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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Role of the adaptor protein, beta-arrestin1, in the Notch signaling pathway

Witty, Marie-France 05 1900 (has links)
The Notch receptor is part of a highly conserved signaling pathway shared in Drosophila, C. elegans and mammals. Extensive studies of Notch signaling have revealed its participation in the development of diverse organ systems including brain, blood cells, blood vessels, gut, and skin. Many genetic modifiers of the Notch signaling pathway have been identified, including some which act at the membrane and others in the nucleus. One such member is Deltex, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, which was originally identified as a modifier of Notch in a Drosophila genetic screen. In early lymphoid development, Deltex has been demonstrated functionally to antagonize Notch signaling but the precise molecular mechanism for this functional antagonism between Notch and Deltex is not understood. However, in Drosophila, recent data supports the formation of a trimeric complex between Deltex, Kurtz and Notch that promotes Notch ubiquitin-mediated proteosomal degradation. Beta-arrestin1 is one of the closest mammalian homologues of Kurtz and functions as an adaptor protein in a variety of cellular processes such as endocytosis, ubiquitination and nuclear shuttling. We hypothesize that a similar interaction occurs in mammalian cells between Notch, beta-arrestin1 and Deltex to negatively modulate the Notch signaling pathway. Our data reveal a physical interaction between beta-arrestin1 and the Notch receptor. We could not, however, detect an interaction between Deltex and beta-arrestin1 by co-immunoprecipitation. We also demonstrate that Notch and beta-arrestin1 physically associate with both a membrane-bound form of activated Notch, as well as the intracellular form of Notch after membrane cleavage. Using RNA interference, as well as overexpression of beta-arrestin1, we demonstrate that beta-arrestin1 negatively regulates a Notch/CSL dependant reporter assay. We also show that the presence of Deltex enhances the negative modulation of the Notch signaling pathway mediated by beta-arrestin1. Therefore, we reveal a new Notch interacting protein and a novel role for beta-arrestin1 in the Notch signaling pathway.
2

Role of the adaptor protein, beta-arrestin1, in the Notch signaling pathway

Witty, Marie-France 05 1900 (has links)
The Notch receptor is part of a highly conserved signaling pathway shared in Drosophila, C. elegans and mammals. Extensive studies of Notch signaling have revealed its participation in the development of diverse organ systems including brain, blood cells, blood vessels, gut, and skin. Many genetic modifiers of the Notch signaling pathway have been identified, including some which act at the membrane and others in the nucleus. One such member is Deltex, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, which was originally identified as a modifier of Notch in a Drosophila genetic screen. In early lymphoid development, Deltex has been demonstrated functionally to antagonize Notch signaling but the precise molecular mechanism for this functional antagonism between Notch and Deltex is not understood. However, in Drosophila, recent data supports the formation of a trimeric complex between Deltex, Kurtz and Notch that promotes Notch ubiquitin-mediated proteosomal degradation. Beta-arrestin1 is one of the closest mammalian homologues of Kurtz and functions as an adaptor protein in a variety of cellular processes such as endocytosis, ubiquitination and nuclear shuttling. We hypothesize that a similar interaction occurs in mammalian cells between Notch, beta-arrestin1 and Deltex to negatively modulate the Notch signaling pathway. Our data reveal a physical interaction between beta-arrestin1 and the Notch receptor. We could not, however, detect an interaction between Deltex and beta-arrestin1 by co-immunoprecipitation. We also demonstrate that Notch and beta-arrestin1 physically associate with both a membrane-bound form of activated Notch, as well as the intracellular form of Notch after membrane cleavage. Using RNA interference, as well as overexpression of beta-arrestin1, we demonstrate that beta-arrestin1 negatively regulates a Notch/CSL dependant reporter assay. We also show that the presence of Deltex enhances the negative modulation of the Notch signaling pathway mediated by beta-arrestin1. Therefore, we reveal a new Notch interacting protein and a novel role for beta-arrestin1 in the Notch signaling pathway.
3

