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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

Co-Science Handbuch / Co-Science Handbook

Bargheer, Margo 01 January 2000 (has links)
No description available.

Design of a Self-Organizing MAC Protocol for Dynamic Multi-Hop Topologies / Entwicklung eines selbst-organisierenden MAC Protokolls für dynamische Mulit-Hop Topologien

Mühlberger, Clemens January 2018 (has links) (PDF)
Biologically inspired self-organization methods can help to manage the access control to the shared communication medium of Wireless Sensor Networks. One lightweight approach is the primitive of desynchronization, which relies on the periodic transmission of short control messages – similar to the periodical pulses of oscillators. This primitive of desynchronization has already been successfully implemented as MAC protocol for single-hop topologies. Moreover, there are also some concepts of such a protocol formulti-hop topologies available. However, the existing implementations may handle just a certain class of multi-hop topologies or are not robust against topology dynamics. In addition to the sophisticated access control of the sensor nodes of a Wireless Sensor Network in arbitrary multi-hop topologies, the communication protocol has to be lightweight, applicable, and scalable. These characteristics are of particular interest for distributed and randomly deployed networks (e.g., by dropping nodes off an airplane). In this work we present the development of a self-organizing MAC protocol for dynamic multi-hop topologies. This implies the evaluation of related work, the conception of our new communication protocol based on the primitive of desynchronization as well as its implementation for sensor nodes. As a matter of course, we also analyze our realization with regard to our specific requirements. This analysis is based on several (simulative as well as real-world) scenarios. Since we are mainly interested in the convergence behavior of our protocol, we do not focus on the "classical" network issues, like routing behavior or data rate, within this work. Nevertheless, for this purpose we make use of several real-world testbeds, but also of our self-developed simulation framework. According to the results of our evaluation phase, our self-organizing MAC protocol for WSNs, which is based on the primitive of desynchronization, meets all our demands. In fact, our communication protocol operates in arbitrary multi-hop topologies and copes well with topology dynamics. In this regard, our protocol is the first and only MAC protocol to the best of our knowledge. Moreover, due to its periodic transmission scheme, it may be an appropriate starting base for additional network services, like time synchronization or routing. / Biologisch inspirierte, selbst-organisierende Methoden können dabei helfen, die Zugriffskontrolle drahtloser Sensornetze auf das gemeinsame Kommunikationsmedium zu regeln. Ein leichtgewichtiger Ansatz ist das Primitiv der Desynchronisation, das auf einer periodischen Übertragung kurzer Kontrollnachrichten beruht – ähnlich den periodischen Impulsen eines Oszillators. Dieses Primitiv der Desynchronisation wurde bereits erfolgreich als MAC Protokoll für Single-Hop Topologien implementiert. Außerdem existieren auch einige Multi-Hop Konzepte dieser Protokolle. Allerdings können die verfügbaren Implementierungen nur eine bestimmte Klasse von Multi-Hop Topologien bedienen oder sie sind nicht robust genug gegenüber Veränderungen der Netzwerktopologie. Zusätzlich zu dieser ausgeklügelten Zugriffskontrolle der Sensorknoten eines drahtlosen Sensornetzes in beliebigen Multi-Hop Topologien muss das Kommunikationsprotokoll leichtgewichtig, effizient anwendbar und skalierbar sein. Diese Eigenschaften sind insbesondere für verteilte und zufällig (z.B. durch den Abwurf von Sensorknoten aus einem Flugzeug) aufgebaute Netzwerke von Interesse. In dieser Arbeit präsentieren wir die Entwicklung eines selbst-organisierenden MAC Protokolls für dynamische Multi-Hop Topologien. Dies beinhaltet die Auswertung damit verbundener Arbeiten, der Konzeption unseres neuen, auf dem Primitiv der Desynchronisation basierenden Kommunikationsprotokolls sowie dessen Umsetzung für Sensorknoten. Selbstverständlich untersuchen wir unsere Realisierung hinsichtlich unserer spezifischen Anforderungen. Diese Analyse basiert auf verschiedenen (simulativen, wie auch aus echter Hardware bestehenden) Szenarien. Da wir vornehmlich am Konvergenzverhalten unseres Protokolls interessiert sind, legen wir unser Augenmerk in dieser Arbeit nicht auf die „klassischen“ Netzwerkthemen, wie Routing-Verhalten oder Datenrate. Nichtsdestotrotz nutzen wir hierfür verschiedene realitätsnahe Testumgebungen, aber auch unsere selbstentwickelte Simulationsumgebung. Gemäß den Ergebnissen unserer Evaluationsphase erfüllt unser auf dem Primitiv der Desynchronisation basierendes, selbst-organisierendes MAC Protokoll für drahtlose Sensornetze all unsere Anforderungen. Tatsächlich funktioniert unser Kommunikationsprotokoll in beliebigen Multi-Hop Topologien und kann zudem gut mit Veränderungen der Topologie umgehen. In dieser Hinsicht ist – nach unserem besten Wissen – unser Protokoll das erste und einzige MAC Protokoll. Außerdem bietet sich unser Kommunikationsprotokoll aufgrund seines periodischen Übertragungsschemas als geeigneter Ausgangspunkt für weitere Netzwerkdienste, wie Zeitsynchronisation oder Routing, an.

