Modise, Tapiwa P
15 May 2019
Purpose – The considerations of non-real estate private organisations in South Africa when outsourcing their corporate real estate management (CREM) functions are examined. The investigation seeks to determine the elements that impact the decision to outsource CREM functions; the characteristics looked for in service providers and if there is a mismatch between what corporate entities desire from CREM outsourcing and what service providers deliver. Design – The study is grounded on a broad analysis of the literature globally and locally; as well as data collected through semi-structured interviews to build four (4) case studies; to gather information about a small set of organisations, within the Johannesburg Metropolitan area of South Africa, on their CREM outsourcing activities. Inductive content analysis will be used to analyse the data collected. Findings – All the organisations outsource parts of their CREM. However, the incidence of CREM outsourcing has neither increased nor decreased in the last three (3) years. Four (4) CREM services are outsourced; facilities management is the most frequently outsourced, followed by subject matter expertise in second and real estate management and transaction management in joint third. The majority of the organisations adhere to a global outsourcing strategy, as opposed to a local or no strategy. Correspondingly, the majority of the organisations have a formal guideline. Seven (7) motives or drivers for CREM outsourcing were uncovered. Access to technical expertise and flexibility were both in first place, followed by cost savings and lack of internal resources in joint second and access to local expertise, focus on core business value chain activities and risk mitigation in shared third. South African organisations identify service providers through four (4) mechanisms: firstly a request for proposals (advertising), direct approach in second and associate recommendations and third-party search in joint third. Seventeen (17) characteristics were identified that influence the selection of a service provider. Of greatest weight is references/reputation, relevant experience, the amount of fee charged and technical expertise in joint first. In joint second; local experience, understanding the client’s organisation, flexible service terms, integrity of approach, regulatory compliance and business values and ethos. This is followed by service provider capacity, individual capability, unconflicted, strong management capability, transparency, strong advisory capability and trust in shared third. The majority of the organisations judged CREM outsourcing successful and twelve (12) attributes were identified that impact the success of CREM outsourcing. Strong advisory capability dominated the list, followed by understanding the client’s organisation and technical expertise in mutual second place. In shared third place, unconflicted, strong management capability, professional integrity, market knowledge value-add, delivering the pledged service, flexible service terms, responsiveness, cost savings and transparency. Practical Implications – A strengthened and grounded understanding of the considerations of non-real estate private organisations in South Africa within the process of CREM outsourcing, will provide an empirical foundation upon which service providers may base their strategic positioning within the local market.
Reviewing risk management tools for construction projects and the implementation of project management strategiesLungu, Able Benson 25 February 2020 (has links)
Purpose - The research reviewed risk management tools for construction projects and the implementation of project management strategies, in which prominence is found in the use of the integrated use of value management and risk management adapted from the Integrated Approach for Soft Value Management. The study was based on a school construction project which was used as a case study at which the researcher’s role is that of ‘Project Manager’. The project status before the study was that it was almost 100% behind schedule and experienced a wide variety of problems ranging from constant site shut-downs due to community protests, contract scope changes, poor quality workmanship and material related setbacks. The study, through literature review, considered some of the methods currently used in the built environment to mitigate unforeseen problems to construction projects and ascertained the extent to which these tools and techniques for risk management on construction projects were used. The idea behind this was to review, document and package the application of a project management strategy that would be suitably effective for resolving the problems faced on the project site. Design – The research design used in this study was the ‘Case study design’ and ‘Experimental design’ in which the ‘Action-research’ approach and ‘Embedded survey within a case study’ were employed on the construction project site, managed by the researcher in his capacity as Project Manager. This was done by organising role-players as participants in focus group workshops facilitated by the researcher where the participants interacted with the researcher and amongst themselves in an effort to identify and find possible problems affecting the project. The researcher introduced stimulating action to project management processes based on the information sourced from the literature review and data obtained from focus group workshops where the outcomes were observed, recorded, analysed and conclusions drawn. Results – The investigation results revealed that the applied management strategies in form of the approach adapted from the integrated use of value and risk management provided a conclusion that the approach was an effective and preferable technique to use in comparison with the commonly used contingencies and float for risk management on construction projects. The above processes also confirmed its relevance as an appropriate technique for risk management of most unforeseen problems which have an effect on the three constraints of time, cost and quality. A further analysis of literature reviewed, which was also supported by other studies previously undertaken, concluded that most professionals in the construction sector such as Quantity Surveyors, Construction Managers, Project Managers and Architects were aware of Value Management but rarely applied it on projects for risk management purposes. Practical Implications – Developing a standard model for the implementation of measures to deal or manage unplanned problems on a project is a challenge as most projects do not have a set model to deal with unforeseen project problems which compels the reliance on contingencies and float. However, any envisaged model must be supported by a quality control system which allows for easy implementation of interventions. The prototype step model conceptualised by the researcher is intended to enable project functionaries and project managers through its unique and easy steps to navigate through any problem which may be encountered on a project. This is regardless of the project phase in which such challenges manifest as there is no preferred model capable of resolving much more than one setback at any given time in comparison with the strategy recommended by this study, which may also be applicable to other sites where similar dynamics exist. Limitations – The study was conducted in a confined environment which required to be confirmed through longitudinal research which is broader and based on many different projects hence the results could not be generalised but only limited to the current project and further research was recommended. The single case study design was also a limitation as the results were not broad enough and were also subjective for generalisation to other project sites. Conclusion – This project management strategy in which the integrated value management approach was used has the potential of being employed as an intervention technique for unforeseen problems related to construction projects provided the processes derived from further research are documented and packaged into a process to be used as a standard model. The project management strategy has the potential to mitigate problems related to time, cost and quality only during the three phases of the project which are, initiation, planning, and implementation and excludes the closing phase to enhance project value. In iii essence, when the project cost and time are effectively managed and reduced, with enhanced quality, the result is an improved project with significant prospects of success.
