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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
11

Implicações do perfil de ansiedade na dinâmica /

Genovez, Lara Wichr. January 2010 (has links)
Orientador: Gilson Luiz Volpato / Resumo: Este estudo investigou o perfil de ansiedade em Juverus de Tilápia-do-Nilo (Ore Niloticus). Num primeiro capitulo, determinamos um perfil comportamental indicativo de níveis de ansiedade. Num segundo capitulo, avaliamos o efeito de diferentes proporções de peixes com ansiedade alta (AA) e pouca (PA) na agressão e na produção de peixes em condições de aquário. No primeiro capitulo, por meio da modulação do comportamento de peixes usando drogas ansiolíticas (Diazepam, DZP) e ansiogênicas (Pentilenotetrazol, PTZ), demonstramos que o tempo gasto na natação foi um indicador confiável do nível de ansiedade (menor a locomoção, maior o nível de ansiedade). Também descobrimos que esse traço comportamental é melhor do que a medida de latência para sair do abrigo e explorar o ambiente novo. No segundo capitulo, outros peixes foram separados pelo critério de locomoção em perfis AA e PA e agrupados (6 peixes/aquário) para observação da agressão, do crescimento, da alimentação e da sobrevivência em 3 proporções: a) 50% de AA + 50% de PA; b) 100% PA e c) 100% AA. Nenhuma das variáveis observadas foi diferente entre essas composições de grupo / Abstract: This study investigated the anxiety profile in Nile tilapia juveniles (Oreochromis niloticus) by determining in a first chapter a behavioral profile to indicate levels of anxiety and, in a second chapter, the effect of different proportion of high (liA) and low (LA) anxiety fish on aggression and fish production in aquarium conditions. ln the first chapter, by modulating fish behavior with ansiolitic (Diazepam DZP) and ansiogenic (pentylenotetrazole PTZ) drugs, we demonstrated that time fish spent in swimming was a reliable indicator of anxiety levei (the lower the swimming, the higher the anxiety levei). We also found that this behavioral trait is better than measure of latency to exit shelter and explore a novel environment. Then, in the second chapter, other fish were separated by the locomotor criterium in HA and LA profiles and grouped (6 fish/aquarium) for aggression, growth, feeding and survival observations at three proportions: a) 50% HA + 50% LA, b) 100% HA, and c) 100% LA. Neither of the observed variables was different among these group compositions / Mestre
12