Zu Berechenbarkeitsfragen der Idealtheorie.

Apel, Joachim 28 November 2004 (has links) (PDF)
No description available.

Gene order rearrangement methods for the reconstruction of phylogeny

Bernt, Matthias 28 June 2010 (has links) (PDF)
The study of phylogeny, i.e. the evolutionary history of species, is a central problem in biology and a key for understanding characteristics of contemporary species. Many problems in this area can be formulated as combinatorial optimisation problems which makes it particularly interesting for computer scientists. The reconstruction of the phylogeny of species can be based on various kinds of data, e.g. morphological properties or characteristics of the genetic information of the species. Maximum parsimony is a popular and widely used method for phylogenetic reconstruction aiming for an explanation of the observed data requiring the least evolutionary changes. A certain property of the genetic information gained much interest for the reconstruction of phylogeny in recent time: the organisation of the genomes of species, i.e. the arrangement of the genes on the chromosomes. But the idea to reconstruct phylogenetic information from gene arrangements has a long history. In Dobzhansky and Sturtevant (1938) it was already pointed out that “a comparison of the different gene arrangements in the same chromosome may, in certain cases, throw light on the historical relationships of these structures, and consequently on the history of the species as a whole”. This kind of data is promising for the study of deep evolutionary relationships because gene arrangements are believed to evolve slowly (Rokas and Holland, 2000). This seems to be the case especially for mitochondrial genomes which are available for a wide range of species (Boore, 1999). The development of methods for the reconstruction of phylogeny from gene arrangement data has made considerable progress during the last years. Prominent examples are the computation of parsimonious evolutionary scenarios, i.e. a shortest sequence of rearrangements transforming one arrangement of genes into another or the length of such a minimal scenario (Hannenhalli and Pevzner, 1995b; Sankoff, 1992; Watterson et al., 1982); the reconstruction of parsimonious phylogenetic trees from gene arrangement data (Bader et al., 2008; Bernt et al., 2007b; Bourque and Pevzner, 2002; Moret et al., 2002a); or the computation of the similarities of gene arrangements (Bergeron et al., 2008a; Heber et al., 2009). 1 1 Introduction The central theme of this work is to provide efficient algorithms for modified versions of fundamental genome rearrangement problems using more plausible rearrangement models. Two types of modified rearrangement models are explored. The first type is to restrict the set of allowed rearrangements as follows. It can be observed that certain groups of genes are preserved during evolution. This may be caused by functional constraints which prevented the destruction (Lathe et al., 2000; Sémon and Duret, 2006; Xie et al., 2003), certain properties of the rearrangements which shaped the gene orders (Eisen et al., 2000; Sankoff, 2002; Tillier and Collins, 2000), or just because no destructive rearrangement happened since the speciation of the gene orders. It can be assumed that gene groups, found in all studied gene orders, are not acquired independently. Accordingly, these gene groups should be preserved in plausible reconstructions of the course of evolution, in particular the gene groups should be present in the reconstructed putative ancestral gene orders. This can be achieved by restricting the set of rearrangements, which are allowed for the reconstruction, to those which preserve the gene groups of the given gene orders. Since it is difficult to determine functionally what a gene group is, it has been proposed to consider common combinatorial structures of the gene orders as gene groups (Marcotte et al., 1999; Overbeek et al., 1999). The second considered modification of the rearrangement model is extending the set of allowed rearrangement types. Different types of rearrangement operations have shuffled the gene orders during evolution. It should be attempted to use the same set of rearrangement operations for the reconstruction otherwise distorted or even wrong phylogenetic conclusions may be obtained in the worst case. Both possibilities have been considered for certain rearrangement problems before. Restricted sets of allowed rearrangements have been used successfully for the computation of parsimonious rearrangement scenarios consisting of inversions only where the gene groups are identified as common intervals (Bérard et al., 2007; Figeac and Varré, 2004). Extending the set of allowed rearrangement operations is a delicate task. On the one hand it is unknown which rearrangements have to be regarded because this is part of the phylogeny to be discovered. On the other hand, efficient exact rearrangement methods including several operations are still rare, in particular when transpositions should be included. For example, the problem to compute shortest rearrangement scenarios including transpositions is still of unknown computational complexity. Currently, only efficient approximation algorithms are known (e.g. Bader and Ohlebusch, 2007; Elias and Hartman, 2006). Two problems have been studied with respect to one or even both of these possibilities in the scope of this work. The first one is