The South African building procurement strategy for public sector delivery in the Civil Engineering industry: investigating alternativesVisser, Zwingli 06 May 2020 (has links)
Reports from members of the civil engineering industry in South Africa claim that the industry is struggling and that there is a drain of technical expertise from the country. Some role players blame the cost-based competitive building procurement strategy currently widely used by the public sector, while others believe the Traditional Building Procurement Strategy is to blame. This study investigates circumstances surrounding the current South African building procurement strategy to establish if there are problems with the current system, identify what those problems are and investigates what alternatives can be implemented to positively affect project delivery. A single Case study is used to interview fifteen respondents in the civil engineering industry. Interviews with municipal officials, consultants and contractors are held and the results of the interviews are analyzed. The results of the study indicate that a cost-based building procurement strategy is leading to poor project delivery and client dissatisfaction as too much focus is put on pricing and preference criteria instead of quality criteria. Contributing to the dire situation are consultants having to tender at excessive discounts to ensure the procurement of services. This also leads to a drain of technical skills in South Africa and a lack of technical capacity in Local Government to provide the necessary input during project execution. Few of the respondents have been involved in any alternative building procurement strategies. The interpretation of legislation by the municipal officials during the tender evaluation process seems to add to project delays and over-expenditure on projects and many of the respondents believe that the current strategy was developed specifically to curb corruption and therefore change is not imminent. The study concludes that the industry’s representative bodies needs play a bigger role in informing National Government of the current problems associated with public-sector delivery in order to effect policy changes. Only then it can be implemented at Local Government level to ensure an improvement in public-sector delivery.
Evaluating the impact of the project implementation profile (PIP) tool on interface management in public sector projects: case study KZN Department of Health FacilitiesDube, Ndabezinhle January 2016 (has links)
Purpose: The research study investigated the impact of the Project Implementation Profile (PIP) tool on Interface Management (IM) in Public sector facilities projects focusing on KZN Department of Health as a case study. The study identified the interface management challenges encountered by the department and also the advantages that can be realised in using the PIP tool. Lastly the study outlined the impact the PIP tool can bring in improving interface management between stakeholders. Design and Findings: From the existing literature the interface challenges were categorized as financial, contract and specification, environmental and lastly other common problems. The research determined their relevance through a survey. Respondents listed additional challenges and highlighted the advantages and impact of the PIP tool in mitigating interface challenges during project implementation. Practical Implications: The findings outlined the interface management challenges, the advantages of using the PIP tool to mitigate the challenges and the impact the tool has in improving project success rate. However constraints were encountered as some stakeholders were skeptical in answering all the questions. Subjectivity of the information couldn't be avoided as respondents were giving their opinions. It is suggested that this research be expanded in scope to verify that the findings can be generalized. Background: KwaZulu Natal Department of Health (KZNDOH) experience Interface Management challenges in implementation of its infrastructure projects. This has lead scope creeps, time and cost overruns thereby reducing the project success rate. The PIP tool could be the answer in resolving challenges faced. Aim: The research intention is to establish the impact of the PIP tool when applied to the IM with the purpose of improving the probability of project success in KZNDOH. Methods: A Likert Scale questionnaire was used to establish the current IM challenges. This was coupled with an Action Research method establish additional challenges, the impact of the PIP tool and its advantages. Results: The research delineated IM challenges which reduce the project success rate. It also outlined the impact of the PIP tool which includes improved planning, monitoring and execution of projects. Conclusions: The PIP has a positive impact to the IM challenges as established by the research. Risks are mitigated early during planning, teamwork, efficiency is improved and scope is managed. There is reduction in time and cost overruns resulting in improved project success rate.