Role of the adaptor protein, beta-arrestin1, in the Notch signaling pathway

Witty, Marie-France 05 1900 (has links)
The Notch receptor is part of a highly conserved signaling pathway shared in Drosophila, C. elegans and mammals. Extensive studies of Notch signaling have revealed its participation in the development of diverse organ systems including brain, blood cells, blood vessels, gut, and skin. Many genetic modifiers of the Notch signaling pathway have been identified, including some which act at the membrane and others in the nucleus. One such member is Deltex, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, which was originally identified as a modifier of Notch in a Drosophila genetic screen. In early lymphoid development, Deltex has been demonstrated functionally to antagonize Notch signaling but the precise molecular mechanism for this functional antagonism between Notch and Deltex is not understood. However, in Drosophila, recent data supports the formation of a trimeric complex between Deltex, Kurtz and Notch that promotes Notch ubiquitin-mediated proteosomal degradation. Beta-arrestin1 is one of the closest mammalian homologues of Kurtz and functions as an adaptor protein in a variety of cellular processes such as endocytosis, ubiquitination and nuclear shuttling. We hypothesize that a similar interaction occurs in mammalian cells between Notch, beta-arrestin1 and Deltex to negatively modulate the Notch signaling pathway. Our data reveal a physical interaction between beta-arrestin1 and the Notch receptor. We could not, however, detect an interaction between Deltex and beta-arrestin1 by co-immunoprecipitation. We also demonstrate that Notch and beta-arrestin1 physically associate with both a membrane-bound form of activated Notch, as well as the intracellular form of Notch after membrane cleavage. Using RNA interference, as well as overexpression of beta-arrestin1, we demonstrate that beta-arrestin1 negatively regulates a Notch/CSL dependant reporter assay. We also show that the presence of Deltex enhances the negative modulation of the Notch signaling pathway mediated by beta-arrestin1. Therefore, we reveal a new Notch interacting protein and a novel role for beta-arrestin1 in the Notch signaling pathway. / Medicine, Faculty of / Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Department of / Graduate
4

Positive Regulation of PKB/Akt Kinase Activity by the Vacuolar-ATPase in the Canonical Insulin Signaling Pathway: Implications for the Targeted Pharmacotherapy of Cancer

Kaladchibachi, Sevag 22 July 2014 (has links)
The canonical PI3K/Akt pathway is activated downstream of numerous receptor tyrosine kinases, including the insulin and insulin-like growth factor receptors, and is a crucial regulator of growth and survival in metazoans. The deregulation of Akt is implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases including cancer, making the identification of modifiers of its activity of high chemotherapeutic interest. In a transheterozygous genetic screen for modifiers of embryonic Akt function in Drosophila, in which the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is conserved, we identified the A subunit of the vacuolar ATPase (Vha68-2) as a positive regulator of Dakt function. Our characterization of this genetic interaction in the larval stage of development revealed that Vha68-2 mutant phenotypes stereotypically mimicked the growth defects observed in mutants of the Drosophila insulin signaling pathway (ISP). The loss of Vha68-2 function, like Dakt-deficiency, was found to result in organismal and cell-autonomous growth defects, and consistent with its putative role as a positive regulator of Dakt function, both the mutational and pharmacological inhibition of its activity were found to downregulate Akt iv activation. Genetic epistasis experiments in somatic clones of Vha68-2/dPTEN double mutants demonstrated that the loss of Vha68-2 function suppressed the growth defects associated with dPTEN-deficiency, placing Vha68-2 activity downstream of dPTEN in the ISP, while the examination of PI3K activity and PH domain-dependent membrane recruitment in pharmacologically inhibited larval tissues further placed Vha68-2 function downstream of PI3K. These findings were recapitulated in cultured NIH-3T3 cells, whose treatment with bafilomycin A1, a potent and specific inhibitor of V-ATPase, resulted in the downregulation of Akt phosphorylation, particularly in non-cytoplasmic intracellular compartments. Furthermore, cellular subfractionation of bafilomycin-treated NIH-3T3 cells demonstrated a decrease in the localization of Akt to early endocytic structures, and a downregulation in the localization and activation of Akt in the nuclei of both Drosophila and mammalian cells. Finally, the pharmacotherapeutic relevance of V-ATPase inhibition was addressed in two tumor models – multiple myeloma and glioblastoma – and our preliminary findings in these cancers, which are often associated with ectopic PI3K/Akt signaling, showed significant cytotoxic efficacy in vitro, warranting its consideration as a tractable pharmacological option in the treatment of cancer.
5

Effect of Manipulation of Notch Signaling Pathway on Neural Stem Cell Proliferation in the Hippocampus Following Traumatic Brain Injury