the inversion median problem. Given the gene orders of some taxa, this problem asks for potential ancestral gene orders such that the corresponding inversion scenario is parsimonious, i.e. has a minimum length. Solving this problem is an essential component 2 of algorithms for computing phylogenetic trees from gene arrangements (Bourque and Pevzner, 2002; Moret et al., 2002a, 2001). The unconstrained inversion median problem is NP-hard (Caprara, 2003). In Chapter 3 the inversion median problem is studied under the additional constraint to preserve gene groups of the input gene orders. Common intervals, i.e. sets of genes that appear consecutively in the gene orders, are used for modelling gene groups. The problem of finding such ancestral gene orders is called the preserving inversion median problem. Already the problem of finding a shortest inversion scenario for two gene orders is NP-hard (Figeac and Varré, 2004). Mitochondrial gene orders are a rich source for phylogenetic investigations because they are known for more than 1 000 species. Four rearrangement operations are reported at least in the literature to be relevant for the study of mitochondrial gene order evolution (Boore, 1999): That is inversions, transpositions, inverse transpositions, and tandem duplication random loss (TDRL). Efficient methods for a plausible reconstruction of genome rearrangements for mitochondrial gene orders using all four operations are presented in Chapter 4. An important rearrangement operation, in particular for the study of mitochondrial gene orders, is the tandem duplication random loss operation (e.g. Boore, 2000; Mauro et al., 2006). This rearrangement duplicates a part of a gene order followed by the random loss of one of the redundant copies of each gene. The gene order is rearranged depending on which copy is lost. This rearrangement should be regarded for reconstructing phylogeny from gene order data. But the properties of this rearrangement operation have rarely been studied (Bouvel and Rossin, 2009; Chaudhuri et al., 2006). The combinatorial properties of the TDRL operation are studied in Chapter 5. The enumeration and counting of sorting TDRLs, that is TDRL operations reducing the distance, is studied in particular. Closed formulas for computing the number of sorting TDRLs and methods for the enumeration are presented. Furthermore, TDRLs are one of the operations considered in Chapter 4. An interesting property of this rearrangement, distinguishing it from other rearrangements, is its asymmetry. That is the effects of a single TDRL can (in the most cases) not be reversed with a single TDRL. The use of this property for phylogeny reconstruction is studied in Section 4.3. This thesis is structured as follows. The existing approaches obeying similar types of modified rearrangement models as well as important concepts and computational methods to related problems are reviewed in Chapter 2. The combinatorial structures of gene orders that have been proposed for identifying gene groups, in particular common intervals, as well as the computational approaches for their computation are reviewed in Section 2.2. Approaches for computing parsimonious pairwise rearrangement scenarios are outlined in Section 2.3. Methods for the computation genome rearrangement scenarios obeying biologically motivated constraints, as introduced above, are detailed in Section 2.4. The approaches for the inversion median problem are covered in Section 2.5. Methods for the reconstruction of phylogenetic trees from gene arrangement data are briefly outlined in Section 2.6.3 1 Introduction Chapter 3 introduces the new algorithms CIP, ECIP, and TCIP for solving the preserving inversion median problem. The efficiency of the algorithm is empirically studied for simulated as well as mitochondrial data. The description of algorithms CIP and ECIP is based on Bernt et al. (2006b). TCIP has been described in Bernt et al. (2007a, 2008b). But the theoretical foundation of TCIP is extended significantly within this work in order to allow for more than three input permutations. Gene order rearrangement methods that have been developed for the reconstruction of the phylogeny of mitochondrial gene orders are presented in the fourth chapter. The presented algorithm CREx computes rearrangement scenarios for pairs of gene orders. CREx regards the four types of rearrangement operations which are important for mitochondrial gene orders. Based on CREx the algorithm TreeREx for assigning rearrangement events to a given tree is developed. The quality of the CREx reconstructions is analysed in a large empirical study for simulated gene orders. The results of TreeREx are analysed for several mitochondrial data sets. Algorithms CREx and TreeREx have been published in Bernt et al. (2008a, 2007c). The analysis of the mitochondrial gene orders of Echinodermata was included in Perseke et al. (2008). Additionally, a new and simple method is presented to explore the potential of the CREx method. The new method is applied to the complete mitochondrial data set. The problem of enumerating and counting sorting TDRLs is studied in Chapter 5. The theoretical results are covered to a large extent by Bernt et al. (2009b). The missing combinatorial explanation for some of the presented formulas is given here for the first time. Therefor, a new method for the enumeration and counting of sorting TDRLs has been developed (Bernt et al., 2009a).