Caracterização de indivíduos hesitantes e ousados na tilápia-do-Nilo

Silva, Graziela Valença da [UNESP] 26 February 2010 (has links) (PDF)
Made available in DSpace on 2014-06-11T19:30:12Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 0 Previous issue date: 2010-02-26Bitstream added on 2014-06-13T19:39:30Z : No. of bitstreams: 1 silva_gv_me_botib_parcial.pdf: 90534 bytes, checksum: e5ae1fd42966c5fcbd0c44e74b7307e3 (MD5) Bitstreams deleted on 2015-03-16T11:30:16Z: silva_gv_me_botib_parcial.pdf,Bitstream added on 2015-03-16T11:31:01Z : No. of bitstreams: 1 000609983.pdf: 275068 bytes, checksum: c5458d6c71bd9cf6f1bf766448d6a3ba (MD5) / Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) / Nos identificamos percentuais de individuos que se distribuem no continuo hesitayaoousadia na tihipia-do-Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758). Avaliamos a reayao de peixes isolados (100 peixes, 22.1 ± 5.9 g) a urn objeto-estimulo introduzido subitamente no aquario. Dividimos a parede frontal do aquario em quatm regioes iguais, atraves de linhas externas verticais. Apos isolamento por 24 h nesse aquario, assim que o peixe estava numa das duas extremidades, introduziamos subitamente 0 objetoestimulo (cilindro de PVC de 10 em diametro) na extremidade oposta (~ 30 em do peixe). Nos 5 min seguintes registravamos: a) tempo para sair da regiao inicial; b) tempo para chegar a regiao do objeto-estimulo; e c) tempo em locomoyao. Identificamos dois perfis extremos de resposta: permanencia na regiao inicial (peixes hesitantes) e aproximayao do objeto-estimulo em ate 40 s (peixes ousados). Este criterio resultou em 20% de individuos hesitantes, 29% de ousados e 51% de intermediarios, sendo os peixes ousados os mais ativos. Esses perfIS nao tiveram associayao com 0 sexo dos animais. Para testar a associayao dos perfis hesitante e ousado com a agressividade, uma nova amostra de peixes foi avaliada (115 peixes) como descrito acima, porem 24h horas depois urn segundo teste foi realizado, mas com outro objeto-estimulo introduzido no aquario. Os peixes considerados hesitantes ou ousados nos dois testes consecutivos foram submetidos a anaIise da agressividade. Esta foi avaliada atraves do teste do espelho (20 peixes de cada perfil) e pareamento entre coespecificos (10 duplas de cada perfil). Os peixes ousados foram mais agressivos que os hesitantes. Em urn terceiro estudo, esses peixes foram submetidos a estresse de confinamento por 30 min e o estresse foi avaliado pe1a mudanya na frequencia ventilatoria e colorayao do olho. Peixes ousados foram mais responsivos ao estresse. Conc1uimos que os perfis hesitante e ousado ocorrem na tilápia-do-Nilo,.... / We identified percentage of fish III the shy-bold continuum III the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758). This was achieved from the reaction of isolated fish (100 fish, 22.1 ± 5.9 g) to a stimulus-object suddenly introduced into the aquarium. The frontal glass of the test aquarium was divided in four regions of same area by vertical lines outside the aquaria. After 24-h isolation in the test aquarium, when the fish was in one of the extremities of the aquarium, the stimulus-object (1O-cm diameter PVC cylinder) was suddenly immersed into the aquarium in the opposite side (- 30 cm from the fish). We registered in the next 5 min: a) latency to the fish exit from the initial area; b) time to reach the stimulus-object area; and c) time spent in locomotion. We could identify two extreme responses: staying in the initial area (fish considered shy) and approaching the stimulus-object in up to 40 s (bold fish). This criterion resulted in 20% shy, 29% bold and 51% intermediate fish, with the bold fish being more active. These profiles were not associated with fish sex. To test the association of shy and bold fish with aggression, these fish were identified in other sample (115 fish) as described above; 24 h later a second test was performed (but now with another object introduced). Fish considered shy or bold in these two consecutive testes were then tested for aggression. Aggression was evaluated by the mirror test (20 fish each profile) and also pairing with conspecific fish (10 pairs in each profile). Bold fish were more aggressive than the shy fish. In a third study, these fish were subjected to stress confinement for 30 min and stress evaluated in terms of changes in ventilation rate and eye color. Bold fish were the most responsive to stress. In conclusion, shy and bold profiles occur in the Nile tilapia, can be identified by reaction to a sudden stimulus and ...
13