Kim, Seung L 01 January 2019 (has links)
Effect of Manipulation of Notch Signaling Pathway on Neural Stem Cell Proliferation in the Hippocampus Following Traumatic Brain Injury By Seung L. Kim A thesis statement submitted for degree requirement in Mater of Science Virginia Commonwealth University, 2019 Advisor: Dong Sun, MD. PhD. Department of Anatomy & Neurobiology The Notch signaling pathway is known as a core signaling system in maintaining neural stem cells (NSCs) in embryonic development and adulthood including cell proliferation, maturation, and cell fate decision. Proliferation of NSCs persists throughout lifespan in neurogenic niches and is often upregulated following neurological insults including traumatic brain injury (TBI). Therefore, NSCs are viewed as the brain’s endogenous source for repair and regeneration. We speculate Notch signaling pathway is also involved in injury-induced cell proliferation in the neurogenic niche following TBI. TBI, which is a leading cause of death and disability, has been a huge burden to our society. Many efforts have been made in attempt to treat and manage TBI. In this study, we examined the involvement of Notch signaling pathway in injury induced NSC proliferation in the neurogenic niche, by administering exogenous Notch ligands including, Notch agonist or antagonist. Adult rats were intraventricularly infused with Notch1 receptor agonists (anti-Notch1 antibody at the dose of 0.5, 2 or 4μg/ml), Notch1 receptor antagonist (recombinant Jagged1 fusion protein at the dose of 25, 50 or 100μg/ml) or vehicle for 7 days following TBI. 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered single daily via intraperitoneal injection to label proliferating cells for 7 days post injury. The animals were sacrificed on the 7th day at 2 hours after the last BrdU injection. Sequential vibratome sliced coronal brain sections were processed for proliferation marker BrdU, Ki67 or immature neuronal marker DCX staining. BrdU, Ki67 or DCX-labeled cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus were quantified using unbiased stereological method. We found TBI in the form of moderate lateral fluid percussion injury (LFPI) induced cell proliferation was further augmented by 7-day infusion of Notch agonist (Notch1-2μg/ml) as shown by BrdU and Ki67 labeling. Further, 7-day infusion of Notch antagonist (Jagged1-50μg/ml) post-injury greatly reduced the number of BrdU+ cells. However, ambiguous dose related responses were also observed where 7-day infusion of higher dose of Notch agonist (Notch1-4μg/ml) resulted in reduced cell proliferation. No major changes in the numbers of newly generated neurons were observed across the animals, except a slight reduction in Notch agonist (Notch1-2μg/ml) and Notch antagonist (Jagged1-50μg/ml) infused animals as shown by DCX labeling. Infusion of Notch agonist or antagonist affects NSC proliferation following TBI suggesting the involvement of Notch signaling pathway in regulating post-TBI NSC proliferation in the neurogenic niche. For the unexpected opposite results of higher dosing of Notch 1 agonist, the presence of other Notch receptors regulating NSC in the neurogenic niche should be considered. Future studies involving selective manipulation of these Notch receptors and their downstream effectors would clear some results.
6

Kidney development: roles of Sprouty, Wnt2b and type XVIII collagen in the ureteric bud morphogenesis

Zhang, S. (Shaobing) 28 May 2003 (has links)
Abstract The mammalian metanephric kidney develops through ureteric bud branching morphogenesis and tubule formation and involves secreted inductive signals and possibly their antagonists to regulate the process. Sprouty (spry) genes encode antagonists of FGFs and the EGF signalling pathways. To get an insight to potential developmental roles of the spry genes, the expression of spry1, 2 and 4 was analyzed in developing kidney. Spry1 is expressed in the ureteric bud, and spry2 and 4 in the ureteric bud, the kidney mesenchyme and the nephrons deriving from it suggesting developmental roles for the sprys in kidney development. Spry function was addressed in vivo in the kidney by targeting hspry2 expression to the ureteric bud with a Pax2 promoter. Hspry2 expression led to development of small, ectopic and cystic kidneys. Ureter branching was reduced and there was less glomeruli in a smaller kidney compared to the wild type controls. Spry2 may antagonize signalling of FGF2 and lead to changes in FGFR1 and FGFR3 expression. In organ culture ectopic FGFs restored ureteric branching of the hSpry2 transgenic kidneys suggesting that hSpry2 may antagonize FGF signalling in embryonic kidney. In addition to changes in FGFs, hspry2 expression also lead to downregulation of GDNF and BMP4. We conclude that the Sprouty-FGFs-FGFR signaling is important for kidney development. Wnt2b is a recently identified member of the Wnt family of secreted growth factors, but its function in organogenesis is unknown. In the kidney Wnt2b is localized to the perinephric mesenchymal cells at the initiation of organogenesis. Wnt2b signalling supported ureteric bud growth and branching in vitro. Ureteric bud that was co-cultured with Wnt2b expressive cells or incubated with a known Wnt pathway regulator lithium, and then recombined with isolated kidney mesenchyme led to recovery of the expression of some ureteric epithelial marker genes and reconstitution of early kidney development. Hence, Wnt2b signalling is critical for induction of ureteric branching in vitro. Type XVIII collagen is a matrix molecule and may be involved in Wnt signalling. Roles of type XVIII collagen in kidney and lung organogenesis was analysed. Type XVIII collagen expression correlated with the differences in epithelial branching in both of these organs and its expression in the epithelial tissue was mutually exclusive. In recombinants of ureteric bud and lung mesenchyme, type XVIII collagen expression pattern shifted from kidney to lung type and was accompanied by a shift in epithelial Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) expression and by ectopic lung Surfactant Protein C in the ureteric bud. Blocking of type XVIII collagen function prevented ureteric development with lung mesenchyme and associated with reduction in the expression of Wnt2. Taken together, the findings suggest critical roles for Sprouty2, Wnt2b and type XVIII collagen in controlling pattern formation and the mode of ureteric bud branching in the embryonic kidney.
7