Tätigkeitsbericht / Universitätsbibliothek Leipzig

20 January 2014 (has links) (PDF)
Die UB unterstützt die Studierenden, Lehrenden und Forschenden der Universität mit wissenschaftlicher Literatur und mit elektronischen Medien, mit verlässlichen Katalogen und geordneten Freihandbereichen, mit technisch modernisierten Lesesälen und mit aktueller Reproduktionstechnologie. Dazu wurde 2006 eine ganze Reihe von Maßnahmen angestoßen: Verbesserung der fachspezifischen Informationsvermittlung, Retrokatalogisierung, besser strukturierte Homepage, W-LAN in allen größeren Zweigbibliotheken. Zur Stärkung ihres Dienstleistungsangebots kooperiert die UB Leipzig auch mit Bibliotheken in Sachsen und deutschlandweit.

Tätigkeitsbericht / Universitätsbibliothek Leipzig

21 January 2014 (has links) (PDF)
Für die Universitätsbibliothek Leipzig war 2007 ein "normales" Jahr, d. h. ein Jahr mit den üblichen Herausforderungen. Studierende und Lehrende wollen unkomplizierten, schnellen, umfassenden und dauerhaft verlässlichen Service. Die Verwaltungen der Universität und des Landes drängen auf Effektivität und Sparpotenziale. Technische Innovationen, neue Software und Hardware erzwingen Anpassungen und Schulungen für das Personal. Die Bibliothek der Zukunft wird pausenlos getestet.

Tätigkeitsbericht / Universitätsbibliothek Leipzig

22 January 2014 (has links) (PDF)
Im System der Universitätsbibliothek Leipzig, zu dem augenblicklich 26 Einrichtungen gehören, stehen weitere Veränderungen an, die 2008 in Planung und Umsetzung vorangetrieben wurden und eine Konzentration der Bestände an zentralen Standorten befördern: Eröffnung der Campus-Bibliothek (für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Mathematik, Informatik, das Sondersammelgebiet Kommunikations- und Medienwissenschaften und die Lehrbuchsammlung) im Herbst 2009, Einrichtung einer Bibliothek für die räumlich benachbarten Fächer Sport und Erziehungswissenschaften (Standort Jahnallee, vermutlich 2010), Zentralbibliothek Medizin/Life Sciences ca. 2011. In allen neuen Zweigbibliotheken sollen nach Möglichkeit die Öffnungszeiten ausgedehnt werden, was Bau- und Personalplanung voraussetzt – besonders im Fall der Campus-Bibliothek, die als 24-Stunden-Bibliothek funktionieren soll.

Tätigkeitsbericht / Universitätsbibliothek Leipzig

22 January 2014 (has links) (PDF)
Das Jubiläumsjahr der Universität war ereignisreich auch für die Universitätsbibliothek. In diesem Tätigkeitsbericht sollen nur die wichtigsten Geschehnisse kurz angesprochen werden. Vier Dinge ragen heraus: die Eröffnung der Campus-Bibliothek als 24-Stunden- Bibliothek, die Ausstellungen in den USA, die Eröffnung eines neuen Ausstellungsraums und die Förder-ung durch die Carl Friedrich von Siemens Stiftung. Zentrale Stichpunkte im Zusammenhang mit diesen Höhepunkten sind: Serviceverbesserung, wissenschaftliche Vernetzung, Bestandspflege und Entwicklung der Forschungsbibliothek.

Tätigkeitsbericht / Universitätsbibliothek Leipzig

22 January 2014 (has links) (PDF)
Seit Jahren fördert der Freistaat Sachsen durch Mittel des europäischen Strukturfonds (EFRE) die Modernisierung sächsischer Hochschulbibliotheken. Die UB Leipzig hat durch die EFRE-Finanzierung die 24-Stunden-Öffnung der Campus-Bibliothek mit Einführung der Funkchip-Technologie RFID realisiert. Sie profitiert weiterhin von einem durch die Landesbibliothek in Dresden (SLUB) geleiteten Projekt der Retrokatalogisierung: Seit zwei Jahren kommen jeden Tag bis zu 1.000 Titel neu in den elektronischen Katalog, die zuvor nur in Papierform verzeichnet waren. Nun gibt es ein neues EFRE-Projekt, federführend vorbereitet durch die UB Leipzig, zur Entwicklung einer neuen Nutzeroberfläche.

Tätigkeitsbericht / Universitätsbibliothek Leipzig

22 January 2014 (has links) (PDF)
Das Jahr 2011 war durch umfangreiche Planungen, Konzeptentwicklungen und den Beginn langfristiger Vorhaben gekennzeichnet, die in den kommenden Jahren zu sichtbaren Verbesserungen im Service und zu schlankeren Strukturen führen werden. Das betrifft eine ganze Reihe von Arbeitsbereichen hinter den Kulissen (s. II), alle Bauvorhaben (s. III) und bereitet auch die Forschungsbibliothek vor (s. IV).

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