Rwelamila, Esther Kagemulo
Purpose: The purpose of this dissertation is to understand the risk in South African construction projects that affect the achievement of objectives, with respect to time, cost and quality. Design/methodology/approach: A comprehensive review of Risk management and construction risks in South Africa and abroad was conducted. This was followed by a review of construction risks in the Western Cape from a perspective, using the Repertory Grid Analysis Technique (RGT) methodology. The results of the RGT were then analysed against the preceding literature to draw inferences and conclusions. Findings: This study has provided insight to the risks that hinder the realisation of project objectives in the Western Cape, through the Triad and Elicitation process of the Repertory Grid Technique. The identified risks were categorized in groups based on their similarity and the groups ranked in order of frequency and importance as follows: labour, material, selected subcontractor, programme and scheduling and client. Originality/Value: The research represents one of the few attempts to understand construction risks utilising the RGT, thus forming a valued contribution to the project management database.
Glass ceilings - a study into the barriers faced by aspiring professional black women in the South African Built EnvironmentMpemba, Nyasha 19 February 2019 (has links)
The purpose and inspiration behind this research was to outline the barriers faced and hurdles that aspiring professional black women in the South African Built Environment face. These hurdles usually occur as black women work towards climbing the corporate ladder and establishing careers within executive leadership positions, when compared to their male counterparts. The main research objectives of the study were to specifically determine generic barriers to the career advancement of professional black women in the South African Built Environment. The study was also meant to outline mechanisms used by women in the built environment professions to break through the above the glass ceiling that aspiring young black females below the glass ceilings should be aware of to break through the glass ceiling. As such the study was delimited to aspiring black women in the South African Built Environment. Literature review touched on various aspects that pertain barriers faced by aspiring professional black women in the South African Built Environment. Issues such as the factors that contribute to the glass ceiling as well as mechanism that can be used to overcome the glass ceilings were critically reviewed. The research methodology of the study comprised the use of a qualitative research approach with structured interviews being the main data collection instrument. Interviewees were drawn from a diversity of professions within the South African Built Environment. The main research findings established that the majority of interviewees were able to comprehend the essence to the BBBEE legislations as it pertains to them. The majority of interviewees underestimated the appeal of networking in improving career prospects of black women in the South African Built Environment. None of the interviewees expressed that they have black women as their mentor. There appeared to be mixed feelings with respect to maintaining a work-life balance upon getting married with some expressing that they expect no differences in their work schedules whilst others highlight that they will have to adjust. Practical implications derived from the study are that, for black women to effectively break the glass ceilings in the South African Built Environment, they have to pass the criteria for high potential designation and executive positions. This criterion includes issues such as the development of a strategic fit between the aspiring black women and the strategic and financial goals of the built environment.
Project complexity and how to effectively measure complexity in projects: the case of a refuelling outage in a nuclear power generating plantMabumbulu, Noxolo January 2016 (has links)
Background: Projects have become larger, technologically more sophisticated and are organised with a higher number of contractors and partners, compared to 40 years ago. The majority of large, complex capital projects often incur significant cost/budget and schedule overruns. Delays and cost overruns are seemingly, the rule rather than an exception these days. Research shows that one of the reasons for project failure is the increasing complexity of projects or an underestimation of the project complexity. There is therefore a fundamental need to develop a tool or model that will assist project managers to measure complexity within their projects Research Purpose: To define project complexity, develop a model or tool to measure complexity within projects and to improve the understanding of the dimensions of project complexity. Research Methodology: The case study methodology was employed, and the unit of analysis was the refuelling outage in a nuclear power generating plant. Focus group was adopted as a technique to gather information. A group of project managers with wealth of knowledge in refuelling outages were assembled. They were given the complexity assessment matrix to assess their respective subprojects, in order to rate the refuelling outage project Findings: Two main scientific approaches to project complexity, namely; descriptive complexity and perceived complexity were established. Descriptive complexity considers complexity as an intrinsic property of a system. Perceived complexity considers complexity as subjective, since the complexity of a system is understood through the perception of an observer and both approaches can coexist. There are vital layers of complexity such as: social, cultural, operative and cognitive complexity that must be considered when dealing with complexity within projects. A three dimensional model that encompasses the complexity dimensions (origin of project complexity), severity factors (the extent to which complexity dimension will be a problem) and the nature of interdependences (pooled, sequential, and reciprocal) was developed. This model was used to assess complexity of the refuelling outage in a power generating plant. The results of this assessment indicated that this project is a very complex project.