Role of Rap1a in AGE/RAGE-mediated Signaling in Type II Diabetes Mellitus

Zhao, Jia 08 December 2017 (has links)
Type II diabetes mellitus (TIIDM) causes multiple complications under chronic hyperglycemia. Long term persistent exposure to elevated glucose conditions is considered one of the major factors for diabetic complications. Pathologically, mechanical and biochemical stimuli will induce a signaling cascade in cardiac fibroblasts, which causes myocardial fibrosis and leading to ventricular stiffness. Non-enzymatically, high levels of glucose can react with long-lived proteins, such as collagen to form advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). AGEs have been shown to be associated with many of the diabetic cardiovascular complications due to their interaction with the receptor for AGE (RAGE). AGE/RAGE activation stimulates the secretion of growth factors, promotes increased collagen production that leads to tissue fibrosis, and increased RAGE expression. The purpose of this study is to identify the role for Rap1a in regulating fibrosis under TIIDM conditions, as well as to offer insight into the AGE-RAGE signaling cascade definition for cardiovascular extracellular matrix remodeling under TIIDM condition. To test our hypothesis, both loss-ofunction and gain-ofunction based experiments were performed to manipulate Rap1a protein expression in AGE-RAGE mediated fibrosis. Also, we down-regulated the activity of downstream molecules in the AGE-RAGE signaling cascade, such as protein kinase C-ζ (PKC-ζ) and ERK1/2 by specific inhibitor treatments, to test their positions in AGE-RAGE mediated fibrosis pathway. To perform our experiment in vivo, we used high fat diet to feed Rap1a heterozygous mice in order to build a Rap1a heterozygous diabetic animal model. Our results showed that Rap1a protein plays a key role in AGE-RAGE signaling pathway under TIIDM, and changes in Rap1a activity altered the signaling pathway. Also, we found that PKC-ζ is the upstream player relatively to ERK1/2, and Rap1a is the upstream player for both PKC-ζ and ERK1/2. By understanding the role Rap1a played in AGE-RAGE signaling cascade, a new molecular mechanism is found possibly to reduce the cardiac fibrosis in TIIDM patients.
8

Regulation of the TCR signaling pathway

Rivera Reyes, Brenda Mariola January 2006 (has links)
No description available.
9

The effects of cell-surface composition on natural killer cell activation: a modeling study

Williams, Katherine Spring 27 July 2011 (has links)
No description available.
10

The gene regulatory network in the anterior neural plate border of ascidian embryos / ホヤ胚の前方神経板境界における遺伝子調節ネットワーク

Liu, Boqi 23 March 2020 (has links)
京都大学 / 0048 / 新制・課程博士 / 博士(理学) / 甲第22283号 / 理博第4597号 / 新制||理||1659(附属図書館) / 京都大学大学院理学研究科生物科学専攻 / (主査)准教授 佐藤 ゆたか, 教授 高橋 淑子, 准教授 秋山 秋梅 / 学位規則第4条第1項該当 / Doctor of Science / Kyoto University / DGAM

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