Implicações do perfil de ansiedade na dinâmica

Genovez, Lara Wichr [UNESP] 24 February 2010 (has links) (PDF)
Made available in DSpace on 2014-06-11T19:30:14Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 0 Previous issue date: 2010-02-24Bitstream added on 2014-06-13T18:40:13Z : No. of bitstreams: 1 genovez_lw_me_botib_parcial.pdf: 82380 bytes, checksum: 410609a2bf1d1591d12460b6c75e01f1 (MD5) Bitstreams deleted on 2015-03-16T11:30:17Z: genovez_lw_me_botib_parcial.pdf,Bitstream added on 2015-03-16T11:31:01Z : No. of bitstreams: 1 000610307.pdf: 151781 bytes, checksum: 0fccf42decac23f86e3f5228108c6779 (MD5) / Este estudo investigou o perfil de ansiedade em Juverus de Tilápia-do-Nilo (Ore Niloticus). Num primeiro capitulo, determinamos um perfil comportamental indicativo de níveis de ansiedade. Num segundo capitulo, avaliamos o efeito de diferentes proporções de peixes com ansiedade alta (AA) e pouca (PA) na agressão e na produção de peixes em condições de aquário. No primeiro capitulo, por meio da modulação do comportamento de peixes usando drogas ansiolíticas (Diazepam, DZP) e ansiogênicas (Pentilenotetrazol, PTZ), demonstramos que o tempo gasto na natação foi um indicador confiável do nível de ansiedade (menor a locomoção, maior o nível de ansiedade). Também descobrimos que esse traço comportamental é melhor do que a medida de latência para sair do abrigo e explorar o ambiente novo. No segundo capitulo, outros peixes foram separados pelo critério de locomoção em perfis AA e PA e agrupados (6 peixes/aquário) para observação da agressão, do crescimento, da alimentação e da sobrevivência em 3 proporções: a) 50% de AA + 50% de PA; b) 100% PA e c) 100% AA. Nenhuma das variáveis observadas foi diferente entre essas composições de grupo / This study investigated the anxiety profile in Nile tilapia juveniles (Oreochromis niloticus) by determining in a first chapter a behavioral profile to indicate levels of anxiety and, in a second chapter, the effect of different proportion of high (liA) and low (LA) anxiety fish on aggression and fish production in aquarium conditions. ln the first chapter, by modulating fish behavior with ansiolitic (Diazepam DZP) and ansiogenic (pentylenotetrazole PTZ) drugs, we demonstrated that time fish spent in swimming was a reliable indicator of anxiety levei (the lower the swimming, the higher the anxiety levei). We also found that this behavioral trait is better than measure of latency to exit shelter and explore a novel environment. Then, in the second chapter, other fish were separated by the locomotor criterium in HA and LA profiles and grouped (6 fish/aquarium) for aggression, growth, feeding and survival observations at three proportions: a) 50% HA + 50% LA, b) 100% HA, and c) 100% LA. Neither of the observed variables was different among these group compositions
14

Tilapia genetics : survival, growth and sex differentiation

Chipungu, Patrick M. K. January 1987 (has links)
Production of all-male tilapia for aquaculture is assuming an increasingly important role. An important pre-requisite to repeated obtainment of monosex tilapia is a clear understanding of the mechanisms underlying sex differentiation. Histological observations on gonadal morphorgonesis and sex differentiation provided basic data for hormonal sex manipulation in four commercially important species. Results indicate that gonadal morphogenesis starts at different times ranging from eight days after hatching in 0. mossambicus to 17 days in 0. niloticus. Sex differentiation followed a similar pattern, and ranged from 22 days in O. mossambicus to 36 days in 0. niloticus. The effects of subjecting fish to different rearing temperatures was assessed. No significant influence was found on sex ratio of treated fish. Observations on offspring sex ratio in intraspecific breeding and interspecific hybridization demonstrated that significant differences between batches are a common occurrance and their regularity cannot be adequately explained on the basis of sex chromosome theory alone. Treating fish with synthetic androgen (17 alpha methyltestosterone) and synthetic oestrogen, (17 alpha ethenylestradiol) resulted in species specific and dosage dependant differences in sex ratios. Results also revealed significant differences in sex ratios of different batches of fish subjected to the same treatment, thus demonstrating that success rate in sex inversion varies not only between species and between stocks, but in sib groups as well. Results of intraspecific and interspecific breeding suggest that sex determination in tilapia is under the influence of multiple factors. Results of hormone treatments indicate variations in inversion rate at batch level, thus demonstrating presence of individual differences in lability. On the basis of results from these four experiments, it is hypothesized that sex in tilapia is influenced by multiple genes and the fishes' propencity to change sex varies in individual fish. Progeny testing oestrogen sex inversed fish indicates that on the basis of the chromosome theory of sex determination, S. galileaus and O. niloticus are female homogametic, while O, macrochir is female heterogametic. The implications of the results obtained in this study for production of all-male tilapia are briefly discussed.
15

