, no visible gel was observed in the final HNBR product. In addition, the kinetic behavior of the hydrogenation was systematically studied with respect to the catalyst concentration, hydrogen pressure as well as NBR concentration. The apparent activation energy over the temperature range of 80-130??C for the hydrogenation of metathesized NBR was also measured. Further experiments showed that the second generation of Hoveyda-Grubbs catalyst (HG2) could be employed for the NBR latex hydrogenation even without adding any organic co-solvent to dissolve the catalyst. Although HG2 catalyst is insoluble in water, it could be well dispersed in aqueous system with the addition of certain surfactants. A fast catalytic hydrogenation (e.g. TOF > 7000 h-1 at 95 mol.% conversion) was achieved and successful hydrogenation was still observed under very low catalyst concentration. Compared with using G2 catalyst, the degree of metathesis reaction under HG2 in this organic solvent free process was very limited. As a result of this research project, different catalysts were successfully developed for hydrogenation of NBR in latex. A significant milestone was achieved in improving polymer hydrogenation technology.
40

Study of the influence of membrane structure and permeation conditions on the efficiency of separation of miscible liquid mixtures by pervaporation

Shantha, Walpalage January 2000 (has links)
Pervaporation separation of aqueous ethanol solution has, for the first time ever, been investigated with natural rubber latex (NRL) base membranes which contained a hydrocolloid as a blend ingredient. Three different hydrocolloids viz. methyl cellulose, carboxy methyl cellulose (sodium salt) and alginic acid (sodium salt) of low or medium or high molecular mass were used and tested. The weight percent of a hydrocolloid in the blended layer of a membrane has been varied from 1.25 to 20 on a dry rubber basis. The composition of ethanol in the aqueous feed solution was varied within the range of 5 to 96 weight percent of ethanol. The temperature of operation was fixed in the range of 20 °C to 75°C. Fourier Transform Infrared / Attenuated Total Reflectance (FT-IR/ ATR) spectra and Scanning Electron (SE) micrographs have been used to study the distribution of hydrocolloids within the membrane. Morphological features of the cross section of a blended layer have been used to develop a probable mechanism of water transfer through the membrane. Water selectivity has been found to depend on the type, the molecular mass and the weight percent of the hydrocolloid used in the membrane. Both FT-IR/ATR and SEM techniques have proved that a high molecular mass hydrocolloid distributes itself uniformly throughout the membrane. Both techniques have, independently, shown that a low molecular mass hydrocolloid will be situated at or near the top surface of the membrane. A very strong link between a good distribution of the polymer bridged clusters of rubber particles within the membrane and the maximum increase in water selectivity has been established. For the first time ever, artificial neural networks have been used for the modelling and prediction of the pervaporation separation performance of NRL base membranes. Quantitative data about the distribution of hydrocolloids within the membranes was needed in order to train the neural net models. The correlation coefficients and rms errors between the predicted and experimental results were found to be greater than 0.89 and less than 0.086 respectively.

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