An investigation into the practice of the project management office (PMO) concept in the German developer, contractor and project management sectorsDesta, Solomon January 2006 (has links)
Includes bibliographical references. / Integrating Project Management practices with other management practices and processes such as Knowledge Management, Total Quality Management, Concurrent Engineering, Risk Management and Change Management has become a coping mechanism for many organisations operating in volatile business environments (Kerzner 2000). Companies have come to realize that leveraging knowledge gained on projects is an important resource to improve performance and have started to look for strategies that help them to achieve 'excellence' and 'maturity' in PM and help formally "manage" this intellectual property gained on projects (Kerzner 2003). One of the strategies that many companies are adopting for the structured collection, distribution, and updating of the intellectual property gained on projects and to facilitate their maturity in PM practices is the 'project management office' (PMO) (Dai & Wells 2004; PMI 2004a; Santosus 2003; Rad & Levin 2002; Bates 1998). This is referred to by different writers alternatively as the project office (PO) (Englund et al. 2003; Kermer 2003; Turbit 2003; PM! 2000a), PM centre of excellence (COE) (Kermer 2001) or Project support office (PSO) (Marsh 2001; Marsh 2000).
11 February 2019
Purpose - Value management has been in use for many decades, yet in Namibia most built environment professionals are vaguely familiar with the concept and are not aware of the benefits of this practice, and that it can add value for money without reducing quality. This research seeks to focus on the value management methodology and more specifically give insight into the use of the Functional Analysis Systems Technique (FAST) diagram in the built environment within a local government context. Design/methodology/approach - To establish how a FAST model can be used as a tool to design roads and introduce alternative materials with a focus on reducing cost for municipal projects. This would address the design methods, design team composition, construction methods and availability of material taking environmental sustainability into consideration. The benefits and cost of value management are reviewed and the importance of value management as an integrated practice of the project management process of the Municipality is explored. A quantitative method is used to determine the applicability of the FAST diagram within the project team and current project environment. A likert Scale questionnaire was used to establish the current use of value management techniques, effectiveness of project implementation process and additional challenges related to availability of material in the Windhoek Municipality. Results – The research delineated project management challenges which reduce project success rate. It also outlines the impact of FAST model and its advantages. This includes improving project cost, monitoring and successful execution of a construction project. The FAST has a positive impact on challenges as established by the research. Project risks are mitigated early during the planning, composition of the project team, efficiency is improved and scope is managed. There is a reduction in time and cost overrun resulting in improved project success. Limitations – Given the exploratory nature of this research, the amount of data is restricted to a single municipality of Namibia.
15 February 2019
Purpose – This research investigated factors critical to benefits realisation of IT/IS project in the South African Government. The aim of the research was therefore to establish a list of factors critical to benefits realisation of IT/IS projects in SA government by testing the applicability of Coombs (2015) factors and as well as testing factors identified in the literature. Method – In addition to the factors identified in Coombs (2015) study, a literature review was conducted to identify additional factors critical for benefits realisation in IT/IS projects and twenty-one factors were identified. A web-survey with twenty one (21) success factors was sent to IT stakeholders in SA government particularly the State Information Technology Agency to determine their relevance and importance in benefits realisation of IT/IS projects in SA government. Results – The research finding revealed that all four of Coombs (2015) study success factors were relevant. Two of the factors were amongst the top ten factors considered the most important factors rated by the IT stakeholders in SA government. It also revealed that all twenty-one factors were relevant, however the following ten (10) factors were considered the most important factors: Clear Project Mission, Effective Communication, Defined Project Scope, User/Client Involvement, Top Management Support, Competent Project Manager, Sufficient/Well allocated resources, Strong, and detailed project plan, Business Process Knowledge, and Governance Structure. Furthermore, the research also revealed nine (9) additional factors identified by the IT stakeholders and they include: Political Stability, Architecture, Supportive legislation and policies, Teamwork, Trust and Honesty, IT solutions aligned to global Trend, Social and Economic Impact on Citizen, System Integration, and Project Management Methodology. Practical Implications – The findings allowed for an establishment of twenty-one factors critical for benefits realisation in IT/IS projects in SA government. However, the findings and the research process had some limitations. The sample for the survey was chosen from a population of a single organisation. The outcome of the survey is not an accurate representation of the entire government. Therefore, further research might be required using a larger sample size spanning various and different levels of government. The research findings may also need to be confirmed with more qualitative methods.
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