Automação do manejo alimentar na engorda de tilápias criadas em tanque-rede /

Menezes, Camila Sousa Magela de, 1988. January 2014 (has links)
Orientador: Claudio Angelo Agostinho / Banca: Dirlei Antônio Berto / Banca: Luciano Caetano Ferreira / Resumo: O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do período de alimentação e do número de refeições sobre o desempenho de tilápias criadas em tanque-rede alimentadas com taxas de alimentação corrigida diariamente com base na conversão alimentar esperada. Foram realizados dois experimentos simultaneamente: experimento 1 consistiu em avaliar duas frequências alimentares (12 e 48 refeições/dia) com taxa inicial de alimentação de 0,5% do PV e três 3 repetições. O experimento 2 consistiu em avaliar duas frequências alimentares (12 e 48 refeições/dia) com taxa inicial de 1,5% do peso vivo com 3 repetições. Os peixes foram alojados em 24 tanques-rede de 1m3 distribuídos linearmente em um viveiro de 2000 m2 com 5% de renovação de água. Em cada tanque-rede foram distribuídas 28 tilápias com peso inicial médio de 305±15,7g. O experimento teve duração de 60 dias, durante o verão, com temperatura média da água de 25,2 ±1,02 ºC. A ração comercial extrusada com 32% de proteína bruta foi fornecida por meio de alimentadores automáticos instalados ao tanque-rede controlados por CLP (controlador lógico programável). A frequência de 12 refeições/dia, no período diurno e taxa inicial de 1,5% do peso vivo, experimento 2 apresentaram melhores resultados de desempenho com peso médio de 513,85 g / Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the feeding period and the number of meals on performance of tilapia raised in cages fed with feed rates adjusted daily based on expected feed conversion. Two experiments were conducted simultaneously: Experiment 1 was to evaluate two feeding frequencies (0:48 meals / day) with an initial feed rate of 0.5% of PV and three repetitions. Experiment 2 consisted of evaluating two food frequency (24:48 meals / day) with an initial rate of 1.5% of body weight with 3 repetitions. Fish were housed in 24 cages of 1m3 distributed linearly in a nursery of 2000 m2 with 5% water renewal. In each cages were distributed 28 tilapia with initial weight of 305 ± 15,7g. The experiment lasted 60 days, during the summer with an average temperature of 25.2-± 1.02 ° C water. The installed automatic feeders controlled by PLC cages (programmable logic controller) provided a commercial extruded feed containing 32% crude protein. The frequency of 12 meals/day during daytime and initial rate of 1.5% of body weight, Experiment 2 showed better performance results with an average weight of 513.85 g / Mestre
16

Automação do manejo alimentar na engorda de tilápias criadas em tanque-rede

Menezes, Camila Sousa Magela de [UNESP] 04 November 2014 (has links) (PDF)
Made available in DSpace on 2015-01-26T13:21:23Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 0 Previous issue date: 2014-11-04Bitstream added on 2015-01-26T13:30:36Z : No. of bitstreams: 1 000801683.pdf: 1610652 bytes, checksum: ade0a63a9cd633034bfaf5bd52014c89 (MD5) / O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do período de alimentação e do número de refeições sobre o desempenho de tilápias criadas em tanque-rede alimentadas com taxas de alimentação corrigida diariamente com base na conversão alimentar esperada. Foram realizados dois experimentos simultaneamente: experimento 1 consistiu em avaliar duas frequências alimentares (12 e 48 refeições/dia) com taxa inicial de alimentação de 0,5% do PV e três 3 repetições. O experimento 2 consistiu em avaliar duas frequências alimentares (12 e 48 refeições/dia) com taxa inicial de 1,5% do peso vivo com 3 repetições. Os peixes foram alojados em 24 tanques-rede de 1m3 distribuídos linearmente em um viveiro de 2000 m2 com 5% de renovação de água. Em cada tanque-rede foram distribuídas 28 tilápias com peso inicial médio de 305±15,7g. O experimento teve duração de 60 dias, durante o verão, com temperatura média da água de 25,2 ±1,02 ºC. A ração comercial extrusada com 32% de proteína bruta foi fornecida por meio de alimentadores automáticos instalados ao tanque-rede controlados por CLP (controlador lógico programável). A frequência de 12 refeições/dia, no período diurno e taxa inicial de 1,5% do peso vivo, experimento 2 apresentaram melhores resultados de desempenho com peso médio de 513,85 g / The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the feeding period and the number of meals on performance of tilapia raised in cages fed with feed rates adjusted daily based on expected feed conversion. Two experiments were conducted simultaneously: Experiment 1 was to evaluate two feeding frequencies (0:48 meals / day) with an initial feed rate of 0.5% of PV and three repetitions. Experiment 2 consisted of evaluating two food frequency (24:48 meals / day) with an initial rate of 1.5% of body weight with 3 repetitions. Fish were housed in 24 cages of 1m3 distributed linearly in a nursery of 2000 m2 with 5% water renewal. In each cages were distributed 28 tilapia with initial weight of 305 ± 15,7g. The experiment lasted 60 days, during the summer with an average temperature of 25.2-± 1.02 ° C water. The installed automatic feeders controlled by PLC cages (programmable logic controller) provided a commercial extruded feed containing 32% crude protein. The frequency of 12 meals/day during daytime and initial rate of 1.5% of body weight, Experiment 2 showed better performance results with an average weight of 513.85 g
17

Die morfologie, histologie en ultrastruktuur van die pankreas, lewer en galblaas van die algvoeder Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters)

Geyer, Hendrik Jacobus 19 November 2014 (has links)
D.Sc. / Please refer to full text to view abstract
18

Microsatellite markers to identify two species of Tilapiine fish, Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters) and O. niloticus (Linnaeus)

Esterhuyse, M. M. 03 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MScAgric)--University of Stellenbosch, 2002. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Forming part of a conservation programme, this study was concerned with two species of Cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus and O. ni/oticus), which were brought into contact with each other by unnatural ways. They are now hybridizing to some extent and there is also evidence that the foreign O. ni/oticus may out compete the native O. mossambicus. To cast light on what the current distribution is of both these species and the hybrids in Southern Africa, it is important to identify specimens very accurately. In attempting to find genetic markers to distinguish between two species of Cichlids we tested 20 microsatellite dinucleotide (CAn) repeats during a preliminary study and found five of these promising to exhibit little intra-specific genetic diversity but large genetic variation between species. We amplified these five loci in 145 individuals from 10 populations, which included the two species and their hybrids. Exact sizes of the fragments were determined using an automated DNA sequencer. Between the two species, allele sizes were overlapping, but when data were analyzed by statistical models, the differences could be seen for populations, however on individual level there was overlap between the species. The hybrids were found to be intermediate positioned between the two pure species. Our attempt to assign individuals to populations provided doubtful results. Thus, using this set of markers, populations can be ascribed to one of these species, but not individuals by themselves. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: As deel van 'n natuurbewarings program, word daar in hierdie studie twee spesies van vis ondersoek was in kontak met mekaar gekom het op onnatuurlike wyse. Hierdie twee visspesies vanuit die CICHLIDAEfamilie (Oreochromis mossambicus en 0. ni/oticus) kan hibridiseer wanneer hul saam voorkom, maar dit is ook bekend dat die uitheemse O. ni/oticus die inheemse O. mossambicus kan bedreig in terme van leefruimte, kos en broeispasie. Om die voorkoms van hibriede tussen die twee spesies te ondersoek in Suider Afrika se varswater opvangsgebiede, is dit baie belangrik om individue baie akkuraat te identifiseer. In hierdie poging om genetiese merkers te vind wat die twee spesies van mekaar onderskei, het ons 20 mikrosateliet di-nulkleotied (CAn) herhalende volgordes op verskillende loci ondersoek. Vyf daarvan het belowend voorgekom om as spesie spesifieke merkers te dien. Die fragmente op die vyf loci is ge-amplifiseer in 145 individue vanuit 10 populasies. Presiese groottes van die fragmente is bepaal met behulp van 'n ge-outomatiseerde DNA volgorde bepaler waarna genotiepes vir elke individu toegeken is. Tussen die twee spesies het alleel groottes oorvleuel, maar wanneer data geanaliseer word met behulp van statistiese metodes, was verskille tussen die spesies duidelik op populasie vlak. Die hibriede het intemediêr tussen die twee spesies voorgekom. Dus met behulp van hierdie stel merkers kan onderskei word tussen die twee spesies op populasie vlak, hoewel individue nie op sig self identifiseer kan word nie.
19

The ontogeny and morphology of the upper pharyngeal pad of Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters) and its possible role in the rearing of young

01 September 2015 (has links)
Ph.D. / The declining marine fish catches and the increasing demand for farmed fresh water fishes are motivation for research and development of improved strains and techniques for the production of gynogenetic and triploid offspring of popular fresh water fishes ...
20

Regulation of tilapia metallothionein (MT) gene expression.

January 2003 (has links)
by Cheung Pok Lap. / Thesis (M.Phil.)--Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2003. / Includes bibliographical references (leaves 225-251). / Abstracts in English and Chinese. / Abstract --- p.i / 摘錄 --- p.iii / Acknowledgements --- p.v / Table of Contents --- p.vi / List of Tables --- p.ix / List of Figures --- p.x / Abbreviations --- p.xiv / Chapter CHAPTER 1 --- LITERATURE REVIEW --- p.1 / Chapter 1.1 --- Biology of Metals --- p.1 / Chapter 1.1.1 --- Mechanism for Monitoring and Controlling Intracellular Metal Ions --- p.2 / Chapter 1.1.2 --- Metal Ions Homeostasis --- p.5 / Chapter 1.2 --- Metallothionein (MT) --- p.8 / Chapter 1.2.1 --- Classification of MT --- p.8 / Chapter 1.2.2 --- Structure of MT --- p.9 / Chapter 1.2.3 --- Organization of MT Genes --- p.11 / Chapter 1.2.4 --- Biological Functions of MT --- p.13 / Chapter 1.2.5 --- MT as a model of Transcriptional Regulation of Gene Expression --- p.19 / Chapter 1.3 --- Fish MT Genes --- p.24 / Chapter 1.4 --- Aims and Rationale of Present Study --- p.28 / Chapter CHAPTER 2 --- CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TILAPIA MT (tiMT) GENE PROMOTERS --- p.30 / Chapter 2.1 --- Introduction / Chapter 2.1.1 --- The Biology of Tilapia --- p.30 / Chapter 2.1.2 --- The Study of Tilapia MT --- p.31 / Chapter 2.1.3 --- Fish MT Promoters --- p.35 / Chapter 2.1.4 --- Specific Aims of This Chapter --- p.36 / Chapter 2.2 --- Materials and methods --- p.37 / Chapter 2.2.1 --- Animals --- p.37 / Chapter 2.2.2 --- General Molecular Biology Technique --- p.37 / Chapter 2.2.3 --- PCR Primers Used --- p.40 / Chapter 2.2.4 --- Cloning of tilapia MT Gene 5'-flanking Region Using Inverse PCR --- p.41 / Chapter 2.2.5 --- Cloning of full length of tilapia MT Genes / Chapter 2.2.6 --- Transient Transfection Assay --- p.43 / Chapter 2.3 --- Results --- p.47 / Chapter 2.3.1 --- Tilapia MT Genes --- p.47 / Chapter 2.3.2 --- Functional Analysis of tiMT Gene Promoter by Transient Transfection --- p.49 / Chapter 2.4 --- Discussions --- p.58 / Chapter 2.4.1 --- Tilapia MT Genes --- p.58 / Chapter 2.4.2 --- Functional Analysis of tiMT Gene Promoter by Transient Transfection --- p.63 / Chapter 2.5 --- Conclusion --- p.67 / Chapter CHAPTER 3 --- DETECTION OF MT mRNA LEVELS BY QUANTITATIVE RT-COMPETITIVE PCR --- p.68 / Chapter 3.1 --- Introduction --- p.68 / Chapter 3.1.1 --- Quantitative RT-competitive PCR --- p.69 / Chapter 3.1.2 --- Specific Aims of This Chapter --- p.71 / Chapter 3.2 --- Materials and methods --- p.72 / Chapter 3.2.1 --- Animals --- p.72 / Chapter 3.2.2 --- Isolation of total RNA and preparation of first strand cDNA --- p.72 / Chapter 3.2.3 --- Design of primers for preparation of MT mimic and competitive PCR --- p.73 / Chapter 3.2.4 --- Preparation of MT mimic cDNA --- p.74 / Chapter 3.2.5 --- Optimization PCR cycle number for β-actin and MT amplification --- p.77 / Chapter 3.2.6 --- Quantitative competitive PCR --- p.78 / Chapter 3.2.7 --- Quantitative analysis --- p.81 / Chapter 3.2.8 --- Statistical analysis --- p.82 / Chapter 3.3 --- Results --- p.83 / Chapter 3.3.1 --- Preparation of MT mimic cDNA --- p.83 / Chapter 3.3.2 --- Optimization PCR cycle number for MT and β-actin amplification --- p.84 / Chapter 3.3.3 --- Quantification of the MT cDNA levels by competitive PCR --- p.86 / Chapter 3.4 --- Discussions --- p.154 / Chapter 3.4.1 --- Comparison of MT Gene Expression in both in vivo tilapia liver andin vitro PLHC-1 fish cell line --- p.154 / Chapter 3.4.2 --- Absolute Quantification of mRNA using Real Time RT-PCR --- p.159 / Chapter 3.5 --- Conclusion --- p.160 / Chapter CHAPTER 4 --- TILAPIA MTF-1: PCR-CLONING AND GENE EXPRESSION STUDIES --- p.161 / Chapter 4.1 --- Introduction --- p.161 / Chapter 4.1.1 --- General Features of MTF-1 --- p.164 / Chapter 4.1.2 --- Activation MRE-binding of the MTF-1 --- p.166 / Chapter 4.1.3 --- Possible Models for Heavy-metal Regulated MT Genes Transcription --- p.169 / Chapter 4.1.4 --- Genes Under the Regulation of MTF-1 --- p.175 / Chapter 4.1.5 --- Specific Aims of This Chapter --- p.176 / Chapter 4.2 --- Materials and methods --- p.177 / Chapter 4.2.1 --- Cloning of a partial fragment of MTF-1 in tilapia --- p.177 / Chapter 4.2.2 --- Rapid Amplification of cDNA 5'ends --- p.180 / Chapter 4.2.3 --- Rapid Amplification of cDNA 3'ends --- p.184 / Chapter 4.2.4 --- Cloning of The Full-Length Tilapia MTF-1 cDNA Isoforms --- p.185 / Chapter 4.2.5 --- Northern blot analysis of MTF-1 transcripts in tilapia tissues --- p.186 / Chapter 4.2.6 --- Differential Expression of MTF-1 Isoforms in Tilapia Tissues --- p.187 / Chapter 4.2.7 --- Cotransfection Study on Tilapia MTF-1 cDNAs --- p.189 / Chapter 4.3 --- Results --- p.191 / Chapter 4.3.1 --- PCR Amplification of the Partial Sequence of tiMTF-1 --- p.191 / Chapter 4.3.2 --- Rapid Amplification of cDNA 5' and 3' ends of tiMTF-1 --- p.193 / Chapter 4.3.3 --- Cloning of The Full-Length Tilapia MTF-1 cDNA Isoforms --- p.196 / Chapter 4.3.4 --- Northern Blot Analysis of tilapia MTF-1 isoforms --- p.205 / Chapter 4.3.5 --- Differential Expression of MTF-1 Isoforms in Tilapia Tissues --- p.206 / Chapter 4.3.6 --- Cotransfection Study on Tilapia MTF-1 cDNAs --- p.207 / Chapter 4.4 --- Discussions --- p.212 / Chapter 4.4.1 --- Tilapia MTF-1 --- p.212 / Chapter 4.4.2 --- Biological Activity of MTF-1 --- p.216 / Chapter 4.5 --- Conclusion --- p.218 / Chapter CHAPTER 5 --- GENERAL DISCUSSION --- p.220 / REFERENCES --- p.225

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